• outbreak
  • Worldwide outbreak of seasonal and pandemic influenza ailments and emergence of novel influenza viruses is increasing risk to public health due to which, the rapid influenza detection test segment is expected to account for the largest share of the global flu detection device market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • However, the FDA pointed out the poor performance of RIPD test during 2009 pandemic outbreak which is projected to restrain growth of this segment in flu detection device market to a certain extent. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The category 2 Asian flu pandemic outbreak of influenza A virus originated in China in early 1956, and lasted until 1958. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "Spanish" flu was coined because Spain was at the time the only European country where the press were printing reports of the outbreak, which had killed thousands in the armies fighting World War I. Other countries suppressed the news in order to protect morale. (wikipedia.org)
  • An influenza pandemic is a universal outbreak of flu disease that takes place when a new type of influenza virus appears that people have not been exposed to before (Kilbourne ED. 1975). (studentshare.net)
  • Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Scientists categorize influenza A viruses according to the identity of two specific proteins on their surface, HA and NA. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Moreover, the HA and NA proteins of these viruses continually mutate, keeping a step ahead of the posse of antibodies that seek to bring them down. (rxpgnews.com)
  • viral
  • PB1-F2 likely contributes to viral pathogenicity and might have an important role in determining the severity of pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, influenza A viruses have been one of the most important models for studying how the immune system responds to viral infections. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N2
  • Four recombinant SIV H1N2 viruses were constructed that displayed differences in virulence in mice, r1021 (more virulent) and r9706 (less virulent), as well as the same viruses with swapped PB1 segments. (scifed.com)
  • This study demonstrates that differences in virulence of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 are attributed at least in part to the PB1 segment. (scifed.com)
  • deaths
  • Mexico's Health Ministry on Monday confirmed a rise in the country's flu deaths to 83, with more than 4,458 confirmed infections from the virus. (lazerzap.com)
  • Influenza and pneumonia together accounted for 66,000 deaths in the United States in 2002 (the most recent year for which data are available), ranking as the seventh leading cause of death but claiming less than one tenth the number of people killed by heart disease. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza and pneumonia are lumped together because it's hard to pinpoint deaths directly attributable to influenza, owing to the lack of virological confirmation of the disease or the listing of influenza on hospital discharge forms or death certificates. (managedcaremag.com)
  • As might be expected, deaths from influenza/pneumonia were distributed unevenly geographically, reflecting countless variables. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Looking at flu seasons, which span calendar years, NIH epidemiologists recently estimated that during the decade ending in 1998-1999, the mean number of influenza-associated deaths in the United States was 51,203. (managedcaremag.com)
  • In general, though, the trend since 1976-1977 has been for influenza-associated deaths to increase, which is attributed in part to the aging of the population. (managedcaremag.com)
  • This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1918 flu caused an unusual number of deaths, possibly due to it causing a cytokine storm in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these, the 1918 Spanish Flu was the most severe, with 50 million or more deaths worldwide. (studentshare.net)
  • severe
  • While sometimes confused with the common cold , influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any new, effective treatment against severe flu infections should be able to prevent these types of haemorrhages, particularly in the lungs. (scifed.com)
  • The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and Interferon-gamma were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigenic drift refers to the continuous changes in the virus that make it slightly different than previous versions, requiring the yearly production of new vaccines. (nbcnews.com)
  • This renewed interest could lead to new discoveries of immune system response to viruses that could lead to better drugs and vaccines, the researchers write in a review article that appears in the May issue of Nature Immunology. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The main goal of research is to develop influenza countermeasures such as vaccines, therapies and diagnostic tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] See Prospects for universal flu vaccines The US government on May 4, 2006 awarded five-year contracts for "more than $1 billion to five drug manufacturers developing technology for speedier mass production of vaccines in the event of a pandemic" from the $3.8 billion pandemic preparedness bill passed in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, flu vaccines are produced in specialized chicken eggs, but that technique does not allow for speedy mass vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FUN, virus that has caused human illness and death in Asia is resi stant to amantadine and rimantadine, (wo antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. (hubpages.com)
  • In the U.S. and the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, the flu is usually considered a wintertime illness. (healthmap.org)
  • respiratory
  • Using a combination of structural modeling, quantitative glycan binding and human respiratory tissue binding methods, we systematically identify mutations in the HA from a recent avian-adapted H2N2 strain (A/Chicken/PA/2004) that make its quantitative glycan receptor binding affinity (defined using an apparent binding constant) comparable to that of a prototypic pandemic H2N2 (A/Albany/6/58) HA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Even before people realize they have been infected, the flu viruses multiply rapidly in the respiratory system and leap to nearby people in the fine droplets of coughs or sneezes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The influenza viruses are only one of its kinds amongst the respiratory viruses in that they undergo major antigenic variation (Stuart-Harris C. 1979). (studentshare.net)
  • threat
  • In response to the threat of a possible pandemic flu, the United States has published a "National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza" that outlines a three-pillar approach to preventing a major disaster. (nbcnews.com)
  • Further study of this virus and the immune response to it will no doubt help us prepare for this latest threat. (rxpgnews.com)