• epidemics
  • Despite the fatality of the 1957 Asian Flu in China, little improvement had been made regarding the handling of such epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flu usually spreads during seasonal epidemics, which brings about deaths of thousands of people every year and millions during pandemic outbreaks. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, rising government initiatives and growing consumer awareness about pandemic and seasonal epidemics are some of the driving factors of flu detector device market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia, then trickle around the globe before dying off. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why yearly human flu epidemics can seem to explode out of nowhere and spread rapidly through a household and community before fading away. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Either way, the mortality rate was about 2.5 percent, compared with less than 0.1 percent during the routine influenza epidemics to which we have become accustomed. (managedcaremag.com)
  • That's close to the average number of excess deaths (the difference between the number of deaths observed in a group and the number of deaths that would have occurred if the group had the same death rate as a comparison population) attributed to influenza in recent years from U.S. epidemics, though. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. (studentshare.net)
  • deaths
  • The CDC reports 36,000 influenza deaths a year. (backwoodshome.com)
  • Because the CDC lumps flu deaths and pneumonia deaths together. (backwoodshome.com)
  • The actual number of flu deaths is about 1,000 a year, although in a bad year it can approach 3,000. (backwoodshome.com)
  • Why are the flu and pneumonia deaths lumped together? (backwoodshome.com)
  • More people died of that flu in 18 months than died in the trenches, on both sides, during the four years of World War I. In fact, many of the war deaths of WWI were due to disease, and a large percentage of those were influenza deaths. (backwoodshome.com)
  • Mexico's Health Ministry on Monday confirmed a rise in the country's flu deaths to 83, with more than 4,458 confirmed infections from the virus. (lazerzap.com)
  • The annual flu (also called "seasonal flu" or "human flu") in the U.S. "results in approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza and pneumonia together accounted for 66,000 deaths in the United States in 2002 (the most recent year for which data are available), ranking as the seventh leading cause of death but claiming less than one tenth the number of people killed by heart disease. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza and pneumonia are lumped together because it's hard to pinpoint deaths directly attributable to influenza, owing to the lack of virological confirmation of the disease or the listing of influenza on hospital discharge forms or death certificates. (managedcaremag.com)
  • As might be expected, deaths from influenza/pneumonia were distributed unevenly geographically, reflecting countless variables. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Looking at flu seasons, which span calendar years, NIH epidemiologists recently estimated that during the decade ending in 1998-1999, the mean number of influenza-associated deaths in the United States was 51,203. (managedcaremag.com)
  • In general, though, the trend since 1976-1977 has been for influenza-associated deaths to increase, which is attributed in part to the aging of the population. (managedcaremag.com)
  • This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1918 flu caused an unusual number of deaths, possibly due to it causing a cytokine storm in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these, the 1918 Spanish Flu was the most severe, with 50 million or more deaths worldwide. (studentshare.net)
  • Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1918 flu
  • In addition to the 1918 flu, there have been two other pandemic outbreaks - defined as spreading around the world within a year of being detected - in the last century. (nbcnews.com)
  • Both of these started in Asia and, like the 1918 flu, contained a combination of human and avian influenza virus. (nbcnews.com)
  • Earlier investigative work published in 2000 by a team led by British virologist, John Oxford of St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Royal London Hospital, suggested that a principal British troop staging camp in Étaples, France was at the center of the 1918 flu pandemic or at least a significant precursor virus to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brevig Mission lost approximately 85% of its population to the 1918 flu in November 1918. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigative work in 1999 by a British team led by virologist John Oxford of St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Royal London Hospital identified the major troop staging and hospital camp in Étaples, France, as being the center of the 1918 flu pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claude Hannoun, the leading expert on the 1918 flu for the Pasteur Institute, asserted the former virus was likely to have come from China, mutating in the United States near Boston and spreading to Brest, France, Europe's battlefields, Europe, and the world using Allied soldiers and sailors as main spreaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Influenza is a contagious ailment and is easily communicable and thus, requires rapid and accurate diagnosis for infection control and patient management. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and is less common than influenza A. The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal. (wikipedia.org)
  • pre-pandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly pandemic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent investigations, mainly based on original medical reports from the period of the pandemic, found that the viral infection itself was not more aggressive than any previous influenza, but that the special circumstances (malnourishment, overcrowded medical camps and hospitals, poor hygiene) promoted bacterial superinfection that killed most of the victims typically after a somewhat prolonged death bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection may be confirmed by testing the throat, sputum, or nose for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • PB1-F2 likely contributes to viral pathogenicity and might have an important role in determining the severity of pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, influenza A viruses have been one of the most important models for studying how the immune system responds to viral infections. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • While sometimes confused with the common cold , influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any new, effective treatment against severe flu infections should be able to prevent these types of haemorrhages, particularly in the lungs. (scifed.com)
  • The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and Interferon-gamma were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • But there are those who feel it's a scare tactic provided as a favor to drug companies so they can sell flu vaccines. (backwoodshome.com)
  • Antigenic drift refers to the continuous changes in the virus that make it slightly different than previous versions, requiring the yearly production of new vaccines. (nbcnews.com)
  • This renewed interest could lead to new discoveries of immune system response to viruses that could lead to better drugs and vaccines, the researchers write in a review article that appears in the May issue of Nature Immunology. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The main goal of research is to develop influenza countermeasures such as vaccines, therapies and diagnostic tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] See Prospects for universal flu vaccines The US government on May 4, 2006 awarded five-year contracts for "more than $1 billion to five drug manufacturers developing technology for speedier mass production of vaccines in the event of a pandemic" from the $3.8 billion pandemic preparedness bill passed in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, flu vaccines are produced in specialized chicken eggs, but that technique does not allow for speedy mass vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • thus, specific influenza strain isolates are identified by a standard nomenclature specifying virus type, geographical location where first isolated, sequential number of isolation, year of isolation, and HA and NA subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N2
  • Four recombinant SIV H1N2 viruses were constructed that displayed differences in virulence in mice, r1021 (more virulent) and r9706 (less virulent), as well as the same viruses with swapped PB1 segments. (scifed.com)
  • This study demonstrates that differences in virulence of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 are attributed at least in part to the PB1 segment. (scifed.com)
  • poultry
  • Similarly, the H7N9 virus which appeared 2 years ago in China appears well distributed in Asia's domesticated poultry population, but only about 450 human infections have been reported. (blogspot.com)
  • dubbed Spanish flu
  • Possibly 1 billion people - half the world's population - became sick from the disease dubbed Spanish flu (owing to the propensity of neutral Spain to talk about it, unlike combatant nations in the Great War). (managedcaremag.com)
  • respiratory
  • Using a combination of structural modeling, quantitative glycan binding and human respiratory tissue binding methods, we systematically identify mutations in the HA from a recent avian-adapted H2N2 strain (A/Chicken/PA/2004) that make its quantitative glycan receptor binding affinity (defined using an apparent binding constant) comparable to that of a prototypic pandemic H2N2 (A/Albany/6/58) HA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Even before people realize they have been infected, the flu viruses multiply rapidly in the respiratory system and leap to nearby people in the fine droplets of coughs or sneezes. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The influenza viruses are only one of its kinds amongst the respiratory viruses in that they undergo major antigenic variation (Stuart-Harris C. 1979). (studentshare.net)
  • One group of researchers recovered the virus from the bodies of frozen victims, and found that transfection in animals caused a rapid progressive respiratory failure and death through a cytokine storm (overreaction of the body's immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flu-related mortality often stems from secondary bacterial infections, but in the case of the Spanish flu, a substantial number were killed outright, with some succumbing in a matter of hours. (managedcaremag.com)
  • This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide and it will be out of control until we stop it. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FUN, virus that has caused human illness and death in Asia is resi stant to amantadine and rimantadine, (wo antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. (hubpages.com)
  • In the U.S. and the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, the flu is usually considered a wintertime illness. (healthmap.org)
  • HPAI
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)