• viral
  • The HAI test may be complicated by the presence of non-specific inhibitors of viral haemagglutination and naturally occurring agglutinins of the erthrocytes. (microbeonline.com)
  • Hemagglutination reactions are compared among the sets of antisera and viral antigens in a test panel, and assumptions are made concerning the antigenic relatedness of the viruses on the basis of these HI reactions. (aasv.org)
  • Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral sequencing, which is expensive and time consuming, in many cases there may be conviction with other similar mosquito borne viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian populations, nor produced in quantities sufficient to protect more than a tiny fraction of the Earth's population in the event of an H5N1 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • ABC News reported on April 1, 2006 that "Beginning in late 1997, the human trials have tested 30 different vaccines, all pegged to the H5N1 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1N1
  • The appearance of antigenically variant H1N1 strains and, more recently, of new H3N2 subtype strains in swine populations in the United States has raised questions about cross-protection and about our ability to detect the new strains with currently available diagnostic tests. (aasv.org)
  • Reports of atypical H1N1 SIV led to concerns about our ability to detect variant strains with the diagnostic tests already in place and whether the amount of cross-protection afforded pigs that were vaccinated or had been infected with classical strains was adequate. (aasv.org)
  • serologic test
  • Consequently, whether the influenza B virus infection of these seals, as evidenced by serologic test results, had been symptomatic could not be ascertained. (cdc.gov)
  • clinical
  • automated reagin test (ART) a modification of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for use with automated analyzers used in clinical chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1958, First report using pituitary FSH 1960, "An immunological pregnancy test" 1962, "Induction of ovulation with human pituitary gonadotrophins" 1966, Review of clinical results using pituitary FSH for anovulatory women Obituary Bettendorf G (1995). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • After the transfusion of incompatible blood, hemagglutination may occur in the bloodstream and cause severe (sometimes fatal) complications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • False negative readings can occur when testing is done too early. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually begin to detect hCG shortly after implantation, which can occur anywhere from 6 to 12 days after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could take up to 12 further days for implantation to occur, meaning even the most sensitive pregnancy tests may give false negatives up to 17 days after the act that caused the pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because some home pregnancy tests have high hCG detection thresholds (up to 100 mIU/mL), it may take an additional three or four days for hCG to rise to levels detectable by these tests - meaning false negatives may occur up to three weeks after the act of intercourse or insemination that causes pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] False positive test results may occur for several reasons, including errors of test application, use of drugs containing the hCG molecule, and non-pregnant production of the hCG molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • alkali denaturation test a spectrophotometric method for determining the concentration of fetal (F) hemoglobin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemagglutination provided a convenient method of diagnosing influenza in the laboratory, which had previously been performed by cultivating the virus in ferrets. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovulation
  • Using ovulation predictor kits (OPKs), or charting the fertility signs of cervical mucus or basal body temperature give a more accurate idea of when to test than day-counting alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Clusters of red blood cells, distinguishable to the naked eye as heaps, lumps, and clumps, are formed during hemagglutination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemagglutination is caused by the interaction of the agglutinogens present in red blood cells with plasma that contains agglutinins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The HI test exploits the ability of influenza viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs), a characteristic for which the HA gene was named. (aasv.org)
  • present
  • In this review, we present information to update the reader on the methods available to detect swine influenza, to differentiate among SIV strains, and on the optimum use of these tests. (aasv.org)
  • adequate
  • General biosecurity protocols including adequate quarantine, testing, and disinfection can help prevent the entry or spread of the disease into a herd. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • Most chemical tests for pregnancy look for the presence of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood or urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • However, testing for EPF is expensive and time-consuming. (wikipedia.org)
  • hCG levels continue to rise through the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, so the chances of false negative test results diminish with time (gestation age). (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • While hCG is a reliable marker of pregnancy, it cannot be detected until after implantation: this results in false negatives if the test is performed during the very early stages of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acambis (meanwhile also acquired by Sanofi Pasteur) announced in early August 2005 that it has had successful results in animal testing. (wikipedia.org)