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  • viral
  • The HAI test may be complicated by the presence of non-specific inhibitors of viral haemagglutination and naturally occurring agglutinins of the erthrocytes. (microbeonline.com)
  • All items were transported to the NAMRU-2 laboratory in Phnom Penh, where testing was conducted for a variety of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, clinics in Brazil may not have adequate testing reliability as they rely on symptoms rather than PCR viral sequencing, which is expensive and time consuming, in many cases there may be conviction with other similar mosquito borne viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type of sample sent to the laboratory often depends on the type of viral infection being diagnosed and the test required. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • ABC News reported on April 1, 2006 that "Beginning in late 1997, the human trials have tested 30 different vaccines, all pegged to the H5N1 virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian populations, nor produced in quantities sufficient to protect more than a tiny fraction of the Earth's population in the event of an H5N1 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The various vaccine combinations were tested by blending monovalent recombinant adenovirus vaccines, each expressing hemagglutinin from a single strain. (springer.com)
  • infection
  • Consequently, whether the influenza B virus infection of these seals, as evidenced by serologic test results, had been symptomatic could not be ascertained. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, sequencing is useful when specific mutations in the patient are tested for in order to determine antiviral therapy and susceptibility to infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • Quantitative blood (serum beta) tests can detect hCG levels as low as 1 mIU/mL, while urine test strips have published detection thresholds of 10 mIU/mL to 100 mIU/mL, depending on the brand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually begin to detect hCG shortly after implantation, which can occur anywhere from 6 to 12 days after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less sensitive urine tests and qualitative blood tests may not detect pregnancy until three or four days after implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • automated reagin test (ART) a modification of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for use with automated analyzers used in clinical chemistry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1958, First report using pituitary FSH 1960, "An immunological pregnancy test" 1962, "Induction of ovulation with human pituitary gonadotrophins" 1966, Review of clinical results using pituitary FSH for anovulatory women Obituary Bettendorf G (1995). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • After the transfusion of incompatible blood, hemagglutination may occur in the bloodstream and cause severe (sometimes fatal) complications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • False negative readings can occur when testing is done too early. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could take up to 12 further days for implantation to occur, meaning even the most sensitive pregnancy tests may give false negatives up to 17 days after the act that caused the pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because some home pregnancy tests have high hCG detection thresholds (up to 100 mIU/mL), it may take an additional three or four days for hCG to rise to levels detectable by these tests - meaning false negatives may occur up to three weeks after the act of intercourse or insemination that causes pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] False positive test results may occur for several reasons, including errors of test application, use of drugs containing the hCG molecule, and non-pregnant production of the hCG molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • ferrets
  • In this study, the immunogenicity of orally delivered monovalent, bivalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent vaccines was tested in ferrets and mice. (springer.com)
  • Hemagglutination provided a convenient method of diagnosing influenza in the laboratory, which had previously been performed by cultivating the virus in ferrets. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Clusters of red blood cells, distinguishable to the naked eye as heaps, lumps, and clumps, are formed during hemagglutination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hemagglutination is caused by the interaction of the agglutinogens present in red blood cells with plasma that contains agglutinins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Markers that indicate are found in urine and blood, and pregnancy tests require sampling one of these substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most chemical tests for pregnancy look for the presence of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood or urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Qualitative blood tests generally have a threshold of 25 mIU/mL, and so are less sensitive than some available home pregnancy tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Ames test a strain of Salmonella typhimurium that lacks the enzyme necessary for histidine synthesis is cultured in the absence of histidine and in the presence of the suspected mutagen and certain enzymes known to activate procarcinogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ovulation
  • Using ovulation predictor kits (OPKs), or charting the fertility signs of cervical mucus or basal body temperature give a more accurate idea of when to test than day-counting alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • adequate
  • General biosecurity protocols including adequate quarantine, testing, and disinfection can help prevent the entry or spread of the disease into a herd. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • While hCG is a reliable marker of pregnancy, it cannot be detected until after implantation: this results in false negatives if the test is performed during the very early stages of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • hCG levels continue to rise through the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, so the chances of false negative test results diminish with time (gestation age). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acambis (meanwhile also acquired by Sanofi Pasteur) announced in early August 2005 that it has had successful results in animal testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • result
  • This result was the first nondengue, non-Japanese encephalitis virus flavivirus detected after samples from ≈10,000 enrolled patients were tested. (cdc.gov)
  • allows
  • This allows the virus sample to be grown into larger quantities and allows a larger number to tests to be run on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • Urine tests can be falsely positive in those that are taking the medications: chlorpromazine, phenothiazines and methadone among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian populations, nor produced in quantities sufficient to protect more than a tiny fraction of the Earth's population in the event of an H5N1 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • However, testing for EPF is expensive and time-consuming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spurious evaporation lines may appear on many home pregnancy tests if read after the suggested 3-5 minute window or reaction time, independent of an actual pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Detection of histidine rich protein 2 and panmalarial ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test antigens after chloroquine treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria does not reliably predict treatment outcome in eastern Indonesia. (ajtmh.org)
  • We thus evaluated longitudinally the ability of the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv immunochromatographic test to predict treatment outcome. (ajtmh.org)
  • sensitive
  • It could take up to 12 further days for implantation to occur, meaning even the most sensitive pregnancy tests may give false negatives up to 17 days after the act that caused the pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Because some home pregnancy tests have high hCG detection thresholds (up to 100 mIU/mL), it may take an additional three or four days for hCG to rise to levels detectable by these tests - meaning false negatives may occur up to three weeks after the act of intercourse or insemination that causes pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The ICT Pf/Pv testing could be compared with microscopy in approximately half of the patients on each day of follow-up. (ajtmh.org)
  • The diagnostic usefulness of this test in IBS patients remains to be established because these data are only suggestive of a possible link between B. hominis and IBS. (ajtmh.org)
  • series
  • Starting one week before the first of three weekly challenges and continuing for one week beyond the last, daily doses of Milibis ranging from 75 to 500 mg. were tested in groups of 8 individuals, with a like number of controls for each series of tests. (ajtmh.org)
  • This test initiates a series of improvements in pregnancy testing leading to the contemporary at-home testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • One of the ways in which apple constituents prevent stomach cancer is through their inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, one of the main infectious agents linked to both ulcer and gastric cancer. (thesleuthjournal.com)
  • drugs
  • As in the modern era, doctors bring with them a battery of tests, drugs , and interventions , all of which carry unintended, adverse health risks that often outweigh their purported benefits, and are therefore best avoided whenever possible . (thesleuthjournal.com)
  • major
  • Skin test reactivity to two commercial preparations of Leishmania major leishmanin was evaluated in leishmaniasis patents from Ethiopia ( L. aethiopica ) and Nicaragua (probably L. braziliensis complex). (ajtmh.org)
  • least
  • The highest dosage gave complete protection, the least failed entirely, and 5 of the 8 test subjects were protected by a dosage of 150 mg. (ajtmh.org)
  • failure
  • Additional trials of 250 mg., using a 21-day course with inoculations of 4,000 cysts given at the end of the first and second weeks of medication, resulted in one apparent failure among 14 test subjects. (ajtmh.org)