• proteins
  • Using MR angiography and other methods, Marion Bimmler and her colleagues have now shown that the autoantibodies bind to specific surface proteins (alpha1 andrenergic receptors) of vascular cells and thereby damage the blood vessels of the brain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • antigen
  • Subsequently, it was demonstrated that many new-onset type 1 diabetic patients had insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), and further analysis of islet autoantigens resulted in the discovery of the insulinoma-antigen 2 (IA-2), which was co-precipitated with GAD65 in many 64K + patient sera. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • autoimmunity
  • In the absence of reliable T-cell tests, dissection of autoantibody responses in subjects of genetic risk should prove useful in identifying triggers of islet autoimmunity by examining seroconversion and maturation of the autoantibody response that may mark time to onset of type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, celiac disease, and cerebellar ataxia with polyendocrine autoimmunity can be characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies. (aacc.org)
  • isotypes
  • In the present article, we will discuss the mechanisms by which the autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab), IA-2 (IA-2Ab), and insulin (IAA) appear, pathways of formation, shift between isotypes and subtypes, epitope recognition, and detection, as well as the potential usefulness of epitope-specific autoantibody tests to improve prediction and classification of autoimmune diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • detect
  • Tests may include: blood tests to detect inflammation, autoantibodies, and organ involvement x-rays and other imaging scans to detect changes in bones, joints, and organs biopsies to look for pathologic changes in tissue specimens Autoantibody tests may be ordered as part of an investigation of chronic progressive arthritis type symptoms and/or unexplained fevers, fatigue, muscle weakness and rashes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Although there are few clinical implications resulting from this classification, autoantibody profiles indicate that AIH is a heterogenous group of entities. (omicsonline.org)
  • receptor
  • For example, in Graves disease , autoantibodies bind to receptor cells in the thyroid gland, stimulating the overproduction of thyroid hormones. (britannica.com)
  • The reason: The autoantibodies generate a continual stimulation of the receptor and at the same time trigger an increase in intracellular calcium ion levels. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Adrenergic receptor autoantibodies The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoreceptors) are a class of cell membrane-bound protein receptors throughout the body that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine(or noradrenaline) and epinephrine (or adrenaline). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta1 autoantibodies trigger conformational changes in the receptor, attenuate receptor internalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-1 adrenergic receptors are the primary receptor of the heart and, therefore, autoantibodies to these receptors have been tied to many different heart diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been proposed that both beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and autoantibodies could be working together in the development of chronic heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • organ
  • Disorders caused by autoantibodies that primarily affect a single organ, such as the thyroid in Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis, are often easier to diagnose. (labcorp.com)
  • patients
  • These autoantibodies are generally more prevalent in younger onset patients. (labcorp.com)
  • In earlier studies, Marion Bimmler and her research team examined blood samples of patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia and showed that half of them had comparable autoantibodies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The patients were divided into two groups a small group whose autoantibodies were removed from the blood via immunoadsorption and a control group that did not receive this treatment. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast, the condition of the patients who did not receive immunoadsorption treatment and continued to have autoantibodies in their blood deteriorated dramatically. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Three antiidiotype reagents were prepared by immunization of rabbits or a mouse with monoclonal autoantibodies from two patients. (rupress.org)
  • A monoclonal antiidiotype reagent cross-reacted with autoantibodies from six of the seven patients. (rupress.org)
  • The idiotypic cross-reactions of immunoglobulins from unrelated patients suggest that the autoantibodies are derived from related families of germ line genes that are expressed by patients with SLE. (rupress.org)
  • Other: Experimental studies observed that activating autoantibodies to the beta1/2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors are associated with atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with hyperthyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pemphigoid
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigoid is suggested to be a distinct entity from the group of bullous pemphigoid in view of the linear C3 deposits along the basement membrane of the perilesional skin and the "ladder" configuration of autoantibodies demonstrated by western blot analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • Pathogenicity of autoantibodies in anti-p200 pemphigoid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • trigger
  • While there is not a direct link, it is thought that many cases of autoantibody production are due to a genetic predisposition combined with an environmental trigger, such as a viral illness or prolonged exposure to certain toxic chemicals. (labcorp.com)
  • It is thought that some autoantibody production is due to a genetic predisposition combined with an environmental trigger, such as a viral illness or a prolonged exposure to certain toxic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug-induced
  • Many cases of encephalitis can be traced to infectious or drug-induced etiologies, but increasingly researchers have found that autoantibodies are involved. (aacc.org)
  • immunoassays
  • Because current evidence indicates that the majority of reactive epitopes are conformational, other techniques such as western blotting (WB) and line immunoassays (LIA) may be less reliable for some autoantibody systems. (aacc.org)
  • radioimmunoassay
  • 6. Greenbaum CJ, Palmer JP, Kuglin B, Kolb H. Insulin autoantibodies measured by radioimmunoassay methodology are more related to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus than those measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: Results of the Fourth International Workshop on the Standardization of Insulin Autoantibody Measurement. (labcorp.com)
  • A radioimmunoassay for the detection of adrenal autoantibodies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • receptors
  • Associated pathologies: Cardiovascular diseases and events: Circulating autoantibodies to adrenergic receptors have been identified in numerous heart diseases and cardiac symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoantibodies to beta1-adrenergic receptors are linked to chronic heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The work of endocrinology labs have correlated autoantibodies to the beta-adrenergic receptors with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Future research solidifying this correlation of CFS with autoantibodies to adrenergic receptors would be useful to clinicians tackling this difficult-to-treat condition that affects 200,000 people per year in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Autoantibodies to IA 2 , a tyrosine phosphatase-like protein, are found in 50% to 75% of type 1 diabetics at and prior to disease onset. (labcorp.com)
  • Desmoglein 1, the protein that is destroyed by the autoantibody, is found in only the top dry layer of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • clues
  • A single autoantibody test is not diagnostic, but may give clues as to whether a particular disorder is likely or unlikely to be present. (wikipedia.org)