• multiple system
  • OPCA is present in several neurodegenerative syndromes, including inherited and non-inherited forms of ataxia (such as the hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia known as Machado-Joseph disease) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), with which it is primarily associated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two forms: A few non-hereditary diseases formerly categorized as olivopontocerebellar atrophy have been reclassified as forms of multiple system atrophy as well as to four hereditary types, that have been currently reclassified as four different forms of spinocerebellar ataxia: Physiotherapy intervention aims to improve balance and gait of OPCA patients, by stimulating neuroplastic changes in the atrophied neural structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy-Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people affected by multiple system atrophy experience dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which commonly manifests as orthostatic hypotension, impotence, loss of sweating, dry mouth and urinary retention and incontinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • These terms and their distinctions have been dropped in recent (1996 onwards) medical usage and replaced with MSA and its subtypes, but are helpful to understanding the older literature about this disease: The current terminology and diagnostic criteria for the disease were established at a 2007 conference of experts on the disease and set forth in the "Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testicular
  • Testicular atrophy with prolonged use of enough exogenous sex steroid (either androgen or estrogen) to reduce gonadotropin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disuse
  • Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, excessive amount of apoptosis of cells, and disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest, or having a body part in a cast (living in darkness for the eye, bedridden for the legs etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for even a few days of unuse - when the patient has a primary injury such as an immobilized broken bone (set in a cast or immobilized in traction), for example - will also lead rapidly to disuse atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • posterior
  • A common vision impairment seen in patients with posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia, where a person is unable to see multiple locations at once or to quickly shift attention between these locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • When looking at images of a brain suffering from posterior cortical atrophy, one can see a loss in volume of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways, where visual stimuli is brought to the visual cortex and integrated information is sent back out to other areas of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also called Benson's syndrome, is a form of dementia which is usually considered an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (wikipedia.org)
  • At this early stage PCA patients will show brain atrophy more centrally located in the right posterior lobe and occipital gyrus, while AD brain images show the majority of atrophy in the medial temporal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral
  • Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that biomarkers in the CSF and plasma can be tracked for their presence in different parts of the brain-and their presence can tell us about cerebral atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • better source needed] CT and MRI are most commonly used to observe the brain for cerebral atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Modern medicine's understanding of the quick onset of muscle atrophy is a major factor behind the practice of getting hospitalized patients out of bed and moving about as active as possible as soon as is feasible, despite sutures, wounds, broken bones and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer's
  • By tracking NFL, researchers can see this neurodegeneration, which this study showed was associated with brain atrophy and later cognitive decline in Alzheimer's patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Geographic atrophy (GA) is a chronic disease, which leads to visual function loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural changes and the signs and symptoms of chronologically aged skin and those of corticosteroid induced chronic atrophy of the skin are partially very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • The incidence of advanced AMD, both geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, increases exponentially with age and while there are therapies for wet AMD, GA currently has no approved treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • menopause
  • Atrophy of the breasts can occur with prolonged estrogen reduction, as with anorexia nervosa or menopause. (wikipedia.org)
  • This atrophy, and that of the breasts concurrently, is consistent with the homeostatic (normal development) role of atrophy in general, as after menopause the body has no further functional biological need to maintain the reproductive system which it has permanently shut down. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinking and the involution of the thymus in early childhood, and the tonsils in adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of treatment options for breast atrophy, depending on the situation/when appropriate, can include estrogens, antiandrogens, and proper nutrition or weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types of brown atrophy include brown atrophy of neuronia and brown atrophy of the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • citation needed] Brain atrophy does not affect all regions with the same intensity as shown by neuroimaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other biomarkers like Ng-a protein important in long-term potentiation and memory-have been tracked for their associations with brain atrophy as well, but NFL had the greatest association. (wikipedia.org)
  • DRPLA is characterized by marked, generalized brain atrophy and the accumulation of atrophin-1 with expanded glutamine stretches. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCA patients with significant atrophy in one hemisphere of the brain may experience hemispatial neglect, the inability to see stimuli on one half of the visual field. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, as the years go on the images will become increasingly similar, due to the majority of PCA patients also having AD later in life because of continued brain atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • There is inhibition of the mitotic activity of fibroblasts resulting in reduction of collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis but probably the earliest evidence of dermal atrophy is a reduction in the diameter of the fibrils and then the collagen bundles become atrophic and separated. (wikipedia.org)
  • General skin atrophy consists of a reduction in epidermal and dermal thickness, regression of the sebaceous glands, subcutaneous fat loss, and muscle-layer atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Even low-potency topical steroids can cause slight skin atrophy that often reverses upon discontinuation of the drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • In the treatment of gynecomastia in males and macromastia in women, and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for trans men, breast atrophy may be a desired effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • There is no published practice standard for the care in DSMA1, even though the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Standard of Care Committee has been trying to come to a consensus on the care standards for DSMA1 patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • While mild atrophy and telangiectasia might be reversible upon discontinuation of corticosteroids, overtly visible changes in skin texture and striae are considered permanent manifestations of corticosteroid-induced atrophy and are resistant to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, in chronologically aged skin striae are not observed, while in corticosteroid atrophy premalignant or malignant tumours are seldom observed. (wikipedia.org)