• neurons
  • 2004 ). Nevertheless, some initial fiber growth to sensory epithelia occurs even in the absence of BDNF, provided the death of sensory neurons is prevented through elimination of the cell death promoting factor Bax (Hellard et al. (wiley.com)
  • At later developmental stages, Gfi1 expression in the ear is refined to the hair cells and neurons throughout the inner ear. (biologists.org)
  • We discovered several proneural factors in Drosophila, notably Atonal, which is required for stretch receptors, auditory neurons and photoreceptors, and Amos, which is required for most olfactory neurons (Goulding et al. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We carried out transcriptome analysis of the time course of expression changes in developing Atonal-dependent auditory receptor neurons. (ed.ac.uk)
  • A major feature of Drosophila auditory neurons is that they have a terminal sensory cilium, which is the site of sensory reception and transduction. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Recently, in collaboration with Joerg Albert (Ear Institute, UCL), we have extended our investigation of analysis of auditory neuron gene regulation to asking how transcriptional regulation is achieved in the mature auditory neurons to maintain their function over the life course of the fly. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Outer hair cells primarily provide amplification of traveling waves that are induced by sound energy, while inner hair cells detect the motion of those waves and excite the (Type I) neurons of the auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group will have lost a large number of hair cells, but will still have supporting structures, such as neurons, present in the inner ear. (newscientist.com)
  • We use a model system developed for neural replacement in the inner ear to investigate requirements for rebuilding a neural circuit: in the current work we study whether transplanted neurons derived from stem cells can restore function to an ear after the loss of primary afferent innervation. (grantome.com)
  • Our previous work has shown that neurons from transplanted stem cells can reinnervate hair cells of the organ of Corti after chemical de- afferentation, both in an in vitro explant and in an in vivo gerbil model, suggesting that this neural circuit can be reconstituted in the adult nervous system if appropriate progenitor cells are introduced. (grantome.com)
  • Assessments are based on immunohistochemistry: the morphology and number of synapses formed with inner and outer hair cells;and electrophysiology: firing of action potentials and excitatory postsynaptic currents by the neurons after stimulation of hair cells, and inhibition of this synaptic function by pharmacological blockers that inhibit functional activity of native cochlear afferent glutamatergic synapses. (grantome.com)
  • The work described in this grant will attempt to better understand the genes involved in pathfinding and synapse formation between stem cell-derived neurons and their targets. (grantome.com)
  • Because of the clear correlation between loss of cochlear cells and sensorineural hearing loss, improvements in our ability to regenerate these neurons and their afferent synapse with hair cells will lead directly to new treatments for loss of hearing. (grantome.com)

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  • genes
  • This entails understanding both the transcriptional regulation of the specialised genes involved (e.g. for the mechanosensory apparatus) and the cell biological pathways underlying differentiation (e.g. chaperone pathways for macromolecular assembly). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Fd3F is a novel Fox family factor that regulates genes required for specialization of the sensory cilium to configure it for its auditory and stretch reception role (Newton et al. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In order to extend the applicability of gene therapy, the scientific community is focusing on discovery of additional deafness genes, identifying new genetic variants associated with hearing loss, and revealing new factors that can be manipulated in a coordinated manner to improve hair cell regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A possible fix arose in 2003, when researchers discovered that certain genes can transform the cells supporting the hair cells into both types of hair cell. (newscientist.com)
  • Using genetic engineering approaches we have been able to identify genes that are important in the development of the ear and genes that are critical for initiating the regeneration of auditory cells. (umc.edu)
  • p27Kip1
  • By 40 hours in vitro, just 7.8% 0.8% of cells cultured in control conditions exhibit p27Kip1 proteins (Fig. 5A, C), and these cells do not really enter S-phase as proven by their absence of BrdU incorporation (g27Kip1+/BrdU? (markterest.com)
  • Pou4f3
  • Replacement of Atoh1 with Neurog1 maintains limited expression of Pou4f3 and Barhl1 and rescues HCs quantitatively, but not qualitatively. (biologists.org)
  • action potentials
  • This article explores the basic physiological principles of sound perception, and traces hearing mechanisms from sound as pressure waves in air to the transduction of these waves into electrical impulses (action potentials) along auditory nerve fibers, and further processing in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • We show that Gfi1 mRNA is expressed in many areas that give rise to neuronal cells during embryonic development in mouse, and that Gfi1 protein has a more restricted expression pattern. (biologists.org)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing experiments followed by enhancer reporter analyses identified five direct neuronal subtype-specific targets of Atoh1 in vivo along with their Atoh1-responsive enhancers. (jneurosci.org)
  • Only Rab15 and Selm are expressed across several different Atoh1-specified neuronal subtypes including external granule cells (external granule cell layer) in the developing cerebellum, hair cells of the inner ear, and Merkel cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The neuronal encoding of sound is the representation of auditory sensation and perception in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this proposal we use this system to study what characteristics of the donor cells allow them to form functional synapses with hair cells, and we ask whether the new synapses lead to recovery of hearing in animals with primary neuronal degeneration. (grantome.com)
  • regulates
  • Gut microbiome-mediated bile acid metabolism regulates liver cancer via NKT cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • These total outcomes indicate that for a significant part of the filtered g75+ helping cell people, EGFR signaling down-regulates g27Kip1 to cell routine re-entry past. (markterest.com)
  • Stem Cells
  • Stem Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C enhances the generation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells," Cell Stem Cell , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71-79, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • B. J. Le, N. Orozco, A. Paucar, and J. Saxe, "Proliferative neural stem cells have high endogenous ROS levels that regulate self-renewal and neurogenesis in a PI3K/Akt-dependant manner," Cell Stem Cell , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 59-71, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • High glutathione and glutathione peroxidase-2 levels mediate cell-type-specific DNA damage protection in human induced pluripotent stem cells," Stem Cell Reports , vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 886-898, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Antioxidant supplementation reduces genomic aberrations in human induced pluripotent stem cells," Stem Cell Reports , vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 44-51, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Effects of antioxidants on the quality and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells," Scientific Reports , vol. 4, p. 3779, 2014, Nature Publishing Group. (hindawi.com)
  • Efficient replication of blood-borne hepatitis C virus in human fetal liver stem cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • In Aim 1 the effect of the stage of differentiation of the stem cells on their capacity to reinnervate hair cells is assessed in a denervated in vitro organ of Corti. (grantome.com)
  • regulate
  • A candidate pathway for limiting supporting cell plasticity is the Notch signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism known to regulate sensory-neural development . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While filtered DIF g75+ mouse cochlear helping cells exhibit g27Kip1 recently, they down-regulate g27Kip1 proteins (Fig. 5A) and mRNA amounts (Fig. 5B) during the initial 24 hours of lifestyle as they re-enter the cell routine (Fig. 2M). (markterest.com)
  • These data present that EGFR signaling and PI3T signaling are required to down-regulate g27Kip1 proteins in a subset of cultured g75+ helping cells. (markterest.com)
  • Amount 5 EGFR and PI3T signaling are each required to down-regulate g27Kip1 proteins and promote cell routine re-entry Amount 6 Helping cell routine re-entry requires down-regulation of g27Kip1 by the EGFR path To determine whether EGFR signaling was also required to down-regulate g27Kip1 mRNA amounts, we used QPCR of cDNA made from p75+ supporting cell cultures treated with vehicle or AG1478 control. (markterest.com)
  • progenitor
  • One approach to the treatment of neural loss is the transplantation of exogenous progenitor cells. (grantome.com)
  • The Specific Aims comprise 3 inter-related experiments to probe key variables likely to influence the success of hair cell reinnervation by transplanted neural progenitor cells. (grantome.com)
  • pathway
  • The canonical Wnt pathway mediator, β-catenin, controls the expression of Atoh1 . (jneurosci.org)
  • The Role of the Notch Signal Pathway in Mucosal Cell Metaplasia in Mouse Acute Otitis Media. (pubfacts.com)
  • sensorineural hear
  • Understanding the mechanisms underlying re-formation of neural connections to hair cells in the adult ear is important to any therapeutic approach to sensorineural hearing loss. (grantome.com)
  • afferent
  • 2004 ). Some in vitro data suggest that afferent growth to sensory epithelia happens even in the absence of all hair cells (Sobkowicz, 1992 ), whereas other data show that hair cells can attract afferent fibers but that this action is not mediated by neurotrophins (Bianchi and Cohan, 1993 ). (wiley.com)
  • stereocilia
  • A number of temporal and spatial triggers of development and maturation have been characterized, including the molecular controls on patterning, hair bundle height, and numbers of stereocilia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • mtDNA mutagenesis disrupts pluripotent stem cell function by altering redox signaling," Cell Reports , vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1614-1624, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • We wish to understand the molecular, genetic and cellular mechanisms underlying sensory neuron generation and function, particularly concentrating on auditory receptors and other mechanoreceptors. (ed.ac.uk)
  • These outcomes GSK 525768A manufacture GSK 525768A manufacture recommended that one function of EGFR signaling in cell routine re-entry is normally down-regulation of g27Kip1. (markterest.com)