• influx
  • It has also been proposed that NO may amplify astrocyte Ca2+ influx and activate Ca2+-dependent potassium channels, releasing K+ into the interstitial space and inducing hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • These astrocytes appear to be metabolically hyperactive, and contain vesicular nuclei and basophilic nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In previous studies of hepatic encepalopathy, the presence of Alzheimer type II astrocytes corresponded to mitochondrial degeneration, as well as previously known phenotypic characteristics such as a prominent nucleolus and enlarged pale nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • varies
  • Particularly, the response of the astrocytes to the injury varies depending on factors such as the nature of the injury and the microenvironment at the injury location. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • When these calcium ion waves spread down the length of the astrocyte, phospholipase A (PLA2) is activated which in turn mobilizes arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • extend
  • GFAP is an important intermediate filament protein that allows the astrocytes to begin synthesizing more cytoskeletal supportive structures and extend pseudopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • The three populations of astrocyte subtypes which have been identified are 1) dorsally located VA1 astrocytes, derived from p1 domain, express PAX6 and reelin 2) ventrally located VA3 astrocytes, derived from p3, express NKX6.1 and SLIT1 and 3) and intermediate white-matter located VA2 astrocyte, derived from the p2 domain, which express PAX6, NKX6.1, reelin and SLIT1. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • More recently, the function of astrocytes has been reconsidered, and they are now thought to play a number of active roles in the brain, including the secretion or absorption of neural transmitters and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • However, it is generally thought that ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling can be attributed to oxidative stress that glutamine can exert on the cell, as well as the creation of free radicals that may cause astrocytic damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • thin
  • In hepatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer type II astrocytes are characterized by thin chromatin and increased glycogen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • shown
  • Experiments with mice have shown that exposure to manganese leads to the development of Alzheimer's type II astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constriction has been shown in vitro to occur when NE is placed in the synapse and is taken up by astrocyte receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • order
  • For example, astrocytes have many transporters and ion channels that allow for ion balance and static pH levels in order to achieve homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)