• Conclusions
  • Such data need to be analysed with correct statistics, or the results and conclusions may be misleading. (diva-portal.org)
  • When ML is implemented with data that deviates away from the assumptions of normal theory, CFA models may produce biased parameter estimates and misleading conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on the validity of CBTIs tends to utilize three types of studies: external criterion studies (comparing the CBTI report to some external criterion measure of the construct, such as a self-report or behavioral measure), consumer satisfaction studies (asking clients whether the reports are accurate representations of themselves), and comparison with clinical conclusions (comparing CBTI reports to clinician interpretations). (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Our thorough statistical and biological analysis showed that there are several mechanisms and evolutionary constraints both of which affect the appearance of functional motifs in protein sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, because NMR permits the measurement of concentrations spanning up to five orders of magnitude, several problems can arise with data analysis. (springer.com)
  • ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269-4:2010 provides detailed descriptions of sound statistical testing procedures and graphical data analysis methods for detecting outliers in data obtained from measurement processes. (asq.org)
  • IATA Consulting offers an in-depth analysis service of air passenger and a ir cargo markets, with unmatched access to global data and industry-leading expertise. (iata.org)
  • In addition to the traditional courses in pure mathematics, such as Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Real Analysis, we also offer a set of courses that highlight recent developments in mathematics, including sophomore-level courses in Data Analysis, Voting Theory, and Cryptography. (wheatoncollege.edu)
  • Second, we map the statistical analysis into current conditions, taking into account also the information from aggregate indicators. (bis.org)
  • Arcane statistical analysis, the business of making sense of our growing data mountains, has become high tech's hottest calling. (wisc.edu)
  • Among quantitative sciences, statistics is at the center of data analysis and interpretation. (wisc.edu)
  • Staff FTE will cover undergraduate advising and oversight of undergraduate instruction, instructional computing and tools for data analysis, and research computing and big data analytics infrastructure. (wisc.edu)
  • Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain topics have "statistical" in their name but relate to manipulations of probability distributions rather than to statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrostatistics is the discipline that applies statistical analysis to the understanding of astronomical data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biostatistics is a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis, and includes medical statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also did important work in surface-based MRI data analysis and in the mapping of the visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The codification and analysis steps are typically performed by computer, using statistical software. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the objective of confirmatory factor analysis is to test whether the data fit a hypothesized measurement model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the field of bioinformatics has evolved such that the most pressing task now involves the analysis and interpretation of various types of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • In meta-analysis, which combines the data from several studies, homogeneity measures the differences or similarities between the several studies (see also Study heterogeneity). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of homogeneity can be applied in many different ways and, for certain types of statistical analysis, it is used to look for further properties that might need to be treated as varying within a dataset once some initial types of non-homogeneity have been dealt with. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to combat this problem, some journals require that studies submitted for publication are pre-registered (registering a study prior to collection of data and analysis) with organizations like the Center for Open Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a letter to the editors regarding Kanazawa's claim that attractive people are more likely to have daughters, Columbia statistician Andrew Gelman points out that a correct interpretation of the regression coefficients in Kanazawa's analysis is that attractive people are 8% more likely to have girls, an error that Kanazawa acknowledges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gelman argues that Kanazawa's analysis does not convincingly show causality, because of possible endogeneity as well as problematic interpretations of statistical significance in multiple comparisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent critical independent analysis of the results showed that the difference in assessed attractiveness held for three of the four data sets in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and that there was only a statistically significant race difference in younger women and that it disappeared by early adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical roots of meta-analysis can be traced back to 17th century studies of astronomy, while a paper published in 1904 by the statistician Karl Pearson in the British Medical Journal which collated data from several studies of typhoid inoculation is seen as the first time a meta-analytic approach was used to aggregate the outcomes of multiple clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The statistical theory surrounding meta-analysis was greatly advanced by the work of Nambury S. Raju, Larry V. Hedges, Harris Cooper, Ingram Olkin, John E. Hunter, Jacob Cohen, Thomas C. Chalmers, Robert Rosenthal, Frank L. Schmidt, and Douglas G. Bonett. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conceptually, a meta-analysis uses a statistical approach to combine the results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. (wikipedia.org)
  • A meta-analysis is a statistical overview of the results from one or more systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphological data
  • until recently, it was the only widely used character-based tree estimation method used for morphological data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional phylogenetics relies on morphological data obtained by measuring and quantifying the phenotypic properties of representative organisms, while the more recent field of molecular phylogenetics uses nucleotide sequences encoding genes or amino acid sequences encoding proteins as the basis for classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • algorithms
  • Machine learning is the subfield of computer science that formulates algorithms in order to make predictions from data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, alternative algorithms have been developed that attend to the diverse data conditions applied researchers encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important sub-disciplines within bioinformatics and computational biology include: Development and implementation of computer programs that enable efficient access to, use and management of, various types of information Development of new algorithms (mathematical formulas) and statistical measures that assess relationships among members of large data sets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bias
  • Non-sampling errors (e.g., non-response bias) are errors in the data collection that are not due to the process of sampling or the study design. (ucla.edu)
  • Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, assessing, recollecting, or other cognitive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • However, the information age is changing rapidly, expanding into more and more fields, and the size of the data acquisition is orders of magnitude larger than ever existed or imagined before. (wisc.edu)
  • hypothesis
  • If the data are consistent with the null hypothesis, then the null hypothesis is not rejected. (wikipedia.org)
  • the null hypothesis is tested with data and a decision is made based on how likely or unlikely the data are. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the hypothesis testing approach of Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, a null hypothesis is contrasted with an alternative hypothesis and the two hypotheses are distinguished on the basis of data, with certain error rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybrid is in turn criticized as incorrect and incoherent-for details, see Statistical hypothesis testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesis testing requires constructing a statistical model of what the data would look like, given that chance or random processes alone were responsible for the results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesis testing works by collecting data and measuring how likely the particular set of data is, assuming the null hypothesis is true, when the study is on a randomly selected representative sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the data-set of a randomly selected representative sample is very unlikely relative to the null hypothesis (defined as being part of a class of sets of data that only rarely will be observed), the experimenter rejects the null hypothesis concluding it (probably) is false. (wikipedia.org)
  • This class of data-sets is usually specified via a test statistic which is designed to measure the extent of apparent departure from the null hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The procedure works by assessing whether the observed departure measured by the test statistic is larger than a value defined so that the probability of occurrence of a more extreme value is small under the null hypothesis (usually in less than either 5% or 1% of similar data-sets in which the null hypothesis does hold). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the data do not contradict the null hypothesis, then only a weak conclusion can be made: namely, that the observed data set provides no strong evidence against the null hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the data show a statistically significant change in the people receiving the drug, the null hypothesis is rejected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle is akin to Occam's razor, which states that-all else being equal-the simplest hypothesis that explains the data should be selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • An unrooted tree can always be produced from a rooted tree, but a root cannot usually be placed on an unrooted tree without additional data on divergence rates, such as the assumption of the molecular clock hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • graph
  • This study was designed to determine how middle grades students interpret data presented in a bar graph. (causeweb.org)
  • In one case, he found that only four of nine points on the graph came from data cited in the paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Official statistics provide a picture of a country or different phenomena through data, and images such as graph and maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levey-Jennings chart is a graph that quality control data is plotted on to give a visual indication whether a laboratory test is working well.The distance from the mean is measured in standard deviations (SD). (wikipedia.org)
  • uncertainty
  • We now live in an information age with access to huge amounts of data in our daily lives through IT advances, but with great uncertainty about what these data actually mean. (wisc.edu)
  • Because statistics provides tools for data understanding where no other science can, one should be prepared to trade this new power of knowledge with uncertainty. (ucla.edu)
  • broadly
  • More broadly, many universities are increasingly recognizing the need to examine data in context of its source-precisely the domain of statistics-as a central component of training for all students. (wisc.edu)
  • Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. (wikipedia.org)
  • measures
  • The statistical measures that researchers use to test their claims allow a fraction of false claims to appear valid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model fit measures could then be obtained to assess how well the proposed model captured the covariance between all the items or measures in the model. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • As technology continues to transform our modern society, computer-based interpretation programs have the possibility to expand their software and even alleviate some of the current concerns with the programs' methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The phrase Uses and Abuses of Statistics refers to this notion that in some cases statistical results may be used as evidence to seemingly opposite theses. (ucla.edu)
  • If the constraints the researcher has imposed on the model are inconsistent with the sample data, then the results of statistical tests of model fit will indicate a poor fit, and the model will be rejected. (wikipedia.org)
  • In experimental molecular biology, bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basically, it produces a weighted average of the included study results and this approach has several advantages: Results can be generalized to a larger population, The precision and accuracy of estimates can be improved as more data is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrology
  • In hydrology, data-series across a number of sites composed of annual values of the within-year annual maximum river-flow are analysed. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • Internal consistency may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test (split-half reliability). (wikipedia.org)
  • Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs are technological tools that have been commonly used to interpret data in psychological assessments since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although CBTI programs are successful in test-retest reliability, there have been major concerns and criticisms regarding the programs' ability to assess inter-rater and internal consistency reliability. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1985, it was estimated that as many as 1.5 million MMPI protocols had been interpreted by computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the purposes of this article, both types will be referred to as computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, test-retest reliability of CBTIs is considered perfect (i.e., the same protocol will repeatedly yield the same interpretation), if the same program is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • A test for homogeneity, in the sense of exact equivalence of statistical distributions, can be based on an E-statistic. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • Nevill-Manning and co-workers [ 3 ] used such expectations for assessing the specificity of motifs exhaustively generated from a multiple sequence alignment of related proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we present a simple method for aligning two alternative multiple sequence alignments to one another and assessing their similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CBTI programs are very efficient in that they save time, reduce human error, are cost effective, and are objective/reliable, yet limited in that they are not always used by adequately trained evaluators or are not integrated with multiple sources of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • computational
  • The actual process of analyzing and interpreting data is referred to as computational biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees generated by computational phylogenetics can be either rooted or unrooted depending on the input data and the algorithm used. (wikipedia.org)
  • prediction
  • 7 reviews (13 %) presented between-study variance estimates (τ 2 ) from random effects models and 3 of these presented a prediction interval or ellipse to facilitate interpretation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • recommendations
  • We also provide a set of recommendations for best practices regarding spectral and data processing for NMR-based metabolomic studies of biofluids, with a particular focus on urine. (springer.com)
  • Recommendations are made regarding construction and interpretation of correlation evidence. (dtic.mil)
  • statistics
  • Here, we draw extensively on BIS statistics, notably the international banking and securities statistics as well as sectoral credit data and DSRs. (bis.org)
  • New statistics faculty will focus on tomorrow's big data problems, with emphasis on joint appointments in research disciplines and in other campus data sciences programs. (wisc.edu)
  • This bulk of data is usually called official statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Official statistics result from the collection and processing of data into statistical information by a government institution or international organisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Official statistics make information on economic and social development accessible to the public, allowing the impact of government policies to be assessed, thus improving accountability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of statistical organizations is to produce relevant, objective and accurate statistics to keep users well informed and assist good policy and decision-making. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics were adopted in 1992 by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and subsequently endorsed as a global standard by the United Nations Statistical Commission. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this field, official statistics are also used to assess a government's policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal
  • Further, CBTI research has been criticized for failure to assess inter-rater (comparing the interpretation of one protocol by two different programs) and internal consistency reliability (comparing the reliability of different sections of the same interpretation). (wikipedia.org)
  • indicators
  • We explore this issue formally by assessing the performance of these debt categories as early warning indicators (EWIs) for systemic banking crises. (bis.org)
  • For example, social scientists often estimate CFA models with non-normal data and indicators scaled using discrete ordered categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical indicators provide an overview of the social, demographic and economic structure of society. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • As a result, a number of data processing techniques such as scaling, transformation and normalization are often required to address these issues. (springer.com)
  • That being said, CFA models are often applied to data conditions that deviate from the normal theory requirements for valid ML estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • analytical
  • A Bland-Altman plot (Difference plot) in analytical chemistry is a method of data plotting used in analyzing the agreement between two different assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • probability
  • Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical thermodynamics is the study of the microscopic behaviors of thermodynamic systems using probability theory and provides a molecular level interpretation of thermodynamic quantities such as work, heat, free energy, and entropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, it is not guaranteed to produce the true tree with high probability, given sufficient data. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, the data themselves do not lead to a simple, arithmetic solution to the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, questions of homogeneity apply to all aspects of the statistical distributions, including the location parameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • certain
  • Assessing the homogeneity of the population would involve looking to see whether the responses of certain identifiable subpopulations differ from those of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approach
  • The control charts: a statistical approach to the study of manufacturing process variation for the purpose of improving the economic effectiveness of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study. (wikipedia.org)
  • emphasis
  • Reliability engineering is the study of the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time Statistical finance, an area of econophysics, is an empirical attempt to shift finance from its normative roots to a positivist framework using exemplars from statistical physics with an emphasis on emergent or collective properties of financial markets. (wikipedia.org)