**inference**- This strategic plan embodies three broad themes essential for teaching, training, methodology development, and research collaboration focused on modern statistical analysis and inference. (wisc.edu)
- validity of the analysis strategy should lead to correct inference and interpretation in most cases. (ucla.edu)
- In general, statistical analysis, inference and simulation will not provide deterministic answers and strict (e.g., yes/no, presence/absence) responses to questions involving stochastic processes. (ucla.edu)
- Rather, statistics will provide quantitative inference represented as long-time probability values, confidence or prediction intervals, odds, chances, etc., which may ultimately be subjected to varying interpretations. (ucla.edu)
- However, most of the time, common principles of logic allow us to disambiguate the obtained statistical inference. (ucla.edu)
- When presented with a problem, data and statistical inference about a phenomenon, one needs to critically assess the validity of the assumptions, accuracy of the models and correctness of the interpretation of the thesis. (ucla.edu)
- The concept of a null hypothesis is used differently in two approaches to statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical inference can be done without a null hypothesis, by specifying a statistical model corresponding to each candidate hypothesis and using model selection techniques to choose the most appropriate model. (wikipedia.org)
- The data acquired for quantitative marketing research can be analysed by almost any of the range of techniques of statistical analysis, which can be broadly divided into descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)

**analyses**- The relative validity of the individual energy adjusted level of intake was assessed with correlation analyses (Pearson's), with correction for measurement error. (biomedcentral.com)
- When choosing among various methods for agreement the weighted κ -coefficient is probably the most useful for ordinal data, but several issues of concern arise and need to be taken into consideration when using these types of analyses. (diva-portal.org)
- The empirically based programs, or actuarial assessment programs, use statistical analyses to interpret the data, while the clinically based programs, or automated assessment programs, rely on information from expert clinicians and research. (wikipedia.org)
- Actuarial assessment programs are based on statistical or actuarial prediction (e.g., statistical analyses, linear regression equations and Bayesian rules), which is empirically based while automated assessment programs consist of a series of if-then statements derived by expert clinicians and informed by published research and clinical experience. (wikipedia.org)
- Bioinformatics has been used for in silico analyses of biological queries using mathematical and statistical techniques. (wikipedia.org)

**mathematical and statistical**- Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries. (wikipedia.org)

**Conclusions**- Such data need to be analysed with correct statistics, or the results and conclusions may be misleading. (diva-portal.org)
- When ML is implemented with data that deviates away from the assumptions of normal theory, CFA models may produce biased parameter estimates and misleading conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
- Research on the validity of CBTIs tends to utilize three types of studies: external criterion studies (comparing the CBTI report to some external criterion measure of the construct, such as a self-report or behavioral measure), consumer satisfaction studies (asking clients whether the reports are accurate representations of themselves), and comparison with clinical conclusions (comparing CBTI reports to clinician interpretations). (wikipedia.org)

**analysis**- Our thorough statistical and biological analysis showed that there are several mechanisms and evolutionary constraints both of which affect the appearance of functional motifs in protein sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, because NMR permits the measurement of concentrations spanning up to five orders of magnitude, several problems can arise with data analysis. (springer.com)
- ASQ/ANSI/ISO 16269-4:2010 provides detailed descriptions of sound statistical testing procedures and graphical data analysis methods for detecting outliers in data obtained from measurement processes. (asq.org)
- IATA Consulting offers an in-depth analysis service of air passenger and a ir cargo markets, with unmatched access to global data and industry-leading expertise. (iata.org)
- In addition to the traditional courses in pure mathematics, such as Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Real Analysis, we also offer a set of courses that highlight recent developments in mathematics, including sophomore-level courses in Data Analysis, Voting Theory, and Cryptography. (wheatoncollege.edu)
- Second, we map the statistical analysis into current conditions, taking into account also the information from aggregate indicators. (bis.org)
- Arcane statistical analysis, the business of making sense of our growing data mountains, has become high tech's hottest calling. (wisc.edu)
- Among quantitative sciences, statistics is at the center of data analysis and interpretation. (wisc.edu)
- Staff FTE will cover undergraduate advising and oversight of undergraduate instruction, instructional computing and tools for data analysis, and research computing and big data analytics infrastructure. (wisc.edu)
- Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. (wikipedia.org)
- Certain topics have "statistical" in their name but relate to manipulations of probability distributions rather than to statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Astrostatistics is the discipline that applies statistical analysis to the understanding of astronomical data. (wikipedia.org)
- Biostatistics is a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis, and includes medical statistics. (wikipedia.org)
- He also did important work in surface-based MRI data analysis and in the mapping of the visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- Data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- The codification and analysis steps are typically performed by computer, using statistical software. (wikipedia.org)
- In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)
- As such, the objective of confirmatory factor analysis is to test whether the data fit a hypothesized measurement model. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, the field of bioinformatics has evolved such that the most pressing task now involves the analysis and interpretation of various types of data. (wikipedia.org)
- In meta-analysis, which combines the data from several studies, homogeneity measures the differences or similarities between the several studies (see also Study heterogeneity). (wikipedia.org)
- The concept of homogeneity can be applied in many different ways and, for certain types of statistical analysis, it is used to look for further properties that might need to be treated as varying within a dataset once some initial types of non-homogeneity have been dealt with. (wikipedia.org)
- In an effort to combat this problem, some journals require that studies submitted for publication are pre-registered (registering a study prior to collection of data and analysis) with organizations like the Center for Open Science. (wikipedia.org)
- In a letter to the editors regarding Kanazawa's claim that attractive people are more likely to have daughters, Columbia statistician Andrew Gelman points out that a correct interpretation of the regression coefficients in Kanazawa's analysis is that attractive people are 8% more likely to have girls, an error that Kanazawa acknowledges. (wikipedia.org)
- Gelman argues that Kanazawa's analysis does not convincingly show causality, because of possible endogeneity as well as problematic interpretations of statistical significance in multiple comparisons. (wikipedia.org)
- Subsequent critical independent analysis of the results showed that the difference in assessed attractiveness held for three of the four data sets in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and that there was only a statistically significant race difference in younger women and that it disappeared by early adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
- A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. (wikipedia.org)
- However, in performing a meta-analysis, an investigator must make choices which can affect the results, including deciding how to search for studies, selecting studies based on a set of objective criteria, dealing with incomplete data, analyzing the data, and accounting for or choosing not to account for publication bias. (wikipedia.org)
- Here it is convenient to follow the terminology used by the Cochrane Collaboration, and use "meta-analysis" to refer to statistical methods of combining evidence, leaving other aspects of 'research synthesis' or 'evidence synthesis', such as combining information from qualitative studies, for the more general context of systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)
- The historical roots of meta-analysis can be traced back to 17th century studies of astronomy, while a paper published in 1904 by the statistician Karl Pearson in the British Medical Journal which collated data from several studies of typhoid inoculation is seen as the first time a meta-analytic approach was used to aggregate the outcomes of multiple clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
- The statistical theory surrounding meta-analysis was greatly advanced by the work of Nambury S. Raju, Larry V. Hedges, Harris Cooper, Ingram Olkin, John E. Hunter, Jacob Cohen, Thomas C. Chalmers, Robert Rosenthal, Frank L. Schmidt, and Douglas G. Bonett. (wikipedia.org)
- Conceptually, a meta-analysis uses a statistical approach to combine the results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. (wikipedia.org)
- A meta-analysis is a statistical overview of the results from one or more systematic reviews. (wikipedia.org)

**significance**- In this paper the initial results of a theoretical-experimental study of university students' errors on the level of significance of statistical tests are presented. (causeweb.org)
- In the significance testing approach of Ronald Fisher, a null hypothesis is rejected if the observed data are significantly unlikely to have occurred if the null hypothesis were true. (wikipedia.org)
- Test the results for statistical significance. (wikipedia.org)

**variability**- To describe approaches used in systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies for assessing variability in estimates of accuracy between studies and to provide guidance in this area. (biomedcentral.com)
- 75 %) presented a test or statistical measure for the variability. (biomedcentral.com)
- Approaches to assessing variability in estimates of accuracy varied widely between diagnostic test accuracy reviews and there is room for improvement. (biomedcentral.com)
- How the variability in the results of diagnostic studies can best be assessed demands further attention. (biomedcentral.com)
- For example, considerations of homoscedasticity examine how much the variability of data-values changes throughout a dataset. (wikipedia.org)

**ordinal data**- ISO/TR 14468:2010 assesses a measurement process where the characteristic(s) being measured is (are) in the form of attribute data (including nominal and ordinal data). (asq.org)
- In this study, the use of measures of agreement for ordinal data in five international nursing journals is reviewed and various methods for measuring agreement are presented and discussed. (diva-portal.org)

**morphological data**- until recently, it was the only widely used character-based tree estimation method used for morphological data. (wikipedia.org)
- Traditional phylogenetics relies on morphological data obtained by measuring and quantifying the phenotypic properties of representative organisms, while the more recent field of molecular phylogenetics uses nucleotide sequences encoding genes or amino acid sequences encoding proteins as the basis for classification. (wikipedia.org)

**algorithms**- Machine learning is the subfield of computer science that formulates algorithms in order to make predictions from data. (wikipedia.org)
- Accordingly, alternative algorithms have been developed that attend to the diverse data conditions applied researchers encounter. (wikipedia.org)
- Important sub-disciplines within bioinformatics and computational biology include: Development and implementation of computer programs that enable efficient access to, use and management of, various types of information Development of new algorithms (mathematical formulas) and statistical measures that assess relationships among members of large data sets. (wikipedia.org)

**validity**- critically the validity of the assumptions, accuracy of the models and correctness of the interpretation of the thesis. (ucla.edu)
- They relate to the validity of the often convenient assumption that the statistical properties of any one part of an overall dataset are the same as any other part. (wikipedia.org)

**Bias**- Non-sampling errors (e.g., non-response bias) are errors in the data collection that are not due to the process of sampling or the study design. (ucla.edu)
- Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average. (wikipedia.org)
- A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, assessing, recollecting, or other cognitive processes. (wikipedia.org)
- An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors. (wikipedia.org)

**methods**- The types of evidence are examined to recognize the effects of common methods of data acquisition and treatment. (dtic.mil)
- encompassing field, laboratory, statistical and computing methods used in the acquisition, interpretation and modelling of proxy climatic and environmental data. (findamasters.com)
- Training in statistical methods, and collaboration with statisticians, is central to this vital part of the University of Wisconsin-Madison mission. (wisc.edu)
- The statistical methods to analyze these mega data sets have to a large extent not yet been developed. (wisc.edu)
- Evaluation of various methods in clinical practice is often based on interpretations by two or more observers. (diva-portal.org)
- A number of specialties have evolved to apply statistical and methods to various disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
- Business analytics is a rapidly developing business process that applies statistical methods to data sets (often very large) to develop new insights and understanding of business performance & opportunities Chemometrics is the science of relating measurements made on a chemical system or process to the state of the system via application of mathematical or statistical methods. (wikipedia.org)
- Econometrics is a branch of economics that applies statistical methods to the empirical study of economic theories and relationships. (wikipedia.org)
- Environmental statistics is the application of statistical methods to environmental science. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical physics is one of the fundamental theories of physics, and uses methods of probability theory in solving physical problems. (wikipedia.org)
- Both assays (for example, different methods of volume measurement) are performed on each sample, resulting in 2n data points. (wikipedia.org)
- The 95% limits of agreement can be unreliable estimates of the population parameters especially for small sample sizes so, when comparing methods or assessing repeatability, it is important to calculate confidence intervals for 95% limits of agreement. (wikipedia.org)
- This rudimentary computerized interpretation is not far off from the methods used today. (wikipedia.org)
- Bioinformatics /ˌbaɪ.oʊˌɪnfərˈmætɪks/ ( listen) is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. (wikipedia.org)
- Interpretation of quality control data involves both graphical and statistical methods. (wikipedia.org)
- The formulation of Westgard rules were based on statistical methods. (wikipedia.org)

**inferences**- Much of statistical reasoning combines ideas about data and chance, which leads to making inferences and interpreting statistical results. (causeweb.org)

**combines**- As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines Computer Science, Biology, Mathematics, and Engineering to analyze and interpret biological data. (wikipedia.org)

**analyze and interpret**- With few exceptions, to advance and remain competitive campus researchers must have the skills and tools to analyze and interpret the massive data streams that permeate the contemporary research world. (wisc.edu)

**measurement**- These are collections of data measurement or observations that do not adequately describe the natural process or phenomenon being studied. (ucla.edu)

**undertake**- The data collection steps, can in some instances be automated, but often require significant manpower to undertake. (wikipedia.org)

**involves**- This involves making interpretations based on sets of data, representations of data, or statistical summaries of data. (causeweb.org)
- A statistical investigation typically involves four components: pose the question, collect the data, analyze the data, and interpret the results, in some order (Graham, 1987). (causeweb.org)

**graphical**- A set of graphical visualisations allow for intuitive interpretation of the data. (biomedcentral.com)

**acquisition**- However, the information age is changing rapidly, expanding into more and more fields, and the size of the data acquisition is orders of magnitude larger than ever existed or imagined before. (wisc.edu)

**hypothesis**- If the data are consistent with the null hypothesis, then the null hypothesis is not rejected. (wikipedia.org)
- the null hypothesis is tested with data and a decision is made based on how likely or unlikely the data are. (wikipedia.org)
- In the hypothesis testing approach of Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, a null hypothesis is contrasted with an alternative hypothesis and the two hypotheses are distinguished on the basis of data, with certain error rates. (wikipedia.org)
- The hybrid is in turn criticized as incorrect and incoherent-for details, see Statistical hypothesis testing. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypothesis testing requires constructing a statistical model of what the data would look like, given that chance or random processes alone were responsible for the results. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypothesis testing works by collecting data and measuring how likely the particular set of data is, assuming the null hypothesis is true, when the study is on a randomly selected representative sample. (wikipedia.org)
- If the data-set of a randomly selected representative sample is very unlikely relative to the null hypothesis (defined as being part of a class of sets of data that only rarely will be observed), the experimenter rejects the null hypothesis concluding it (probably) is false. (wikipedia.org)
- This class of data-sets is usually specified via a test statistic which is designed to measure the extent of apparent departure from the null hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- The procedure works by assessing whether the observed departure measured by the test statistic is larger than a value defined so that the probability of occurrence of a more extreme value is small under the null hypothesis (usually in less than either 5% or 1% of similar data-sets in which the null hypothesis does hold). (wikipedia.org)
- If the data do not contradict the null hypothesis, then only a weak conclusion can be made: namely, that the observed data set provides no strong evidence against the null hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- If the data show a statistically significant change in the people receiving the drug, the null hypothesis is rejected. (wikipedia.org)
- The principle is akin to Occam's razor, which states that-all else being equal-the simplest hypothesis that explains the data should be selected. (wikipedia.org)
- An unrooted tree can always be produced from a rooted tree, but a root cannot usually be placed on an unrooted tree without additional data on divergence rates, such as the assumption of the molecular clock hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)

**sound statistical**- The final section suggests ways teachers may help students develop sound statistical reasoning skills. (causeweb.org)

**statisticians**- The categorization of the domains of official statistics has been further developed in the Classification of Statistical Activities, endorsed by the Conference of European Statisticians and various other bodies. (wikipedia.org)

**graph**- This study was designed to determine how middle grades students interpret data presented in a bar graph. (causeweb.org)
- In one case, he found that only four of nine points on the graph came from data cited in the paper. (wikipedia.org)
- Official statistics provide a picture of a country or different phenomena through data, and images such as graph and maps. (wikipedia.org)
- Levey-Jennings chart is a graph that quality control data is plotted on to give a visual indication whether a laboratory test is working well.The distance from the mean is measured in standard deviations (SD). (wikipedia.org)

**uncertainty**- We now live in an information age with access to huge amounts of data in our daily lives through IT advances, but with great uncertainty about what these data actually mean. (wisc.edu)
- Because statistics provides tools for data understanding where no other science can, one should be prepared to trade this new power of knowledge with uncertainty. (ucla.edu)

**biological**- 1 H NMR spectra from urine can yield information-rich data sets that offer important insights into many biological and biochemical phenomena. (springer.com)
- It plays a role in the text mining of biological literature and the development of biological and gene ontologies to organize and query biological data. (wikipedia.org)
- To study how normal cellular activities are altered in different disease states, the biological data must be combined to form a comprehensive picture of these activities. (wikipedia.org)

**inconsistency**- This possibility of multiple interpretations may be viewed by some as detriment or inconsistency. (ucla.edu)

**Stability**- Stability over repeated measures is assessed with the Pearson coefficient. (wikipedia.org)

**broadly**- More broadly, many universities are increasingly recognizing the need to examine data in context of its source-precisely the domain of statistics-as a central component of training for all students. (wisc.edu)
- Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. (wikipedia.org)

**measures**- The statistical measures that researchers use to test their claims allow a fraction of false claims to appear valid. (wikipedia.org)
- Model fit measures could then be obtained to assess how well the proposed model captured the covariance between all the items or measures in the model. (wikipedia.org)

**possibility**- As technology continues to transform our modern society, computer-based interpretation programs have the possibility to expand their software and even alleviate some of the current concerns with the programs' methodology. (wikipedia.org)

**results**- The phrase Uses and Abuses of Statistics refers to this notion that in some cases statistical results may be used as evidence to seemingly opposite theses. (ucla.edu)
- If the constraints the researcher has imposed on the model are inconsistent with the sample data, then the results of statistical tests of model fit will indicate a poor fit, and the model will be rejected. (wikipedia.org)
- In experimental molecular biology, bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data. (wikipedia.org)
- Basically, it produces a weighted average of the included study results and this approach has several advantages: Results can be generalized to a larger population, The precision and accuracy of estimates can be improved as more data is used. (wikipedia.org)

**hydrology**- In hydrology, data-series across a number of sites composed of annual values of the within-year annual maximum river-flow are analysed. (wikipedia.org)

**test**- Internal consistency may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test (split-half reliability). (wikipedia.org)
- Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs are technological tools that have been commonly used to interpret data in psychological assessments since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
- Although CBTI programs are successful in test-retest reliability, there have been major concerns and criticisms regarding the programs' ability to assess inter-rater and internal consistency reliability. (wikipedia.org)
- By 1985, it was estimated that as many as 1.5 million MMPI protocols had been interpreted by computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs. (wikipedia.org)
- For the purposes of this article, both types will be referred to as computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs). (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, test-retest reliability of CBTIs is considered perfect (i.e., the same protocol will repeatedly yield the same interpretation), if the same program is used. (wikipedia.org)
- A test for homogeneity, in the sense of exact equivalence of statistical distributions, can be based on an E-statistic. (wikipedia.org)

**multiple**- Nevill-Manning and co-workers [ 3 ] used such expectations for assessing the specificity of motifs exhaustively generated from a multiple sequence alignment of related proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we present a simple method for aligning two alternative multiple sequence alignments to one another and assessing their similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
- CBTI programs are very efficient in that they save time, reduce human error, are cost effective, and are objective/reliable, yet limited in that they are not always used by adequately trained evaluators or are not integrated with multiple sources of data. (wikipedia.org)

**computational**- The actual process of analyzing and interpreting data is referred to as computational biology. (wikipedia.org)
- Phylogenetic trees generated by computational phylogenetics can be either rooted or unrooted depending on the input data and the algorithm used. (wikipedia.org)

**prediction**- 7 reviews (13 %) presented between-study variance estimates (τ 2 ) from random effects models and 3 of these presented a prediction interval or ellipse to facilitate interpretation. (biomedcentral.com)

**findings**- The struggle to compete encourages exaggeration of findings and biased data selection. (wikipedia.org)

**recommendations**- We also provide a set of recommendations for best practices regarding spectral and data processing for NMR-based metabolomic studies of biofluids, with a particular focus on urine. (springer.com)
- Recommendations are made regarding construction and interpretation of correlation evidence. (dtic.mil)

**statistics**- Here, we draw extensively on BIS statistics, notably the international banking and securities statistics as well as sectoral credit data and DSRs. (bis.org)
- New statistics faculty will focus on tomorrow's big data problems, with emphasis on joint appointments in research disciplines and in other campus data sciences programs. (wisc.edu)
- This bulk of data is usually called official statistics. (wikipedia.org)
- Official statistics result from the collection and processing of data into statistical information by a government institution or international organisation. (wikipedia.org)
- Official statistics make information on economic and social development accessible to the public, allowing the impact of government policies to be assessed, thus improving accountability. (wikipedia.org)
- The goal of statistical organizations is to produce relevant, objective and accurate statistics to keep users well informed and assist good policy and decision-making. (wikipedia.org)
- The Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics were adopted in 1992 by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, and subsequently endorsed as a global standard by the United Nations Statistical Commission. (wikipedia.org)
- In this field, official statistics are also used to assess a government's policies. (wikipedia.org)

**Internal**- Further, CBTI research has been criticized for failure to assess inter-rater (comparing the interpretation of one protocol by two different programs) and internal consistency reliability (comparing the reliability of different sections of the same interpretation). (wikipedia.org)

**indicators**- We explore this issue formally by assessing the performance of these debt categories as early warning indicators (EWIs) for systemic banking crises. (bis.org)
- For example, social scientists often estimate CFA models with non-normal data and indicators scaled using discrete ordered categories. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical indicators provide an overview of the social, demographic and economic structure of society. (wikipedia.org)

**often**- As a result, a number of data processing techniques such as scaling, transformation and normalization are often required to address these issues. (springer.com)
- That being said, CFA models are often applied to data conditions that deviate from the normal theory requirements for valid ML estimation. (wikipedia.org)

**Assessment**- Challenges in assessing statistical reasoning are described and information is provided on a unique paper and pencil instrument, the Statistical Reasoning Assessment. (causeweb.org)
- The first program able to interpret computerized assessment data was developed in 1962 at the Mayo Clinic. (wikipedia.org)

**tests**- Postimpoundment change in seismicity can be assessed using certain recommended statistical tests. (dtic.mil)

**techniques**- An important set of techniques is that related to statistical surveys. (wikipedia.org)

**commonly**- Westgard rules are commonly used to analyse data in Shewhart control charts. (wikipedia.org)

**analytical**- A Bland-Altman plot (Difference plot) in analytical chemistry is a method of data plotting used in analyzing the agreement between two different assays. (wikipedia.org)

**probability**- Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical thermodynamics is the study of the microscopic behaviors of thermodynamic systems using probability theory and provides a molecular level interpretation of thermodynamic quantities such as work, heat, free energy, and entropy. (wikipedia.org)
- That is, it is not guaranteed to produce the true tree with high probability, given sufficient data. (wikipedia.org)

**however**- However, the data themselves do not lead to a simple, arithmetic solution to the problem. (wikipedia.org)
- However, questions of homogeneity apply to all aspects of the statistical distributions, including the location parameter. (wikipedia.org)

**signals**- Statistical signal processing utilizes the statistical properties of signals to perform signal processing tasks. (wikipedia.org)

**certain**- Assessing the homogeneity of the population would involve looking to see whether the responses of certain identifiable subpopulations differ from those of others. (wikipedia.org)

**Approach**- The control charts: a statistical approach to the study of manufacturing process variation for the purpose of improving the economic effectiveness of the process. (wikipedia.org)
- A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study. (wikipedia.org)

**process**- We view graphs as part of the process of statistical investigation. (causeweb.org)
- The use of grpahis is linked to the 'analyze the data' component of the statistical investigation process. (causeweb.org)
- In the process, we take the opportunity to clarify some common misconceptions about the interpretation of EWIs. (bis.org)
- it can make use of statistical sampling of product items to aid decisions in process control or in accepting deliveries. (wikipedia.org)
- The control chart, also known as the 'Shewhart chart' or 'process-behavior chart' is a statistical tool intended to assess the nature of variation in a process and to facilitate forecasting and management. (wikipedia.org)

**emphasis**- Reliability engineering is the study of the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time Statistical finance, an area of econophysics, is an empirical attempt to shift finance from its normative roots to a positivist framework using exemplars from statistical physics with an emphasis on emergent or collective properties of financial markets. (wikipedia.org)

**make**- Statistical reasoning may be defined as the way people reason with statistical ideas and make sense of statistical information. (causeweb.org)
- The big problem is going to be the ability of humans to use, analyze and make sense of the data. (wisc.edu)