• viability assays
  • If the cells do not have high intracellular potassium and low intracellular sodium, then (1) the cell membrane may not be intact, and/or (2) the sodium-potassium pump may not be operating well As with many kinds of viability assays, quantitative measures of physiological function do not indicate whether damage repair and recovery is possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viability assays are used to assess the success of cryopreservation techniques, the toxicity of substances, or the effectiveness of substances in mitigating effects of toxic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The cardiac isoforms of cTnI and cTnT have additional unique N-terminal amino acid sequences, which allows for specific antibody and assay development and detection of each component in the bloodstream. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell-based neutralizing antibody assays can be difficult to develop as the selection of the most suitable assay type (indirect or direct) and format depends on thorough understanding of the drug's mechanism of action. (intertek.com)
  • Through the intelligent and experienced application of cell-based neutralizing antibody assays, Intertek is the ideal partner for your biologic drug development or pharmacovigilance requirements for immunogenicity testing . (intertek.com)
  • Binding Antibody Multiplex Assay (BAMA) can be run using multiple ligands to profile multiple antibody isotypes and subclasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FACS method is broadly similar to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody format, except that the encapsulated cells remain intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition assay
  • The toeprinting assay, also known as the primer extension inhibition assay, is a method used in molecular biology that allows you to examine the interactions between messenger RNA and ribosomes or RNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • The small size and bright luminescence of NanoLuc® Luciferase bring exquisite sensitivity to reporter assays and other bioluminescence applications. (promega.com)
  • A comparison of the sensitivity and brightness of NanoLuc®, firefly, and Renilla luciferase assays. (promega.com)
  • Greater sensitivity and versatility for traditional gene regulation assays. (promega.com)
  • The Von Frey assay, introduced by Maximilian von Frey and modified by Weinstein, uses Von Frey hair or fibers, which are small pieces of nylon rod, approximately 50 mm in length, and of varying diameters, to test a rodent's sensitivity to a mechanical stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two versions of the tail withdrawal assay are commonly employed in pain sensitivity testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of assay sensitivity has different implications for trials intended to show a difference greater than zero between interventions (superiority trials) and trials intended to show non-inferiority. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a trial intended to demonstrate efficacy by showing superiority of a test intervention to control lacks assay sensitivity, it will fail to show that the test intervention is superior and will fail to lead to a conclusion of efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, if a trial intended to demonstrate efficacy by showing a test intervention is non-inferior to an active control lacks assay sensitivity, the trial may find an ineffective intervention to be non-inferior and could lead to an erroneous conclusion of efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two interventions within a trial are shown to have different efficacy (i.e., when one intervention is superior), that finding itself directly demonstrates that the trial had assay sensitivity (assuming the finding is not related to random or systematic error). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a trial that demonstrates non-inferiority between two interventions, or an unsuccessful superiority trial, generally does not contain such direct evidence of assay sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay sensitivity for a non-inferiority trial may depend upon the chosen margin of inferiority ruled out by the trial, and the design of the planned non-inferiority trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, if there is reliable and reproducible evidence from previous superiority trials of an effect size of 10% for a control intervention compared to placebo, an appropriately designed non-inferiorty trial designed to rule out that the test intervention may be as much as 5% less effective than the control would have assay sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, with this same data, a noninferiority trial designed to rule out that the test intervention may be as much as 15% less effective than the control may not have assay sensitivity, since this trial would not ensure that the test intervention is any more effective than a placebo given that the effect ruled out is larger than the effect of the control compared to placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MiCK assay provides oncologists with a clinically relevant drug-sensitivity profile of tumor cells of an individual cancer patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • 4 For this reason, each laboratory should validate the accuracy and precision of its troponin assay both on initial implementation and also every few months to verify assay performance. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our experts, based in Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) compliant laboratories, evaluate each therapeutic, conduct tailored assay development and ensure that each assay is optimized to suitably determine the presence of NAb with maximum possible level of drug tolerance. (intertek.com)
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of fire assaying of gold and platinum ores, the lengthy time required to carry out an assay generally is offset by carrying out large numbers of assays simultaneously, and a typical laboratory will be equipped with several fusion and cupellation furnaces, each capable of taking multiple samples, so that several hundred analyses per day can be carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay is performed by DiaTech Oncology in its CLAI-certified, CAP-accredited laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Examples: Propidium iodide Trypan blue 7-Aminoactinomycin D Mitochondrial activity or caspase assays: Resazurin and Formazan (MTT/XTT) can assay for various stages in the apoptosis process that foreshadow cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Micro-Culture Kinetic (MiCK) assay, developed by DiaTech Oncology, is a clinical pathology test that measures apoptosis induced in specific patient's cancer cells via chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilution
  • Assay development and optimization are performed through careful selection of proper cell line, assay format, and positive control NAb, optimization of assay parameters, sample dilution or pretreatment, if necessary, and meticulous data processing and statistical analysis. (intertek.com)
  • The term dilution assay is generally used to designate a special type of bioassay in which one or more preparations (e.g. a drug) are administered to experimental units at different dose levels inducing a measurable biological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dilution assays can be direct or indirect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) response is measured, so that the dose is a stochastic variable defining the tolerance distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, in an indirect dilution assay the dose levels are administered at fixed dose levels, so that the response is a stochastic variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a mathematical definition of a dilution assay an observation space U {\displaystyle U} is defined and a function f : U → R {\displaystyle f:U\rightarrow \mathbb {R} } so that the responses u ∈ U {\displaystyle u\in U} are mapped to the set of real numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of notable importance in this respect is the theory of Generalized Linear Models with which a wide range of dilution assays can be modelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HI assay is generally performed by creating a dilution series of antiserum across the rows of a 96-well microtiter plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formazan
  • ATP test Calcein AM Clonogenic assay Ethidium homodimer assay Evans blue Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis/Propidium iodide staining (FDA/PI staining) Flow cytometry Formazan-based assays (MTT/XTT) Green fluorescent protein Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Methyl violet Propidium iodide, DNA stain that can differentiate necrotic, apoptotic and normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, WST assays (1) can be read directly (unlike MTT that needs a solubilization step), (2) give a more effective signal than MTT, and (3) decrease toxicity to cells (unlike cell-permeable MTT, and its insoluble formazan that accumulate inside cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • colorimetric
  • A methylene blue active substances assay, or MBAS assay, is a colorimetric analysis test method that uses methylene blue to detect the presence of anionic surfactants (such as a detergent or foaming agent) in a sample of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • model organisms
  • The ability to perform such multiplex assay experiments measuring large numbers of biomolecular analytes has been facilitated by the completion of the human genome sequence and that of many other model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Apart from fresh human hepatocytes, HepaRG cells are the most metabolically active liver cell line described to date and have the potential for use as a viable surrogate in many functional liver assays, including metabolism and clearance testing, with none of the drawbacks of limited availability and donor-to-donor variation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional assays: Assays of cell function will be highly specific to the types of cells being assayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For transplantable whole organs the ultimate assay is the ability to sustain life after transplantation, an assay which is not helpful in preventing transplantation of non-functional organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiplex assays are widely used in functional genomics experiments that endeavor to detect or to assay the state of all biomolecules of a given class (e.g., mRNAs, proteins) within a biological sample, to determine the effect of an experimental treatment or the effect of a DNA mutation over all of the biomolecules or pathways in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative
  • Large-Scale Interlaboratory Study to Develop, Analytically Validate and Apply Highly Multiplexed, Quantitative Peptide Assays to Measure Cancer-Relevant Proteins in Plasma. (cancer.gov)
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • This firm also developed Click-iT EdU Microplate Assay that utilizes nucleoside analog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) and a detection method that does not necessitate DNA denaturation. (news-medical.net)
  • Tissue microarray for analyzing multiple tissue samples Cellular microarray for observing cellular responses against a panel of materials Chemical compound microarray to assay multiple chemical compounds for specific activities Multiplex detection enables the simultaneous detection of two or more targets on a western blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • For detection of cells general staining techniques (e.g. trypan blue) or special probes (e.g. mt-dehydrogenase detection with MTT assay) are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • ASSAY and Drug Development Technologies delivers access to the techniques and tools that enable new advances in early-stage screening, and lead to therapeutic compounds for drug discovery and development. (liebertpub.com)
  • Each assay must be target specific, reproducible, minimally affected by matrix effects, and be able to detect the NAb in the presence of the therapeutic. (intertek.com)
  • Proteins
  • This principle can be applied to many different reporter proteins and is also the basis for the yeast two-hybrid system , an archetypical PCA assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • General principle of the protein complementation assay: a protein is split into two (N- and C-terminal) halves and reconstituted by two interacting proteins (here called "bait" and "prey" because a bait protein can be used to find an interacting prey protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • When fluorescent proteins are reconstituted the PCA is called Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay . (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • One of the more powerful methods for this purpose has been the radioligand binding assay (Yamamura et al, 1978). (springer.com)
  • A large number of different methods of measuring the concentrations of substrates and products exist and many enzymes can be assayed in several different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic
  • The metabolic stability assays provide a means to measure the rate of disappearance of a test compound over time in either microsomal or hepatocyte incubations, and these data are used to calculate intrinsic clearance. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • i.e. not only analytic variations and errors intrinsic to the assay itself but also variations and errors involved in preanalytic and post analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • bullion
  • They are not involved in hallmarking, as there has never been a hallmarking scheme in the U.S. In the 1800s, the functions of assay offices in the U.S. included receiving bullion deposits from the public and from mining prospectors in the various American territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay offices that still operate today function solely within national coining system (including bullion coinage for sales to investors). (wikipedia.org)
  • This method is better suited for the assay of bullion and gold stocks rather than works of art or jewelry because it is a completely destructive method. (wikipedia.org)
  • optimization
  • Colorimetry Water chemistry analysis Water testing anionic surfactants Alison L. George, Graham F. White "Optimization of the methylene blue assay for anionic surfactants added to estuarine and marine water" Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1999, Volume 18, pages 2232-2236. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • An MBAS assay alone does not, however, identify specific surfactants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MiCK assay results help oncologist choose a chemotherapeutic agent that is most efficient in killing the patient's specific cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • At the moment, the most popular tube formation assays involve plating human umbilical vein endothelial cells or bovine aortic endothelial cells with Matrigel. (news-medical.net)
  • But generally, assays involve biological material or phenomena which tend to be intrinsically more complex either in composition or in behavior or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratories
  • Laboratories must interact with clinicians to establish diagnostic cut points, achieve acceptable assay performance, and troubleshoot questionable findings. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • purity
  • For assay of currency coins, this literally meant analysis of the purity of the gold or silver or whatever precious component was used to represent the true value of the coin. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • test the quality of", from Anglo-French assaier, from assai (n.), from Old French essai "trial", and the noun assay thus means "trial, test of quality, test of character", mid-14th century, from Anglo-French assai and the meaning "analysis" is from the late 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is unclear whether the process is really considered noxious versus simply annoying, so this assay is a test of mechanical nociception or simply mechanical sensibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary advantage of tail withdrawal assays to other forms of thermal nociception testing, such as the hot-plate test or Hargreaves test, is the relative stability of results with repeated observations. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Moreover, binding assays have been useful in examining the effects of drugs and disease on neurotransmitter receptors, and the procedure has been adapted for use as a simple and sensitive analytical method for measuring the concentration of neurotransmitters and drugs. (springer.com)
  • I want to make a stock solution of 1.0mM (or greater) and use it at a final concentration of 0.8mM in the assay. (bio.net)
  • protein
  • Within the field of molecular biology , a protein-fragment complementation assay , or PCA, is a method for the identification and quantification of protein-protein interactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantify the interaction between a molecule and a protein in real time, live cell assays. (promega.com)
  • 1955
  • Coinage operations were suspended in March 1955, but the plant continued to operate as an Assay Office. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragment
  • The HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR Assay (HELP Assay) is one of several techniques used for determining whether DNA has been methylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • However this convenience makes the MTS assay susceptible to colormetric interference as the intermittent steps in the MTT assay remove traces of coloured compounds, whilst these remain in the microtitre plate in the one-step MTS assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Basically, if you have more than a few assays to do and don't need to culture cells on the filter, I would go with Neuroprobe. (bio.net)
  • A majority of endothelial cell assays utilize human umbilical vein endothelial cells or bovine aortic endothelial cells - not because these types of cells are good representatives of vascular conditions in vivo , but primarily because they are relatively easy to harvest from large blood vessels. (news-medical.net)
  • A viability assay is an assay to determine the ability of organs, cells or tissues to maintain or recover viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Red blood cells have been assayed in terms of deformability, osmotic fragility, hemolysis, ATP level, and hemoglobin content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resazurin Trypan Blue, a living-cell exclusion dye (dye only crosses cell membranes of dead cells) TUNEL assay Cytotoxicity Vital stain Pegg DE (1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this technique can provide accurate results, the assay is time-consuming to set up and analyze and can only provide data on tumor cells that can grow in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Cell-killing Particle assays, the surviving fraction of cells is used to approximate the Poisson Distribution of virus particles amongst cells and therefore determine the number of CKPs encountered by each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Labelled (e.g. fluorochromes) cells are also used, in some assays cells get labelled during transmigration the filter. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform the MiCK assay, the oncologist will send a sample of the specimen (the type of the specimen depends on the type of the cancer) to DiaTech Oncology which will isolate and purify the tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • WSTs (water-soluble tetrazolium salts) are a series of other water-soluble dyes for MTT assays, developed to give different absorption spectra of the formed formazans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is different from the more commonly used DNA footprinting assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • measure
  • These assays measure the existence of pain through behaviors such as withdrawal, licking, immobility, and vocalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • Additionally, as described before, this assay produces a response in two discrete stages, allowing researchers to model both acute and tonic pain using a single noxious chemical. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • The ATPase assay is designed to indicate the nature of the interaction between the compound and the transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data
  • Data from metabolic screening assays allow customers to identify metabolic liabilities early on and focus on the improvement of drug candidates through structure activity relationships. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • results
  • Precautions are needed to ensure accuracy when using this assay and there are strong arguments for confirming MTS results using qualitative observations under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • One significant limitation of thermal assays lies in the specificity and validity of results in animals as models of human pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray Fluorescence assay is not as accurate as fire-assay but dependent on the spectrometer used, can achieve results of within 1 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The development of angiogenesis assays was a pivotal step in the discovery of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules. (news-medical.net)
  • Those assays that are very highly commercially demanded have been well investigated in research and development sectors of professional industries, undergone generations of development and sophistication, and become copyrighted intellectual properties via highly competitive process patenting. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • Where required to be hallmarked, semi-finished precious metal items of art or jewelry pass through the official testing channels where they are analyzed or assayed for precious metal content. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • includes
  • Thymidine Incorporation Assay BrdU offered by a company Thermo Fisher Scientific includes a nucleoside analog that is identified during active DNA synthesis by employing immunohistochemistry. (news-medical.net)