• ELISA
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µ g/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). (hindawi.com)
  • Our ELISA Kit assays are dynamic research tools and sometimes they may be updated and improved. (mybiosource.com)
  • MBS734515 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Myeloid Progenitor Inhibitory Factor 1 (MPIF-1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • cytotoxic T lymphocyt
  • 5% virtually pathognomonic for ALPS Mild elevations also found in other autoimmune diseases Thought to be cytotoxic T lymphocytes that have lost CD8 expression Unknown if driver of disease or epiphenomenon May be falsely elevated in setting of lymphopenia or falsely decreased with immunosuppressive treatment BiomarkersPolyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia Elevated serum FASL Elevated plasma IL-10 and/or IL-18 Elevated plasma or serum vitamin B12 Autoantibodies: Non-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • CD8 + T cells are the key mediators in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular bacteria, viral infections, and tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientific studies suggest that certain types of lactalbumin (whey protein) can significantly improve immune responsiveness and increase levels of glutathione systemically in animals and possesses antiviral (against viruses), anti-apoptotic (impede cell death) and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established tumors, becoming the first example of ACT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-derived TILs are generally mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with few major contaminating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 administration of normal circulating lymphocytes transduced with a retrovirus encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the MART-1 melanoma-melanocyte antigen, mediated tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • IL-7 R alpha is expressed on double negative (CD4 - CD8 - ) and CD4 + or CD8 + single positive naïve and memory T cells, but undergoes IL-7-mediated down‑regulation and shedding during antigen-driven T cell proliferation, and is absent on regulatory T cells (1, 2, 6-11). (rndsystems.com)
  • The effect of 20 g/100 g diet of lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S) and wheat (W) protein on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that they are long-lived and can quickly expand to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to their cognate antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have suggested that antigen-inexperienced memory T cells should be separated into 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • After several days, lymphocytes underwent blast transformation, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC Class I and II) differences between the two cell populations designated as Responder and Stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells were used to treat patients with relapsed and refractory CD19+ B cell malignancies, including B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • autologous
  • Earlier studies have indicated the immunomodulatory effects such as decrease in antiovalbumin titer of blood sera, autologous rosette formation of T-lymphocytes [ 12 - 14 ], lymphocyte transformation rate, and an increase in neutrophil phagocytosis rate [ 15 ] from exposure to cypermethrin in animal models. (hindawi.com)
  • 2016 - Halpert and Konduri first characterize the role of dendritic cell CTLA-4 in Th-1 immunity 2016 - A third class of immune checkpoint inhibitor, anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab), is approved for the treatment of bladder cancer 2017 - The first autologous CAR T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel also known as Kymriah is approved for the treatment of pediatric B-ALL. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic stem
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to blood cells through the process of haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the vast majority of hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and is derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of hematopoietic stem cells has evolved since HSCs were first discovered in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the use of CFSE has extended beyond the immune system, with the dye being used to monitor the proliferation of many other cell types such as smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, hematopoietic stem cells and even bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • We described for the first time the isolation and characterization of UC-WJ cells in a serum-free condition and maintenance of primitive mesenchymal phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • antibodies
  • In checkpoint therapy, antibodies bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block T-cell responses, known as immune checkpoint therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • This process indicates that, subsequent to bone marrow transplantation, symmetrical cell divisions into two daughter HSCs must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • stably
  • Erythrogenic toxin A converts a harmless, nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes to a virulent strain through lysogeny, a life cycle which is characterized by the ability of the genome to become a part of and be stably maintained in the host cell for generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFSE was originally developed as a fluorescent dye that could be used to stably label lymphocytes and track their migration within animals for many months. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Quantification of transgene copy numbers is determined on sorted cell populations by real-time PCR methodology. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Subsequently, numerous additional populations of memory T cells were discovered including tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most information is currently based on observations in the cytotoxic T cells (CD8-positive) subset, similar populations appear to exist for both the helper T cells (CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • No MLR occurred when the Responder cells came from thymectomized animals, whereas bursectomized chicken leukocytes reacted in culture demonstrating that T-cells were the major cell type in Responder cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose-dependent
  • While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1986
  • Thompson CB, Challoner PB, Neiman PE (1986) Normal and neoplastic B-cell development in the bursa of Fabricius. (springer.com)
  • exposure
  • Similarly, occupational exposure to mancozeb had shown significant increase in T-cell functional response such as mitogen-induced proliferation and a decrease in TNF-alpha [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • gene
  • Thompson CB, Humphries EH, Carlson LM, Chen C-LH, Neiman PE (1987) The effect of alterations in myc gene expression on B-cell development in the bursa of Fabricius. (springer.com)
  • Two discrete mechanisms for induction of T-cell proliferation could be distinguished by examining cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2 gene. (umich.edu)
  • Costimulation of T cells with CD3 MoAb and either CD28 MoAb or PMA, but not calcium ionophore, induced a 50-100-fold increased in IL-2 gene expression and secretion. (umich.edu)
  • IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD3 MoAb plus PMA or calcium ionophore plus PMA were completely suppressible by cyclosporine. (umich.edu)
  • In contrast, IL-2 gene expression and T-cell proliferation induced by CD28 MoAb plus PMA were unaffected by cyclosporine. (umich.edu)
  • B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example is the Saccharomyces pombe gene rad9 which arrests the cells in late S/G2 phase in the presence of DNA damage caused by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • spleen cells
  • In an experiment to determine the response linearity of TopCount with increasing cell numbers, mouse spleen cells were cultured to a level of approximately 10 6 cells/ml and stimulated with anti-CD3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mouse spleen cells were cultured to approximately 10 6 cells/ml in a 96-well cell culture plate and stimulated with increasing amounts of anti-CD3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Giardia are flagellated protozoans that cause decreased expression of brush border enzymes, morphological changes to the microvillus, and programmed cell death of small intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • CFSE is cell permeable and covalently couples, via its succinimidyl group, to intracellular molecules, notably, to intracellular lysine residues and other amine sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • As CFDA-SE, which is non-fluorescent, enters the cytoplasm of cells, intracellular esterases remove the acetate groups and convert the molecule to the fluorescent ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Originally, this assay was used to study possible donor - recipient incompatibilities for graft transplants to help predict better outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparatively, allogeneic therapies involve cells isolated and expanded from a donor separate from the patient receiving the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, researchers announced the first use of donor cells (rather than the patients' own cells) to defeat leukemia in two infants for whom other treatments had failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105 + , CD29 + , CD73 + and CD90 + in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • tissue
  • In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The three-dimensional (3D) cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Appropriate sample types may include undiluted body fluids and/or tissue homogenates, secretions such as Serum, plasma, Cell Culture Supernatants, body fluid and tissue homogenate. (mybiosource.com)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when bovine-derived UC-WJ cells was included in the culture which demonstrated the immunossupression profile typically observed among isolated mesenchymal cells from other species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Standard MLR assays were performed in humans and most other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, all cells in an individual in a given species (plant or animal) show a constant number of chromosomes, which constitute what is known as the karyotype defining this species (see also List of number of chromosomes of various organisms), although some species present a very high karyotypic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Infection of the bursa of susceptible birds results in the development of lymphomas in a series of specific stages beginning with a preneoplastic proliferation of pyroninophilic B-lymphoblasts within individual bursal follicles, a lesion termed a transformed follicle (Cooper et al. (springer.com)
  • stem cell
  • In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (UC-WJ) cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • experimental
  • Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally occurring disease and an experimental model system which has provided seminal insights into the role of the myc oncogene in B-cell neoplasia. (springer.com)
  • Experimental Cell Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in order to be sure what process or processes are producing the measured heat flow, great care must be taken in both experimental design and in the initial use of related chemical, physical and biologic assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Although FTY720 has also recently shown to possess an additional effect that increases the functional activity of Treg cells, the mechanism leading to the enhanced Treg activity after FTY720 treatment is still not clear. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • important
  • The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The cell proliferation assay is an important tool in the assessment of the immune system function and in the search for new drugs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Some proteins that contain tandemly repeated sequences play important roles in cell membrane skeleton system [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • If the format of this assay is important to you then please request the current manual or contact our technical support team with a presales inquiry before placing an order. (mybiosource.com)
  • Because endogenous (metabolically-caused) DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells, any reduced DNA repair is likely an important source of genome instability. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most important parameters, however, is to ensure that the cell population being studied has not been too heavily labelled with CFSE as such cells, although remaining viable, proliferate sub-optimally. (wikipedia.org)
  • multipotent
  • The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HSCs can replenish all blood cell types (i.e., are multipotent) and self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • clones
  • Pink JRL, Ratcliffe MJH, Vainio O (1985) Immunoglobulin-bearing stem cells for clones of B (bursa-derived) lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Thus, although this population as a whole is abundant within the peripheral circulation, individual virtual memory T cell clones reside at relatively low frequencies. (wikipedia.org)