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  • cytotoxic T lymphocyt
  • 5% virtually pathognomonic for ALPS Mild elevations also found in other autoimmune diseases Thought to be cytotoxic T lymphocytes that have lost CD8 expression Unknown if driver of disease or epiphenomenon May be falsely elevated in setting of lymphopenia or falsely decreased with immunosuppressive treatment BiomarkersPolyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia Elevated serum FASL Elevated plasma IL-10 and/or IL-18 Elevated plasma or serum vitamin B12 Autoantibodies: Non-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • A lymphocyte stimulation assay was performed in another experiment on TopCount. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • We report that NFAT2 is phosphorylated and inactive in the cytoplasm of naive CD8 + T cells, and upon TCR stimulation, it is dephosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • 112(9) :1747-55 (1982) The effect of graded amounts of dietary laetalbumin (L) and casein (C) hydrolyzates on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN and DBA/2 strain mice has been investigated by measuring both the specific humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the nonspecific splenic cell responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide after stimulation with Mycobacteriurn bovis, strain BCG. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • IL-7 R alpha is expressed on double negative (CD4 - CD8 - ) and CD4 + or CD8 + single positive naïve and memory T cells, but undergoes IL-7-mediated down‑regulation and shedding during antigen-driven T cell proliferation, and is absent on regulatory T cells (1, 2, 6-11). (rndsystems.com)
  • We hypothesize that these dichotomous effects of restraint would be reflected in changes in LC trafficking from the epidermis or alteration of their antigen presenting capabilities to T cells in the draining lymph nodes. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to conventional CD8 + T cells, there are also several subsets of CD8 + T cells that acquire functions as a result of their maturation process rather than through antigen activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nov;115(11) :1403-8 (1985) The effect of 20 g/100 g diet of lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S) and wheat (W) protein on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single unifying theme for all memory T cell subtypes is that they are long-lived and can quickly expand to large numbers of effector T cells upon re-exposure to their cognate antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have suggested that antigen-inexperienced memory T cells should be separated into 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • After several days, lymphocytes underwent blast transformation, DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC Class I and II) differences between the two cell populations designated as Responder and Stimulator cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 administration of normal circulating lymphocytes transduced with a retrovirus encoding a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognized the MART-1 melanoma-melanocyte antigen, mediated tumor regression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen CD19 appears only on B cells, which go awry in lymphoma and leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells were used to treat patients with relapsed and refractory CD19+ B cell malignancies, including B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) harboring rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with CD19 CAR-T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • CD8 + T cells are the key mediators in cell-mediated immunity against intracellular bacteria, viral infections, and tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientific studies suggest that certain types of lactalbumin (whey protein) can significantly improve immune responsiveness and increase levels of glutathione systemically in animals and possesses antiviral (against viruses), anti-apoptotic (impede cell death) and anti-tumor (against cancers or tumors) activities in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established tumors, becoming the first example of ACT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes infiltrating the stroma of growing, transplantable tumors provided a concentrated source of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and could stimulate regression of established lung and liver tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-derived TILs are generally mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with few major contaminating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µ g/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). (hindawi.com)
  • autologous
  • Earlier studies have indicated the immunomodulatory effects such as decrease in antiovalbumin titer of blood sera, autologous rosette formation of T-lymphocytes [ 12 - 14 ], lymphocyte transformation rate, and an increase in neutrophil phagocytosis rate [ 15 ] from exposure to cypermethrin in animal models. (hindawi.com)
  • The therapeutic potential of grafted stem cells can only be translated to clinical use if an ethically acceptable source of autologous stem cells is available, and if control of self renewal and fate decisions that program stem cell maturation into specific cell types is achieved. (google.com)
  • 2016 - Halpert and Konduri first characterize the role of dendritic cell CTLA-4 in Th-1 immunity 2016 - A third class of immune checkpoint inhibitor, anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab), is approved for the treatment of bladder cancer 2017 - The first autologous CAR T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel also known as Kymriah is approved for the treatment of pediatric B-ALL. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, human TILs from resected melanomas were found to contain cells that could recognize autologous tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Based on the size of spheroids (283,07 μm ± 43,10 μm) we found that three weeks of culture was the best period to growth the UC-WJ cells on 3D dimension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alamarBlue® Assay incorporates a fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator based on detection of metabolic activity. (cellomaticsbio.com)
  • Specifically, the system incorporates an oxidation-reduction (REDOX) indicator that both fluoresces and changes color in response to chemical reduction of growth medium resulting from cell growth. (cellomaticsbio.com)
  • Cell migration is induced by various agents including growth factors, chemokines and involves a complex machinery of cell signaling pathways. (cellomaticsbio.com)
  • B-cell growth factor 1, 12kDa, also known as BCGF1, is a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological specimens containing a growth medium, appearance over time of a detectable and rising heat flow signal is a simple general indicator of the presence of some type of replicating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusterin can be stained to help distinguish FDCS and is involved in the many important cancer hallmarks including resistance to cell death and evading growth suppressors. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic stem
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to blood cells through the process of haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the vast majority of hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and is derived from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of hematopoietic stem cells has evolved since HSCs were first discovered in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the use of CFSE has extended beyond the immune system, with the dye being used to monitor the proliferation of many other cell types such as smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, hematopoietic stem cells and even bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • We described for the first time the isolation and characterization of UC-WJ cells in a serum-free condition and maintenance of primitive mesenchymal phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • macrophage
  • Here, we assessed the nonenzymatic role of DPP4 in regulating dendritic cell (DC)/macrophage-mediated adipose inflammation in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both obese humans and rodents demonstrated increased levels of DPP4 expression in DC/macrophage cell populations from visceral adipose tissue (VAT). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They activate macrophage and serve as mediators of cell-mediated immune responses, such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and promote tumoricidal activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • antibodies
  • In checkpoint therapy, antibodies bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block T-cell responses, known as immune checkpoint therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1986
  • Thompson CB, Challoner PB, Neiman PE (1986) Normal and neoplastic B-cell development in the bursa of Fabricius. (springer.com)
  • stably
  • Erythrogenic toxin A converts a harmless, nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes to a virulent strain through lysogeny, a life cycle which is characterized by the ability of the genome to become a part of and be stably maintained in the host cell for generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFSE was originally developed as a fluorescent dye that could be used to stably label lymphocytes and track their migration within animals for many months. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The cells are most commonly derived from the immune system with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In addition to preservation of glucose homeostasis by its enzymatic activity, DPP4 may have broad functional roles in other processes as evidenced by its widespread expression in other cell types ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Similarly, occupational exposure to mancozeb had shown significant increase in T-cell functional response such as mitogen-induced proliferation and a decrease in TNF-alpha [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells capable of generating CNS glia can promote functional recovery after trauma to the spinal cord, and have potential for repair in demyelinating and dysmyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (google.com)
  • We have expertise in designing, developing, performing and analysing functional cell-based assays using different cell culture models including well-established cell lines and primary cells. (cellomaticsbio.com)
  • dose-dependent
  • While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (frontiersin.org)
  • markers
  • Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105 + , CD29 + , CD73 + and CD90 + in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Historically, memory T cells were thought to belong to either the effector or central memory subtypes, each with their own distinguishing set of cell surface markers (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are best visualized with immunostaining using the FDC markers CD21, CD35, R4/23, clusterin, and KiM4p. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell
  • In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (UC-WJ) cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Subsequently, numerous additional populations of memory T cells were discovered including tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells, stem memory TSCM cells, and virtual memory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most information is currently based on observations in the cytotoxic T cells (CD8-positive) subset, similar populations appear to exist for both the helper T cells (CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Put simply, it is mixing populations of lymphocytes together, and measuring the reaction that occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • No MLR occurred when the Responder cells came from thymectomized animals, whereas bursectomized chicken leukocytes reacted in culture demonstrating that T-cells were the major cell type in Responder cell populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulator cell populations that also contain T-cells (Two way mixed lymphocyte reaction) will replicate in the presence of the Responder cells, therefore for a One way mixed lymphocyte reaction, stimulator cells are prevented from replicating by irradiation or treatment with mitomycin C, a DNA crosslinker to prevent cell replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • spleen cells
  • In an experiment to determine the response linearity of TopCount with increasing cell numbers, mouse spleen cells were cultured to a level of approximately 10 6 cells/ml and stimulated with anti-CD3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Mouse spleen cells were cultured to approximately 10 6 cells/ml in a 96-well cell culture plate and stimulated with increasing amounts of anti-CD3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Giardia are flagellated protozoans that cause decreased expression of brush border enzymes, morphological changes to the microvillus, and programmed cell death of small intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Originally, this assay was used to study possible donor - recipient incompatibilities for graft transplants to help predict better outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparatively, allogeneic therapies involve cells isolated and expanded from a donor separate from the patient receiving the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, researchers announced the first use of donor cells (rather than the patients' own cells) to defeat leukemia in two infants for whom other treatments had failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • This process indicates that, subsequent to bone marrow transplantation, symmetrical cell divisions into two daughter HSCs must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) is a test used by pharmaceutical and biotech organizations to show the safety of a drug or implantable material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this covalent coupling reaction fluorescent CFSE can be retained within cells for extremely long periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Infection of the bursa of susceptible birds results in the development of lymphomas in a series of specific stages beginning with a preneoplastic proliferation of pyroninophilic B-lymphoblasts within individual bursal follicles, a lesion termed a transformed follicle (Cooper et al. (springer.com)
  • glial cells
  • The present invention provides methods and compositions for the production of glial cells and oligodendrocytes from placenta stem cells. (google.com)
  • The present invention provides methods and compositions for the production of glial cells and oligodendrocytes from placenta-derived stem cells (referred to hereafter as PDSCs). (google.com)
  • Liquid Scintillation
  • The labeled DNA is usually captured with a cell harvester on glass fiber filter disks, which are then placed in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) vials for counting. (bio-medicine.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • Although no significant direct cytotoxic effects on the gastric cells or bactericidal effects on H. pylori were found, cinnamon extract was observed to have high and strong inhibitory activity on IL-8 at 50 and 100 mcg/mL, respectively, in H. pylori-infected gastric cells. (drugs.com)
  • Moreover, there are two antigenic epitopes (CypB84-92 and CypB91-99) recognized by HLA-A24-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes which could be used as cancer vaccines, and in fact, were used to treat lung cancer in a clinical trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • The ALS assay has been validated from the measurement of total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG production under a series of tissue tradition conditions (PBMC inoculation concentration, incubation time, and blood storage time). (dansukyoshitsu-park.com)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma in situ is proliferation of cancer cells within the epithelial tissue without invasion of the surrounding tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grading focuses on the appearance of the breast cancer cells compared to the appearance of normal breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also associated with viral infections.In eukaryotes, cyclophilins localize ubiquitously to many cell and tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial
  • The retina is protected by the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) which is composed of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (hindawi.com)
  • Receptor
  • Transforming growth factor-ß regulates steady state PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA levels and PTHrP binding in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. (dentisty.org)
  • In TNF-treated cells, TNFR1, TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), Fas-associated death domain protein, and receptor-interacting protein kinase proteins form the signaling complex via modular interaction within their C-terminal death domains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Breast cancer cells may or may not have many different types of receptors, the three most important in the present classification being: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion
  • however, transfection with siRNA targeting P2X7R significantly reduced T. gondii -induced IL-1β secretion and substantially increased T. gondii proliferation, which is mediated by decreased protein expression levels of NLRP3, cleaved Casp-1 and ASC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • germ
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • A de novo mutation is an alteration in a gene caused by the result of a mutation in a germ cell (egg or sperm) or in the fertilized egg itself, rather than having been inherited from a carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Selective ablation of PR-A in a mouse model, resulting in exclusive production of PR-B, unexpectedly revealed that PR-B contributes to, rather than inhibits, epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • HIV-1 Tat protein is released from HIV-infected cells and is found circulating in the blood of HIV-1-infected patients [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The mRNA and protein levels of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 (TAL1) and B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) were both upregulated after 3 days of ATO and Nilotinib treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In confirmatory pull-down assays, binding was not shared with family members syndecan-2 or syndecan-4, indicating that the protein core (and not the negatively charged heparan sulfate side-chains) was the main site of binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can bind to cells derived from T- and B-lymphocytes, and may regulate cyclosporine A-mediated immunosuppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • In clinical chemistry it has been suggested as a proliferation marker for prognosis, verification of diagnosis, control of treatment (particularly as a companion diagnostic) and follow-up of malignant disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Results showed that mice immunized with a single-epitope PDDV elicited either Tc, Th, or B cell responses, respectively, and mice immunized with either the T3- or B3- single-epitope PDDV formulation were partially protected against infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Balanced (Bala) HSCs repopulate peripheral white blood cells in the same ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells as seen in unmanipulated mice (on average about 15% myeloid and 85% lymphoid cells, or 3 ≤ ρ ≤ 10). (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to divide repeatedly and form the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination-based method.g. in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with donor DNA, only 1 in a million DNA molecules was incorporated at the desired position. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Advancing infection is accompanied by further CD4+ T-lymphocyte destruction and worsening of the immune status. (hindawi.com)
  • As the HIV infection progresses, a loss of CD4+ memory cells accompanied by an inability to activate and afterwards replicate new CD4+ cells is observed. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV infection and consequent activation of immune system cells remain the most common cause of ocular damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on our flow cytometric in situ hybridization analysis that revealed EBV infection of only B lymphocytes, we decided to administer rituximab to control the abnormal EBV infection. (paperity.org)
  • Further, directly blunting host cell activation might have clinical benefits in HIV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection of FHs 74 Int cells by T. gondii triggered significant time- and dose-dependent IL-1β production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microscopy
  • Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. (jove.com)
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • dendritic
  • To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several studies of the use of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines to attempt to treat measurable metastatic tumor deposits have been unsuccessful. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance through the induction/activation of regulatory T cells (Treg). (jimmunol.org)
  • proteins
  • Biotinylated cell surface proteins from a lacritin-responsive cell were incubated with lacritin under conditions of physiological salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cardiac myogenic cells, cyclophilins have been observed to be activated by heat shock and hypoxia-reoxygenation as well as complex with heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins no longer needed after the cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Immature DC treated with VIP or PACAP up-regulate CD86 expression, stimulate T cell proliferation and promote Th2-type responses while inhibiting the Th1-type proinflammatory response ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • Beyond unicellular organisms) Telomerase is active in normal stem cells and most cancer cells, but is normally absent from, or at very low levels in, most somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly especially in male sperm cells[citation needed] but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the great majority of cases somatic cells do not express telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that X-inactivation is reversed in female germline cells, so that all new oocytes receive an active X. Regardless of which X is inactivated in her somatic cells, a female will have a 50% chance of passing on the disease to any male children. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Effects of hormones and cytokines on stimulation of adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium concentration in human and canine periodontal ligament cells. (dentisty.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can invade and replicate in all nucleated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • inhibition
  • This effect is not related to TNF-α inhibition since potent TNF-α inhibitors such as rolipram and pentoxifylline did not inhibit myeloma cell growth nor angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • stem
  • They have been a classical subject of study due to their amazing regenerative ability, which relies on the existence of adult totipotent stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Nowadays they are an emerging model system in the field of developmental, regenerative, and stem cell biology. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it has been in the last years that planarians have become an essential model in the field of regeneration and stem cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The reason is the development of genomic tools to analyse its regeneration process from a molecular perspective and the demonstration that the feature underlying its regeneration potential is the existence of a unique population of adult totipotent stem cells, known as neoblasts [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cell self-renewal is thought to occur in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow, and it is reasonable to assume that key signals present in this niche will be important in self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell Information. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • A clinical study subsequently confirmed that an intranodal DC injection was more likely to induce peptide-specific T-cell responses than intradermal or intravenous injections ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously we developed partially protective, single Th- and B cell-epitope-based peptide-DNA dual vaccines (PDDV) (T3-PDDV and B3-PDDV, respectively) capable of eliciting immune responses against the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6 kDa tegument antigen (Sj22.6) and a 62 kDa fragment of myosin (Sj62), respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, microgravity has been shown to alter the structure of cells, as well as their apoptotic and mitotic responses [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tumor cells
  • A tumor vaccine consisting of irradiated autologous tumor cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been used in phase III trials to treat patients after resection of primary colon cancer ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cells release enzyme to the circulation, probably in connection with the disruption of dead or dying tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is also recognized as a mechanism for virus-infected cells to escape from the host immune system and establish the latent state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • Cells were isolated from the bone marrow of CML-BC patients and were treated with 1 μM ATO and 5 nM nilotinib, either alone or in combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process indicates that, subsequent to bone marrow transplantation, symmetrical cell divisions into two daughter HSCs must occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical assays showed that the +331G/A polymorphism increases transcription of the PR gene, favoring production of hPR-B in an Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Cells have receptors on their surface and in their cytoplasm and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon it was shown that TK1 is present in the cytoplasm only in anticipation of cell division (cell cycle-dependent) whereas TK2 which is located in mitochondria is cell cycle-independent. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • In cancer, the cells that would normally line up in an orderly way to make up the milk ducts become disorganized. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are not normally present in the cells and are downregulated and degraded afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Transfection with siRNA targeting NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 (Casp-1) or ASC significantly reduced T. gondii -induced IL-1β production, whereas T. gondii proliferation was markedly increased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • production
  • Patients exhibit an increase in the production of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • T-lymphocyte turnover is promoted by the production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , all of which promote HIV replication [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)