• East Asians
  • Rushton argues that race is a valid biological concept and that racial differences frequently arrange in a continuum across 60 different behavioral and anatomical variables, with "Mongoloids" (East Asians) at one end of the continuum, "Negroids" (Sub-Saharan Africans) at the opposite extreme, and "Caucasoids" (Europeans, Middle Easterners and North Africans) in the middle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rushton's book is focused on what he considers the three broadest racial groups, and does not address other populations such as South East Asians and Australian aboriginals. (wikipedia.org)
  • He writes in particular, "Whites and East Asians have wider hips than Blacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high number of Indians in South Africa, in official documentation the designation "Indian" is used to refer to both South- and East-Asians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite there being a strong presence of East Asians in the United Kingdom there are considerably more South Asians, for example the 2001 Census recorded 1.05 million people of Indian origin and 247,000 of Chinese origin in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1923, the federal government passed the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, which banned all Chinese immigration, and led to immigration restrictions for all East Asians. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that though these individuals could be classified very accurately to continental clusters, there was a significant degree of genetic overlap on the individual level, to the extent that, using 377 loci, individual Europeans were about 38% of the time more genetically similar to East Asians than to other Europeans. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively.Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival.This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, the Semai are closer to Northeast Asian populations which consistently show high frequencies of haplotype A. (nih.gov)
  • In countries like USA, Brazil, UK or China which are characterized by strong population substructure national reference databases are often built on basis of a historical concept of ethnic affiliation, e.g. the US population is sub-structured in a Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian and Native American populations or UK differentiates English, Afro-Caribbean, Indo-Pakistani and Chinese. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, Southeast Asia, or South Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long and Kittles' objection is also methodological: according to them the FST is based on a faulty underlying assumptions that all populations contain equally genetic diverse members and that continental groups diverged at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarich and Miele have also argued that estimates of genetic difference between individuals of different populations understate differences between groups because they fail to take into account human diploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In everyday life, many societies classify populations into groups based on phenotypical traits and impressions of probable geographic ancestry and cultural identity-these are the groups usually called "races" in countries like the United States, Brazil, and South Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because all populations are genetically diverse, and because there is a complex relation between ancestry, genetic makeup and phenotype, and because racial categories are based on subjective evaluations of the traits, there is no specific gene that can be used to determine a person's race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical practitioners also sometimes argue that racial categories can be used successfully as proxies to assess risk of those different heritable illnesses that occur with different frequencies among populations of different geographic ancestries. (wikipedia.org)
  • defines
  • The YHRD defines six continental Metapopulations following the United Nations classification of geographical regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, Oceania. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whites
  • The first test showing differences in IQ test results between different population groups in the US was the tests of United States Army recruits in World War I. In the 1920s groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that this demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon whites due to innate biological differences, using this as an argument for policies of racial segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is much higher than the percentile of non-Hispanic Whites, proving that Asian Americans suffer from a tremendous wealth gap when compared among each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although once you factor country of origin and the data of each specific sub group of Asian you'll find many of these sub groups have average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average and non-Hispanic Whites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indians
  • In parts of anglophone Africa, especially East Africa and in parts of the Caribbean, the term "Asian" is more commonly associated with people of South Asian origin, particularly Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphism
  • The distribution of no single polymorphism was significantly different between schizophrenia and control groups at a p-value less than 0.05 (Fisher's exact test for each variant and t-test for aggregated seven variants, Table 3). (nih.gov)
  • Allergic
  • Suboptimal vitamin D status in a population-based study of Asian children: prevalence and relation to allergic diseases and atopy. (nih.gov)
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in a population sample of Asian children and to investigate the relationship of vitamin D status with allergic diseases and atopy. (nih.gov)
  • Our results provides epidemiological evidence against the association of vitamin D status with various allergic diseases and atopy in Asian children. (nih.gov)
  • formal
  • In less formal contexts, the term Asian often does not include South Asian people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic Markers
  • It is possible to statistically correlate genetic markers with individual geographic ancestry, and to use the genetic markers to hypothesize ancestral genetic clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Census Bureau
  • In 2014, data released by the United States Census Bureau revealed that five Asian American ethnic groups are in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income in all of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the US Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestral
  • A leading method of analysis uses mathematical cluster analysis of the degree of similarity of genetic data between individuals and groups in order to infer population structures and assign individuals to hypothesized ancestral groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • linguistic
  • Currently the YHRD database recognizes four separate "metapopulation" structures: national, continental, linguistic/ethnic and phylogenetic affiliation with several categories within. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Metapopulation structure built on basis of "ethnicity/linguistic affiliation" takes to a larger extent the ancestry of sampled individuals into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ancestry" is a term collating historical, cultural, geographical and linguistic categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to endogamy within kin groups and lineages or national, cultural or linguistic boundaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • This variation is usually calculated using Sewall Wright's fixation index (FST), which is an estimate of between to within group variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis enables scientists to estimate the geographic ancestry of a person by using ancestry-informative markers, and by inference the probable racial category into which they will be classified in a given society. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.02
  • This is consistent with the negative results from the logistic regression analysis of the risk-index score, which found a non-significant (p = 0.783) and slightly negative (β = -0.02) effect of increments in the risk-index on likelihood of being in the schizophrenia group. (nih.gov)
  • among
  • Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants.Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes.These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST) of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU), and Han Chinese (CHB) + Japanese (JPT). (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1-3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, the average risk-index score in the schizophrenia group (6.5+/-1.57) was slightly lower than among controls (6.6+/-1.39). (nih.gov)
  • Often referred by the Canadian media as "model minorities", Asian Canadians are among the educated and socioeconomically affluent groups in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wu's variant only applies the Multiregional hypothesis to the East Asian fossil record which is popular among Chinese scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Edwards (2003) claims, "It is not true, as Nature claimed, that 'two random individuals from any one group are almost as different as any two random individuals from the entire world'" and Risch et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • origins
  • After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s-60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • Human genetic clustering is the degree to which human genetic variation can be partitioned into a small number of groups or clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of genetic clustering examines the degree to which regional groups differ genetically, the categorization of individuals into clusters, and what can be learned about human ancestry from this data. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Low serum 25(OH)D levels are remarkably common in this population sample of Asian children, suggesting that millions of children living in Taiwan may have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which should be a matter of public health concern. (nih.gov)
  • Today, Asian Canadians form a significant minority within the population, and over 5 million Asians call Canada their home. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese
  • In the current study, we aimed to determine if genetic variants strongly suggested by SZGene are associated with risk of schizophrenia in our case-control samples of Japanese ancestry. (nih.gov)
  • Congress
  • During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), York served as the temporary capital of the Continental Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • In recent decades, a large number of people have come to Canada from India and other South Asian countries. (wikipedia.org)