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  • graft
  • Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many variations in terminology, in which one or more of "artery", "bypass" or "graft" is left out. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAGS (coronary artery graft surgery, pronounced phonetically) should not be confused with coronary angiography (CAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • In medicine, vein graft failure (VGF) is a condition in which vein grafts, which are used as alternative conduits in bypass surgeries (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some structural changes of intima thickening and vein wall remodeling are necessary for vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progressive atherosclerosis is the primarily cause of late vein graft failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vein graft atherosclerotic lesions are more diffuse and concentric, yet less calcified, compared to native atherosclerotic lesions, and are more susceptible to thrombosis formation and rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique shown to improve vein graft patency and less development of intimal hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although, EVH has been associated with higher risk of vein graft stenosis and occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Providing the vein with external support prior to grafting has shown to reduce intimal hyperplasia formation and improve the hemodynamics within the graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • axillary artery
  • It originates from the axillary artery and follows the lower border of the Pectoralis minor muscle to the side of the chest, supplies the Serratus anterior muscle and the Pectoralis major muscle, and sends branches across the axilla to the axillary lymph nodes and Subscapularis muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • grafts
  • For example, the presence of obstructing lesions in an artery may be treated by the use of vascular replacements such as bypass grafts. (google.com)
  • VGF may be identified in asymptomatic patients, but can also produce symptoms of ischemia, depending on the area of the supplied territory of the heart, and the function of native arteries and other grafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solutions in which vein grafts are stored after harvesting also play an important role. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerves
  • The No-touch technique is where the vein is harvested with the surrounding tissues, keeping the vasa vasorum and the nerves in the adventitia intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opposite the heads of the ribs, the sympathetic trunk passes downward in front of them, and the splanchnic nerves also descend in front by the lower arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory supply is from the 7-12 thoracic nerves The sternalis muscle may be a variant form of the pectoralis major or the rectus abdominis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Prior to the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial revascularization strategies fell into three categories: extracardiac procedures, cardiac operations on noncoronary artery structures, and direct coronary artery surgery. (springer.com)
  • A single obstruction of the left main coronary artery is associated with a higher risk for a cardiac death and usually receives a double bypass. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial
  • Arteriosclerosis is characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of the arterial wall, most often resulting in a generalized narrowing in the affected coronary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grafting exposes the vein to arterial pressure and flow that causes increased shear stress and wall tension, which further damages the endothelial layer and SMC. (wikipedia.org)
  • laterally
  • The artery winds laterally around the wrist, passing through the anatomical snuff box and between the heads of the first dorsal interosseous muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • obstruction
  • Atherosclerosis is characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris deposited into the inner layer of the wall of a large or medium-sized coronary artery, most often resulting in a partial obstruction in the affected artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left main coronary artery obstruction requires two bypasses, one to the LAD and one to the LCX. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The surgeon reviews the coronary angiogram prior to surgery and identifies the number of obstructions, the percent obstruction of each, and the suitability of the arteries beyond the obstruction(s) as targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • During the procedure, the surgeon typically incises the skin overlying the surface of the vein. (google.com)
  • Atherosclerosis
  • After 5 years the patency rate drops to 65% and at 10 years GSV patency rates are approximately 50%, with only half of the veins are atherosclerosis free. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal
  • The thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragm can be remembered by the number of letters contained in each structure: Vena Cava (8 letters) - Passes through the diaphragm at T8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also noted are the secondary effects of the enlarged breasts, such as shoulder-notching by the brassière strap from the breast weight, kyphosis (excessive, backwards curvature of the thoracic region of the spinal column), skin irritation, and skin rash affecting the breast crease (IMF). (wikipedia.org)