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  • elderly
  • Studies[citation needed] have also suggested that the carotid sinus reflex can be a contributing factor in other mechanisms of death by reducing blood pressure and heart rate, especially in the elderly or in people suffering from carotid sinus hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes
  • The carotid sinus can be oversensitive to manual stimulation, a condition known as carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome or carotid sinus syncope, in which manual stimulation causes large changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is less effective than pharmaceutical management of SVT with verapamil or adenosine though is still the preferred first line of treatment in a hemodynamically stable patient Carotid sinus reflex death is a potential etiology of sudden death in which manual stimulation of the carotid sinus allegedly causes strong glossopharyngeal nerve (Vagus nerve is for aortic arch baroreceptors) impulses leading to terminal cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Carotid sinus reflex death has been pointed out as a possible cause of death in cases of strangulation, hanging and autoerotic strangulation, but such deductions remain controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • lumen
  • 1 With excellent resolution, intravascular sonography provides cross-sectional images of both the arterial wall and lumen and identifies intimal flaps and irregularities, and the composition and extent of the atherosclerotic plaque. (ajnr.org)
  • In moyamoya, the inner layer of the carotid artery proliferates within the arterial lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • aortic arch
  • It is less effective than pharmaceutical management of SVT with verapamil or adenosine though is still the preferred first line of treatment in a hemodynamically stable patient Carotid sinus reflex death is a potential etiology of sudden death in which manual stimulation of the carotid sinus allegedly causes strong glossopharyngeal nerve (Vagus nerve is for aortic arch baroreceptors) impulses leading to terminal cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • Two branches arise from this segment: Orbitofrontal artery (medial frontal basal): Arises a small distance away from the AComm Frontopolar artery (polar frontal): Arises after the orbitofrontal, close to the curvature of A2 over the corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the internal carotid all cause a mucosal fold indent within the medial compartment, visible when viewed endoscopically. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial compartment before crossing to the lateral wall of the lateral compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • 14 , 15 High extracranial carotid artery lesions are best evaluated with intravascular sonography because they are not well visualized with conventional noninvasive sonography. (ajnr.org)
  • Strokes
  • The artery also fills with blood clots, which may cause strokes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An interim report from ICSS demonstrates no overall difference between surgery and stenting for both major strokes and death, but again did show more minor strokes (resolved within 30 days) with stents and open surgery was safer than CAS in the treatment of symptomatic carotid artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • branch
  • Higher up, it is separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the sinus nerve of Hering, which is a branch of cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct fistulas occur when the Internal Carotid artery (ICA) itself fistulizes into the Cavernous sinus whereas indirect is when a branch of the ICA or External Carotid artery (ECA) communicates with the cavernous sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Callosal marginal artery: A commonly present terminal branch of the ACA, which bifurcates from the pericallosal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • Based upon these findings, we proposed that cerebral arteries provide an anatomical pathway to facilitate efficient CSF-ISF exchange in the brain, and that arterial pulsation provides the driving force for this process. (jneurosci.org)
  • The segments are subdivided based on anatomical and microsurgical landmarks and surrounding anatomy, more than angiographic appearance of the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on anatomical variation, the callosal marginal artery may be none discrete or not be visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagus
  • At the base of the skull the glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves lie between the artery and the internal jugular vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cerebral arteries
  • CSF from the subarachnoid space moves rapidly into the brain along paravascular routes surrounding penetrating cerebral arteries, exchanging with brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and facilitating the clearance of interstitial solutes, such as amyloid β, in a pathway that we have termed the "glymphatic" system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Bridging thrombolytic treatments have been reported to be feasible and effective in recanalizing occluded cerebral arteries. (ajnr.org)
  • It ascends superiorly in the basilar sulcus ventral to the pons and divides at the ponto-mesencephalic junction into the paired posterior cerebral arteries close to the pituitary stalk. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelium
  • The plaque forms and enlarges in the inner layer of the artery, or endothelium, hence the name of the procedure which simply means removal of the endothelium of the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligation
  • When paravascular CSF-ISF exchange was evaluated in real time using in vivo two-photon and ex vivo fluorescence imaging, we observed that internal carotid artery ligation slowed the rate of paravascular CSF-ISF exchange, while dobutamine increased the rate of paravascular CSF-ISF exchange. (jneurosci.org)
  • enters
  • The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath, and enters the skull through the carotid canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the internal carotid artery enters the canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, it first ascends a short distance, then curves anteriorly and medially. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stylomastoid artery enters the stylomastoid foramen and supplies the tympanic cavity, the tympanic antrum and mastoid cells, and the semicircular canals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded and this causes engorgement of the draining veins, manifesting most dramatically as a sudden engorgement and redness of the eye of the same side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even-toed artiodactyls possess a carotid rete, responsible for heat exchange, to cool arterial blood before it enters the cranial cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • endarterectomy
  • Endarterectomy is the removal of material on the inside (end(o)-) of an artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In endarterectomy, the surgeon opens the artery and removes the plaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that the results of stents and endarterectomy were comparable. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAS is used to treat narrowing of the carotid artery in high-risk patients, when carotid endarterectomy is considered too risky. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • The authors analysed 24 consecutive patients with T occlusions of the internal. (ebscohost.com)
  • This trial showed no difference between carotid stenting and carotid surgery in average risk patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid stenting is the preferred therapy for patients who are at an increased risk with carotid surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • An estimated 0.67% of patients admitted to the hospital after major motor vehicle accidents were found to have blunt carotid injury, including intimal dissections, pseudoaneurysms, thromboses, or fistulas. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Arterial spin-labeling perfusion imaging of childhood encephalitis: correlation with seizure and clinical outcome. (amedeo.com)
  • cavernous
  • A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous sinus in the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid cavernous fistulae may form following closed or penetrating head trauma, surgical damage, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm, or in association with connective tissue disorders, vascular diseases and dural fistulas. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Effect of physical exercise on internal carotid artery blood flow after arterial reconstruction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Delta-like 4 (Dll4) is a transmembrane ligand for Notch receptors that is expressed in arterial blood vessels and sprouting endothelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • The external carotid artery (ECA), with contributions from the internal carotid artery (ICA) system, is the predominant arterial blood supply to the skin and muscles of the cheek. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes the blood leak out of the arteries, causing pressure to the brain and subsequent headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus contains numerous baroreceptors which function as a "sampling area" for many homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus can be oversensitive to manual stimulation, a condition known as carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome or carotid sinus syncope, in which manual stimulation causes large changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies[citation needed] have also suggested that the carotid sinus reflex can be a contributing factor in other mechanisms of death by reducing blood pressure and heart rate, especially in the elderly or in people suffering from carotid sinus hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rupture of the plaque can cause the formation of a blood clot in the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that they play a role in cooling the blood from the internal carotid destined for the brain during hyperthermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odd-toed perrisodactyls such as horses lack a carotid rete, but since the internal carotid artery passes through the guttural pouches, it has been discovered that the air within the pouches cools the blood during exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • sinus
  • This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the carotid bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of various nerve receptors for baroregulation (pressure regulation of the body in sync to external conditions). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The carotid sinus often has atherosclerotic plaques because of disturbed hemodynamics (low wall shear stress, flow reversal/recirculation). (wikipedia.org)
  • This classically presents as a patient who has "fainted" (actually a presyncope) on several occasions while shaving, or in some other way coming into contact with their carotid sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid sinus syndrome is a temporary loss of consciousness that sometimes accompanies convulsive seizures because of the intensity of the carotid sinus reflex when pressure builds in one or both carotid sinuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Massage of the carotid sinus, carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for differentiating supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) from ventricular tachycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid sinus reflex death has been pointed out as a possible cause of death in cases of strangulation, hanging and autoerotic strangulation, but such deductions remain controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the carotid sinus via a slap or a strike, to induce (usually temporary, but sometimes lethal) loss of consciousness is an effective self-defense technique, and is often taught in martial arts such as karate and Krav Maga. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of treatment of supraventricular tachycardia by Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemispheric
  • Wada developed the technique of transient hemispheric anesthetization through carotid amytal injection to decrease the cognitive side effects associated with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • external
  • Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. (curehunter.com)
  • Implicit in this statement is the intent to re-established both internal and external coverage, expressivity, masticatory function and aesthetic contour and quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • as a medical compendium, the Leechbook is notable for categorizing ailments and treatments as internal medicine and as external medicine, for providing herbal medical remedies, and for providing supernatural incantations (prayers), when required. (wikipedia.org)
  • elderly
  • Studies[citation needed] have also suggested that the carotid sinus reflex can be a contributing factor in other mechanisms of death by reducing blood pressure and heart rate, especially in the elderly or in people suffering from carotid sinus hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes
  • The carotid sinus can be oversensitive to manual stimulation, a condition known as carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome or carotid sinus syncope, in which manual stimulation causes large changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is less effective than pharmaceutical management of SVT with verapamil or adenosine though is still the preferred first line of treatment in a hemodynamically stable patient Carotid sinus reflex death is a potential etiology of sudden death in which manual stimulation of the carotid sinus allegedly causes strong glossopharyngeal nerve (Vagus nerve is for aortic arch baroreceptors) impulses leading to terminal cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Carotid sinus reflex death has been pointed out as a possible cause of death in cases of strangulation, hanging and autoerotic strangulation, but such deductions remain controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • right subcla
  • To supply blood to the right arm, this forces the right subclavian artery to cross the midline behind the trachea and esophagus, which may constrict these organs, although usually with no clinical symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • coronary artery
  • Not only do they have similar risk factors but, more importantly, the relationship between the atherosclerotic burden in a carotid artery and in a coronary artery is the same as between any two coronary arteries. (ndnr.com)
  • 6 Indeed, this is consistent with evidence of a cardiovascular hazard in 2 placebo-controlled trials of valdecoxib, another member of the class, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, 7 a setting of hemostatic activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is an independent predisposing factor for heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, renal disease, and peripheral arterial disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypertensive heart disease is the result of structural and functional adaptations leading to left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, CHF, abnormalities of blood flow due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and microvascular disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. (wikipedia.org)
  • vessel
  • Two-vessel occlusion (2-VO), also known as permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, is one of the most widely used animal models ( e.g ., rat) of CCH to investigate the mechanisms of neurodegenerative processes. (bio-protocol.org)
  • on this basis, a stroke is classified as being due to (1) thrombosis or embolism due to atherosclerosis of a large artery, (2) embolism of cardiac origin, (3) occlusion of a small blood vessel, (4) other determined cause, (5) undetermined cause (two possible causes, no cause identified, or incomplete investigation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Obstruction of blood flow through the affected vessel may lead to dysfunction of part of the brain supplied by the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal end of the second gives origin to the stapedial artery, a vessel which typically atrophies in humans but persists in some mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • In certain occasions where the renal arteries are too close to the aneurysm, the custom-made fenestrated graft stent is now an accepted alternative to doing open surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • atherosclerotic
  • The embolus may be of cardiac origin due to Atrial fibrillation, Patent foramen ovale or from atherosclerotic plaque of another (or the same) large artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • sinus
  • More specific tests such as implantable loop recorders, tilt table testing or carotid sinus massage may be useful in uncertain cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • that pressure on the vagus nerve causes changes to pulse rate and blood pressure and is dangerous in cases of carotid sinus hypersensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • superficial
  • It anastomoses with the superficial petrosal branch of the middle meningeal artery by a twig which enters the hiatus canalis facialis. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • The right adrenal is dorsal or dorsolateral to the CVC just cranial to the cranial mesenteric artery. (vin.com)
  • stroke
  • An embolic stroke refers to the blockage of an artery by an embolus, a traveling particle or debris in the arterial bloodstream originating elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressures
  • However, it is extremely likely that the major force driving flow in this artery is the markedly different arterial pressures in the pulmonary and systemic circulations due to the different arteriolar resistances. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • 2006), because other arterial sources of blood provide compensatory blood flow (via the circle of Willis, Figure 1) to areas that typically are supplied by the common carotid (Farkas et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2005). A study in which the two common carotid arteries were occluded at intervals of 1 week found that procedure leads to a progressive decrease in brain perfusion, and decreased mortality compared to procedures that occlude both arteries at once (Sarti et al . (bio-protocol.org)
  • Moreover, nimesulide or IP deletion augments the reduction in blood flow caused by common carotid artery ligation in wild-type mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • organs
  • The removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most experts point to deep throat slashes, abdominal and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 4, caused by mutations of the COL3A gene, leads to defective production of the collagen, type III, alpha 1 protein and causes skin fragility as well as weakness of the walls of arteries and internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood flow
  • citation needed] The vertigo due to VBI can be brought on by head turning, which could occlude the contralateral vertebral artery and result in decreased blood flow to the brain if the contralateral artery is occluded. (wikipedia.org)
  • This low pressure region allows the artery to receive (siphon) the blood flow from the pulmonary artery which is under a higher pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Endovascular procedures aim to reduce the morbidity and mortality of treating arterial disease in a patient population that is increasingly older and less fit than when major open repairs were developed and popularized. (wikipedia.org)
  • aortic
  • The aortic arches are formed sequentially within the pharyngeal arches and initially appear symmetrical on both sides of the embryo, but then undergo a significant remodelling to form the final asymmetrical structure of the great arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the external carotid buds from the horns of the aortic sac left behind by the regression of the first two arches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third aortic arch constitutes the commencement of the internal carotid artery, and is therefore named the carotid arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneurysm
  • Repair is also warranted for aneurysms that rapidly enlarge or those that have been the source of emboli (debris from the aneurysm that dislodge and travel into other arteries). (wikipedia.org)
  • external
  • Higher up, it is separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)