• As2O3
  • Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis(programmed cell death)i in certain types of cancer cells, which are normally immortal and can multiply without limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • More common, and far more important commercially, is arsenic(III) oxide (As2O3). (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prepared by reacting hydrogen fluoride, HF, with arsenic trioxide: 6HF + As2O3 → 2AsF3 + 3H2O It has a pyramidal molecular structure in the gas phase which is also present in the solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • arsenate
  • Arsenic occurs in drinking-water primarily as arsenate (As V ), although in reducing environments significant concentrations of arsenite (As III ) have also been reported. (inchem.org)
  • Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimethylarsine, produced by microbial action on arsenate-derived pigments Arsenic-containing ribose derivatives (R = several groups) A topical source of arsenic are the green pigments once popular in wallpapers, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • amount of arsenic
  • Only a minimal amount of arsenic is absorbed through the skin. (virginia.gov)
  • But today the amount of arsenic from anthropogenic sources, released into the environment as a by-product of agricultural and industrial processes, is increasing. (sgs.com)
  • evidence that arsenic
  • Although there is no good evidence that arsenic can harm pregnant women or their fetuses, studies in animals show that doses of arsenic that are large enough to cause illness in pregnant females may cause low birth weight, fetal malformations, or fetal death. (virginia.gov)
  • The evidence that arsenic may be a beneficial nutrient at trace levels below the background to which living organisms are normally exposed has been reviewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • urine
  • There are tests that can measure arsenic in your blood, urine, hair or fingernails. (in.gov)
  • A urine test is the most reliable to determine arsenic exposure that has happened within a few days. (virginia.gov)
  • Blood and urine toxicology levels of arsenic were significantly elevated 25 days after cessation of therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the study: "Two years after their treatment the patients had arsenic blood and urine levels well below safety limits, and only slightly higher than controls. (canadafreepress.com)
  • acute promyelo
  • In the 1970s Chinese researcher Zhang Tingdong and colleagues investigated the potential use of the traditionally used Chinese medicine arsenic trioxide to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenic trioxide, under the tradename Trisenox (manufacturer: Cephalon acquired by Teva), is a chemotherapeutic agent approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia that is unresponsive to "first line" agents, namely all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). (wikipedia.org)
  • arsenates
  • Inorganic arsenites (arsenic(III)) in drinking water have a much higher acute toxicity than organic arsenates (arsenic(V)). The acute minimal lethal dose of arsenic in adults is estimated to be 70 to 200 mg or 1 mg/kg/day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper arsenates, which are derived from arsenic trioxide, are used on a large scale as a wood preservative in the US and Malaysia, but such materials are banned in many parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scheele prepared a number of arsenates by the action of arsenic acid on the alkalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colourless
  • Colourless, odourless and tasteless, arsenic is commonly found in food and its raw ingredients. (sgs.com)
  • 2As2O5 + 10F2 → 4AsF5 + 5O2 2As2O3 + 10F2 → 4AsF5 + 3O2 Arsenic pentafluoride is a colourless gas and has a trigonal bipyramidal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • As2S3
  • Arsenic was in the past analyzed and assayed by this reaction, which results in the precipitation of As2S3, which is then weighed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dissolved arsenic species is the pyramidal trianion AsS3− 3: As2S3 + 6 NaSH → 2 AsS3− 3 + 3 H2S As2S3 is the anhydride of the hypothetical thioarsenous acid, As(SH)3. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinoic acid
  • The introduction of all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in the treatment of acute promyelocytic myelogenous leukemia (APML). (hindawi.com)
  • however, the introduction of all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide has brought about tremendous advancement in treatment strategies, with the majority of newly diagnosed and relapsed patients being able to be cured with these agents [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The combination therapy of arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of certain leukemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • groundwater
  • In most of these regions, the drinking-water source is groundwater, naturally contaminated from arsenic-rich geological formations. (inchem.org)
  • Keya Chaudhuri of the Indian Institute of Chemical Biology in Kolkata, and her colleagues gave rats daily doses of arsenic in their water, in levels equivalent to those found in groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal. (newscientist.com)
  • Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Fish and seafood are known to be high in arsenic, but mainly in its organic form. (sgs.com)
  • AsF5 + SF4 → SF3+ + AsF6− Arsenic pentafluoride is an extremely dangerous toxin, mainly poisoning liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • The primary regions where high concentrations of arsenic have been measured in drinking-water include large areas of Bangladesh, China and West Bengal (India) and smaller areas of Argentina, Australia, Chile, Mexico, Taiwan (China), the USA and Viet Nam. (inchem.org)
  • In some areas of Japan, Mexico, Thailand and other countries, mining, smelting and other industrial activities have contributed to elevated concentrations of arsenic in local water sources. (inchem.org)
  • Some 35 million people are believed to be exposed beyond the national standard, and 57 million are exposed to arsenic concentrations above the WHO standard of 10 parts per billion. (worldwatch.org)
  • In the US the Food and Drug Administration has been measuring total arsenic concentrations in food products since 1991, but has yet to establish a specific standard. (sgs.com)
  • pentafluoride
  • Arsenic pentafluoride forms halide complexes and is a powerful acceptor as shown by the reaction with sulfur tetrafluoride forming an ionic complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • selenium
  • The cause is believed to be due to incomplete shielding of the nucleus in the elements following the first transition series (i.e. gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and krypton) which leads to stabilisation of their 4s electrons making them less available for bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • contamination
  • In many areas where contamination of drinking-water by arsenic has been reported, current exposures have been reduced by various interventions. (inchem.org)
  • MaineHousing's Arsenic Abatement Program provides grants to eligible single-family homeowners or landlords with private well water that shows evidence of high levels of arsenic contamination. (mainehousing.org)
  • water
  • They have no smell, and most have no special taste, so you cannot tell if arsenic is present in your food, water, or air. (in.gov)
  • If you live in an area with naturally high levels of arsenic or near a hazardous waste site, you may take arsenic in through your water or from food grown in the soil. (in.gov)
  • Because arsenic is a natural part of the environment, low levels of arsenic are present in soil, water, food, and air. (in.gov)
  • Exposure of high levels of arsenic in drinking-water has been recognized for many decades in some regions of the world, notably in China, Taiwan (China) and some countries in Central and South America. (inchem.org)
  • More recently, it has been discovered that a number of other regions have drinking-water that is highly contaminated with arsenic. (inchem.org)
  • The WHO guideline recommends that levels of arsenic in drinking-water should not exceed 10 micrograms per litre. (inchem.org)
  • Informative epidemiological studies of cancer in relation to arsenic in drinking-water include ecological studies and fewer case control and cohort studies. (inchem.org)
  • In contrast, for arsenic in drinking-water, ecological studies provide important information for causal inference. (inchem.org)
  • There is extensive evidence of increased risks for urinary bladder cancer associated with arsenic in drinking-water. (inchem.org)
  • In Taiwan, the evidence is supported by case control studies and cohort studies within the exposed communities that demonstrate evidence of dose response relationships with levels of arsenic in drinking-water. (inchem.org)
  • Anyone can be exposed to arsenic since low levels of arsenic are present in soil, water, food, and air. (virginia.gov)
  • People are primarily exposed to arsenic through eating food (fish and shellfish), drinking water, or breathing air containing arsenic. (virginia.gov)
  • Drinking water contaminated with high levels of arsenic has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer. (virginia.gov)
  • If you live in an area where there are naturally high levels of arsenic in the water or soil, limit your exposure to the soil and consider using municipal or bottled water. (virginia.gov)
  • Garlic may provide some relief for millions of Bangladeshis and Indians whose drinking water is contaminated with arsenic. (newscientist.com)
  • Arsenic is a potent poison and the government has a limit on it in water but not in wine. (courant.com)
  • The feds limit arsenic in water to 0.010 milligrams per liter, or 10 parts per billion. (courant.com)
  • Arsenic exists naturally in our environment and can be found in the air we breathe, the water we drink and the ground we walk on. (sgs.com)
  • Most crops absorb arsenic from the soil and water in their environment. (sgs.com)
  • CODEX has a standard for total arsenic in various foods (fats, margarine, olive oil, vegetable oil, mineral water and salt), but the issue of organic against inorganic has not yet been addressed. (sgs.com)
  • The presence of arsenic in food and water is unavoidable, but food producers should be aware of legislation and the impact of the more toxic inorganic arsenic on raw materials and ingredients. (sgs.com)
  • Lead plaintiff Doris Charles claims that the defendants' wines contain "inorganic arsenic in amounts far in excess of what is allowed in drinking water," but do not disclose it to consumers. (courthousenews.com)
  • and whose private well water was tested within the last 12 months and indicates arsenic levels greater than 10 ug/L may be eligible for the program. (mainehousing.org)
  • Prevention is by using water that does not contain high levels of arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through drinking water, more than 200 million people globally are exposed to higher than safe levels of arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term ingestion of arsenic trioxide either in drinking water or as a medical treatment can lead to skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • doi:10.1002/9780470132326.ch36 Shakhashiri BZ, "Chemical of the Week: Arsenic", University of Wisconsin-Madison Chemistry Dept. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Higher levels of some arsenic may cause irritation of the stomach and intestines, pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. (in.gov)
  • In high levels, arsenic may cause lung cancer or even death. (in.gov)
  • Levels of arsenic in affected areas may range from tens to hundreds or even thousands of micrograms per litre, whereas in unaffected areas levels are typically only a few micrograms per litre. (inchem.org)
  • Other sources of exposure are breathing in sawdust or burning smoke from arsenic-treated wood, living near hazardous waste sites, and living in areas with naturally elevated levels of arsenic in rock. (virginia.gov)
  • Soil contains average levels of about 5,000 parts of arsenic per billion parts of soil (ppb). (virginia.gov)
  • Fish and shellfish may contain high levels of organic arsenic. (virginia.gov)
  • Tests on hair and fingernails can measure exposure to high levels of arsenic over the past 6-12 months. (virginia.gov)
  • What is the treatment for elevated arsenic levels? (virginia.gov)
  • A class action lawsuit in California claims that some of the Golden State's wines are contaminated with arsenic that far exceed federal levels. (courant.com)
  • Their diet and relatively low body weight means they are exposed to an average of two to three times the levels of inorganic arsenic ingested by adults. (sgs.com)
  • LOS ANGELES (CN) - More than two dozen cheap California wines have unsafe levels of arsenic, consumers claim in a class action in Superior Court. (courthousenews.com)
  • Institute spokeswoman Gladys Horiuchi told The Associated Press that the United States has set no maximum arsenic levels for wine, though other countries have, and California wines do not even approach those levels. (courthousenews.com)
  • Plaintiffs' attorney Brian Kabateck told The Associated Press that a Denver-based lab tested 1,306 bottles of wine, and found 83 with "excessive arsenic levels. (courthousenews.com)
  • This theory is further supported by a cross-sectional study which found elevated mean serum lipid peroxides (LPO) in the As exposed individuals which correlated with blood levels of inorganic arsenic and methylated metabolites and inversely correlated with nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) levels in whole blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazardous
  • Arsenic has been found in at least 781 of 1,300 National Priorities List sites (hazardous waste sites) identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (in.gov)
  • Amorphous
  • Amorphous arsenic triselenide is used as a chalcogenide glass for infrared optics, as it transmits light with wavelengths between 870 nm and 17.2 µm [reference needed]. (wikipedia.org)