• pathway
  • The latex of Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, has been shown to convert tyrosine into the alkaloid morphine and the bio-synthetic pathway has been established from tyrosine to morphine by using Carbon-14 radio-labelled tyrosine to trace the in-vivo synthetic route. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, and plants for the biosythesis of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosynthesis of flavonoids , probably the best characterized pathway of plant secondary metabolism, is part of the phenylpropanoid pathway that, in addition to flavonoids , leads to the formation of a wide range of phenolic compounds, such as hydroxycinnamic acids , stilbenes, lignans and lignins. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Note: Phenylalanine is a product of the shikimic acid pathway, which converts simple precursors derived from carbohydrate metabolism, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate, into the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Unlike plants and microorganisms, animals do not possess the shikimic acid pathway, and are not able to synthesize the three above-mentioned amino acids, which are therefore essential nutrients. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Therefore, it directs the flow of carbon from the shikimic acid pathway to the different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • residues
  • The central ~300 amino acids make up a catalytic core, in which all the residues necessary for catalysis are located, along with a non-covalently bound iron atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine residues may also be modified by the addition of a sulfate group, a process known as tyrosine sulfation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solved crystal structures of the catalytic domain indicate that the active site consists of an open and spacious pocket lined primarily by hydrophobic residues, though three glutamic acid residues, two histidines, and a tyrosine are also present and iron-binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • ascorbic acid
  • Research shows that ascorbic acid (also known as ascorbate or vitamin C) is effective at recycling BH3 into BH4, preventing the BH3 radical from reacting with other free radicals (superoxide and peroxynitrite specifically). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbic acid is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid during this process, although it can be recycled back to ascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • proceeds
  • Although initially an arene oxide or radical intermediate was proposed, analyses of the related tryptophan and tyrosine hydroxylases have suggested that the reaction instead proceeds through a cationic intermediate that requires Fe(IV)=O to be coordinated to a water ligand rather than a hydroxo group. (wikipedia.org)