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  • prostaglandins
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, these data suggest that in rabbit aorta, arachidonic acid-induced relaxations are mediated by an endothelium-dependent factor (or factors) that differs from the factor (or factors) released by acetylcholine. (ahajournals.org)
  • release
  • These data suggest that cPLA2α contributes to Ang II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology, most likely due to release of arachidonic acid and activation of NADPH oxidase and generation of ROS. (ahajournals.org)
  • precursor
  • Arachidonic acid may serve as an intracellular second messenger in many cell types, as well as precursor for biologically active molecules such as the eicosanoids (a family of oxygenated metabolites that may act as second messengers or as local mediators), and anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid substance). (alibris.com)
  • membrane
  • Arachidonic acid is stored within the cell membrane, and is responsible for signaling adaptive changes in the response to muscle damage and related stimuli. (steroid.com)
  • dietary
  • Those who maintain sedentary (inactive) lifestyles should not supplement with Arachidonic acid unless a dietary need has been medically identified, as deficiency in this group is uncommon. (steroid.com)
  • binds
  • Myosin's regulatory subunit MLC20 binds to both the hydrophobic and acid grooves of PP1 and MYPT1, the regulatory site on myosin phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine , phosphatidylcholine , and phosphatidylinositides ) of membranes of the body's cells , and is abundant in the brain , muscles , and liver . (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • The Nterm-phos hydrolyzes phosphate monoesters, such as lipid phosphates, to yield alcohols and phosphoric acid (reaction 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Arachidonic acid is most commonly used by bodybuilders and weight-trained athletes in sports where enhanced anaerobic (short, rapid burst) performance is required. (steroid.com)
  • amino
  • LTBR1 and LTBR2 encode for proteins with 45% amino acid identity that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two BLT2-like receptors, Blt2a and Blt2b, with 49% amino acid identity to each other and 34% and 29%, respectively, amino acid identities to human BLT2 have been cloned from Zebrafish embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter citation presents a phylogenic tree on the amino acid relateness of these two receptors as well as those from humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • little
  • NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine and nitro-L-arginine, compounds that inhibit the nitric oxide-like endothelium-derived relaxing factor, had little or no effect on arachidonic acid-induced relaxations. (ahajournals.org)
  • prostaglandins
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, these data suggest that in rabbit aorta, arachidonic acid-induced relaxations are mediated by an endothelium-dependent factor (or factors) that differs from the factor (or factors) released by acetylcholine. (ahajournals.org)
  • release
  • These data suggest that cPLA2α contributes to Ang II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology, most likely due to release of arachidonic acid and activation of NADPH oxidase and generation of ROS. (ahajournals.org)
  • metabolize arachidonic acid
  • Accordingly, the eicosanoid-receptor interaction is typically limited to a local interaction: cells, upon stimulation, metabolize arachidonic acid to an eicosanoid which then binds cognate receptors on either its parent cell (acting as an Autocrine signalling molecule) or on nearby cells (acting as a Paracrine signalling molecule) to trigger functional responses within a restricted tissue area, e.g. an inflammatory response to an invading pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Every 1% increase in plasma phospholipid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration (% of total fatty acids) is associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission in rheumatoid arthritis, according to a new Br J Nutrition study . (dsm.com)
  • Jeffery LE, Calder P, Filer A, Raza K, Buckley C, McInnes I, Taylor P, Fisher B. Plasma levels of polyunsaturated omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid are associated with anti-TNF response in rheumatoid arthritis, and inhibit the etanercept driven rise in TH17 cell differentiation in vivo. (dsm.com)
  • Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs or EpETEs) are a set of biologically active epoxides that various cell types make by metabolizing the omega 3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with certain cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • omega-3 fa
  • Geusens P, Wouters C, Nijs J, Jiang Y, Dequeker J. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritits. (dsm.com)
  • derivatives
  • Although large-scale clinical trials using dietary supplements have not yielded unequivocal results ( 3 , 4 ), individuals are advised to consume fish rich in DHA for cardiovascular health ( 5 ) and numerous dietary supplements containing derivatives of omega-3 fatty acids are widely available. (pnas.org)
  • platelet
  • Thromboxane A synthase 1 (platelet) ( THAS ) forms 12-hydroxyheptadeca-5,8,10-trienoic acid and malonic dialdehyde as a byproduct, Thromboxane A(,2 ) [ 38 ], [ 39 ] and Thromboxane B2 . (bio-rad.com)
  • molecules
  • Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). (hmdb.ca)
  • amino acid
  • Amino acid RDI's are based on the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for an adult human weighing 70 kg (154.3 pounds). (skipthepie.org)
  • In terms of their molecular biology, COX-1 and COX-2 are of similar molecular weight, approximately 70 and 72 kDa, respectively, and having 65% amino acid sequence homology and near-identical catalytic sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetylsalicylic
  • The prophylaxis composition, comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid may also provide cardiac protection and prevent cardiovascular diseases. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and (ii) a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • According to some embodiments, a method of providing cardiac protection and preventing cardiovascular disease in a patient in need thereof includes administration of a prophylaxis composition, wherein the prophylaxis composition is a single dosage form comprising at least one form of elemental magnesium and a therapeutically effective concentration of acetylsalicylic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • carbons
  • Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. (hmdb.ca)
  • cytochrome
  • Cellular cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize various polyunsaturated fatty acids to epoxide-containng products. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP4A22 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily A, polypeptide 22) also known as fatty acid omega-hydroxylase is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP4A22 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • isomers
  • Alternatively, it may rearrange non-enzymatically to a mixture of 8-cis and 8-trans isomers of 12-hydroxyeicosaheptaenoic acid plus malonyldialdehyde (see 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the same epoxygenases that accomplish these metabolic conversions also metabolize the omega-6 fatty acid, EPA, to 10 epoxide isomers, the EEQs. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Arginine has been found to stimulate the body's production of gastrin, a hormone that increases stomach acid. (oakhillhospital.com)
  • citation needed] Mead acid is found in large quantities in cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • they were found to have blood-levels of Mead acid 1263% higher than reference subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mead acid has been found to decrease osteoblastic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Medications targeted to reduce the inflammatory actions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have revolutionized treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and omega-3 fatty acids seem to play a role in this pathway . (dsm.com)
  • release
  • When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • thereby
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • known
  • Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). (hmdb.ca)
  • cells
  • The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. (hmdb.ca)
  • help
  • In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) with the help of lipases and bile secretions, which can then move into blood vessels. (hmdb.ca)
  • In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids help support joint health. (dsm.com)
  • brain
  • As the omega-3 fatty acids build up in your system with regular use, your brain and eyes will have constant protection, ensuring that they stay in proper working order into your older years. (comunicati.net)
  • As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (hmdb.ca)
  • product
  • This product is further metabolized by Thromboxane synthase to Thromboxane A2, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid, and malonyldialdehyde. (wikipedia.org)