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  • nucleic acids
  • The present invention relates to devices, systems, and methods for continuous imaging of nucleic acids. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In one embodiment, the invention herein generally relates to a device for continuously imaging nucleic acids, the device including a rotating drum in which an exterior surface of the drum includes a plurality of color sensitive pixels. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. A device for continuous imaging of nucleic acids, the device comprising: a rotating drum, wherein an exterior surface of the drum comprises a plurality of color sensitive pixels. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 , wherein the phosphate moieties are derived from phosphodiester linkages selected from the group consisting of a nucleic acid, an oligonucleotide or a biomolecule containing nucleic acids, carboxylates, phosphonates or phosphates. (google.ca)
  • Nucleic acids may be labeled by complexing the alkylating moiety of a labeling reagent into a single-stranded nucleic acid to form a complex and activating the complex to cause covalent bonding between the reagent and the nucleic acid. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to a means of labeling single-stranded nucleic acids, preferably DNA. (google.com)
  • More particularly, this invention is directed to a process for preparing labeled single-stranded nucleic acids by use of an alkylating agent containing a label moiety, where the word label is intended to include moieties which may be detected both directly and indirectly. (google.com)
  • In biomedical research and recombinant DNA technology it is often useful to have indicator probes which allow the user to detect, monitor, localize or isolate nucleic acids when present in any amount. (google.com)
  • phosphoric acid
  • Finally, deallylation as above, yielded the freebase of oseltamivir, which was converted to the desired oseltamivir phosphate by treatment with phosphoric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15. The method of claim 14 , wherein the passivating comprises a passivating agent selected from the group consisting of poly(vinyl phosphoric acid), pyrophosphate, poly(acrylic acid), poly(vinyl alcohol), polyethylene glycol comprising functionalities of poly-phosphate-, poly-carboxylate-, or poly-hydroxyl- or combinations thereof and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide). (google.ca)
  • Thus, the nomenclature extends to inorganic oxo acids and their corresponding esters: phosphoric acid and phosphate esters/organophosphates, sulfuric acid and sulfate esters/organosulfates, nitric acid and nitrate, and boric acid and borates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, triphenyl phosphate is the ester derived from phosphoric acid and phenol. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Peptides can be chemically synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetate
  • The source of the mercuric ion is mercuric acetate, and this reagent is mixed with peracetic acid in AcOH to provide the oxidizing conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called "trivial names" e.g. as formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as opposed to the IUPAC nomenclature methanoate, ethanoate, propanoate and butanoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, butyl acetate (systematically butyl ethanoate), derived from butanol and acetic acid (systematically ethanoic acid) would be written CH3CO2C4H9. (wikipedia.org)
  • solvents
  • On the contrary, absorption methods using hydrophobic organic solvents have the advantage over aqueous methods of reducing the number of purification steps necessary for obtaining pure (meth)acrylic acid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • compounds
  • Tiekink, E. R. T.: Tert-butoxysilanols as model compounds for labile key intermediates of the sol-gel process: crystal and molecular structures of (t-BuO)3SiOH and HO[(t-BuO)2SiO]2H, Appl. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (meth)acrylic acid absorption methods described use, as an absorption solvent, either water, or an organic solvent, which is usually a hydrophobic compound or a mixture of hydrophobic compounds with a much higher boiling point than that of (meth)acrylic acid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • These methods conventionally involve the successive steps of absorption, stripping, removal of light compounds, followed by final distillation of the pure acrylic acid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Disclosed are novel NO-releasing compounds which comprise a stabilized S-nitrosyl group and a free alcohol or a free thiol group. (patentgenius.com)
  • In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrophiles frequently seen in the organic syntheses are cations such as H+ and NO+, polarized neutral molecules such as HCl, alkyl halides, acyl halides, and carbonyl compounds, polarizable neutral molecules such as Cl2 and Br2, oxidizing agents such as organic peracids, chemical species that do not satisfy the octet rule such as carbenes and radicals, and some Lewis acids such as BH3 and DIBAL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhazes (854 CE - 925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, and philosopher who discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including "alcohol" by developing several chemical instruments and methods of distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • solvent
  • isobutane and/or isobutene and/or tert-butyl alcohol and/or methacrolein in the case of methacrylic acid) is oxidized by a catalytic or redox method, and the (meth)acrylic acid is recovered from the hot reaction gas mixture, by countercurrent absorption by a solvent. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The method is based on an exchange of water and a hydrophilic organic solvent, whereby a decline in solvent quality for the organic solvent causes a polymer dissolved therein to be deposited onto an aqueous core. (google.com)
  • In a preferred embodiment, microcapsules of selected drugs are formed by contacting microdroplets of an aqueous solution containing the drug with the organic solvent containing a polymer dissolved therein. (google.com)
  • silyl
  • Compared to the silyl ethers, silyl acetates are faster to hydrolyze, with the advantage that the released acetic acid is less aggressive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983, Tamao and co-workers were the first to report the successful transformation of an allyl alkoxy silyl to an allyl alcohol without an allylic shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • atom
  • 7. The compound of claim 4, wherein the heterocyclic alcohol includes at least one atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen, in at least one cyclic chain. (google.com)
  • The definition of inorganic acid ester that feature inorganic chemical elements links between alcohols and the inorganic acid - the phosphorus atom linking to three alkoxy functional groups in organophosphate - can be extended to the same elements in various combinations of covalent bonds between carbons and the central inorganic atom and carbon-oxygen bonds to central inorganic atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary (sec-, s-), and tertiary (tert-, t-), based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • labile
  • Each amino acid to be coupled to the peptide chain N-terminus must be protected on its N-terminus and side chain using appropriate protecting groups such as Boc (acid-labile) or Fmoc (base-labile), depending on the side chain and the protection strategy used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • reagent
  • Assays are performed by a capsule chemistry analytical assay method wherein fluid capsules comprising discrete aqueous segments containing either a chemiluminescent dioxetane reagent or an activating agent separated by an oil-based isolating fluid are flowed through a conduit, and subsequently reacted to produce light. (patents.com)
  • workup
  • Selective acylation with acetic anhydride (under buffered conditions, the 5-amino group is protonated owing to a considerable difference in pKa, 4.2 vs 7.9, preventing acetylation) yields the desired N-acetylated product in crystalline form upon extractive workup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent workup produced the expected alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • shikimic acid
  • Its commercial production starts from the biomolecule shikimic acid harvested from Chinese star anise with a limited worldwide supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its limited supply, searches for alternative synthetic routes preferably not requiring shikimic acid are underway and to date several such routes have been published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current production method is based on the first scalable synthesis developed by Gilead Sciences starting from naturally occurring quinic acid or shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to lower yields and the extra steps required (because of the additional dehydration), the quinic acid route was dropped in favour of the one based on shikimic acid, which received further improvements by Hoffmann-La Roche. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reported azide-free Roche synthesis of tamiflu is summarised graphically below: The synthesis commences from naturally available (−)-shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final product is obtained in high purity (99.7%) and an overall yield of 17-22% from (−)-shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roche has other routes to oseltamivir that do not involve the use of (−)-shikimic acid as a chiral pool starting material, such as a Diels-Alder route involving furan and ethyl acrylate or an isophthalic acid route, which involves catalytic hydrogenation and enzymatic desymmetrization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 the group of E.J. Corey published a novel route bypassing shikimic acid starting from butadiene and acrylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the availability of a cheap chiral building block can overcome these additional costs (e.g. shikimic acid for oseltamivir). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • R1 and R3 (as well as R2 and "Et") can be varied by the application of appropriate β-ketoesters readily made by a synthesis emanating from acid chlorides, Meldrum's acid, and the alcohol of one's choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoyl (Bz) group is common in oligonucleotide synthesis for protection of N4 in cytosine and N6 in adenine nucleic bases and is removed by treatment with a base, most often with aqueous or gaseous ammonia or methylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Butadiene 1 reacts in an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction with the esterification product of acrylic acid and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 2 catalysed by the CBS catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • CH3CH2OH(l) + O2(g) → CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) The electric current produced by this reaction is measured by a microcontroller, and displayed as an approximation of overall blood alcohol content (BAC) by the Alcosensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This avoids unwanted reaction at those groups during the peptide coupling step, which occurs between the peptide N-terminal amine and the C-terminal carboxylate of the amino acid to be coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because electrophiles accept electrons, they are Lewis acids (see acid-base reaction theories). (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction occurs in a similar way to the addition reaction but has an extra step in which the OSO3H group is replaced by an OH group, forming an alcohol: C2H4 + H2O → C2H5OH As can be seen, the H2SO4 does take part in the overall reaction, however it remains unchanged so is classified as a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or inorganic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic esters are called lactones, regardless of whether they are derived from an organic or an inorganic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • preferably
  • Preferably, the labeled nucleic acid is a single-stranded hybridization probe for detecting nucleic acid sequences capable of hybridizing with a hybridizing region of the nucleic acid. (google.com)
  • acetal
  • After the step involving the hydride is complete, the acetal is removed (by reacting it with an aqueous acid), giving back the original carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • 10. The system according to claim 6, wherein the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescent chemistry reagents comprise a saturated oxalate solution, a concentrated hydrogen peroxide solution, and at least one fluorescent dye attached to the nucleic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • yield
  • With the librated methanesulfonic acid, the aziridine opens cleanly to yield a diamine that immediately undergoes a second transimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • relates
  • In addition, this invention relates to a means for detecting the presence of a nucleic acid sequence such as a gene or mRNA using a labeled single-stranded hybridization probe containing a complementary nucleic acid sequence. (google.com)
  • Subsequent
  • The N-terminal protecting group is removed in the subsequent step, revealing a new N-terminal amine onto which a further amino acid may be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUPAC
  • Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate. (wikipedia.org)
  • selected from the group
  • 6. The compound of claim 4, wherein the carbocyclic alcohol is selected from the group consisting of cyclohexanol, cyclopentanol, cyclooctanol, cyclodecanol, cyclododecanol, exonorborneol, and derivatives of any of the foregoing which contain at least one aliphatic or aromatic carbon branch. (google.com)
  • esters
  • Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esters can also be derived from an inorganic acid and an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • distillation
  • By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • 2. The compound of claim 1 wherein the compound has at least one free alcohol group and has a molecular weight greater than 225 atomic mass units. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. The compound of claim 3 wherein the free alcohol group(s) and the S-nitrosyl group(s) are each bonded to a methylene group. (patentgenius.com)
  • Benzoyl (Bz) - Removed by acid or base, more stable than Ac group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • Because of their greater acidity, silanols can be fully deprotonated in aqueous solution, especially the arylsilanols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern practice is to add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there was alcohol in the breath sample, the solution changed color. (wikipedia.org)
  • invention
  • The invention of the Breathalyzer provided law enforcement with a non-invasive test providing immediate results to determine an individual's breath alcohol concentration at the time of testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic acids
  • A photocatalytic direct decarboxylative hydroxylation of carboxylic acids enables the conversion of various readily available carboxylic acids to alcohols in good yields under extremely mild reaction conditions using molecular oxygen as a green oxidant and visible light as a driving force. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • A simple and practical protocol for the reduction of carboxylic acids via in situ formation of hydroxybenzotriazole esters followed by reaction with sodium borohydride gives the corresponding alcohols. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called "trivial names" e.g. as formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as opposed to the IUPAC nomenclature methanoate, ethanoate, propanoate and butanoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydride
  • Selective acylation with acetic anhydride (under buffered conditions, the 5-amino group is protonated owing to a considerable difference in pKa, 4.2 vs 7.9, preventing acetylation) yields the desired N-acetylated product in crystalline form upon extractive workup. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • A simple and convenient procedure enables the reductive alkylation of primary and secondary amines and N,N-dimethylation of amino acids using sodium borohydride as reducing agent in 2,2,2- trifluoroethanol without use of a catalyst or any other additive. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a 19 amino acid neuropeptide produced in the lateral hypothalamic area and'zona incerta. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Peptides can be chemically synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical synthesis facilitates the production of peptides which are difficult to express in bacteria, the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, peptide/protein backbone modification, and the synthesis of D-proteins, which consist of D-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneered by Robert Bruce Merrifield, SPPS caused a paradigm shift within the peptide synthesis community, and allows the rapid assembly of a peptide chain through successive reactions of amino acids onto an insoluble porous support. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each amino acid to be coupled to the peptide chain N-terminus must be protected on its N-terminus and side chain using appropriate protecting groups such as Boc (acid-labile) or Fmoc (base-labile), depending on the side chain and the protection strategy used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • This avoids unwanted reaction at those groups during the peptide coupling step, which occurs between the peptide N-terminal amine and the C-terminal carboxylate of the amino acid to be coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free N-terminal amine of the peptide is coupled to a single N-protected amino acid unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal protecting group is removed in the subsequent step, revealing a new N-terminal amine onto which a further amino acid may be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPPS is limited by reaction yields, and typically peptides and proteins in the range of 70 amino acids are pushing the limits of synthetic accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus highly optimized amide bond formation conditions are required, employing highly efficient coupling reagents and adding an excess of each amino acid (between 2- and 10-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimization of amino acid racemization during coupling is also of vital importance to avoid epimerization in the final peptide product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium
  • A simple and convenient procedure allows the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride as reducing agent and boric acid, p -toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate or benzoic acid as activator under solvent-free conditions. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Silyl
  • In 1983, Tamao and co-workers were the first to report the successful transformation of an allyl alkoxy silyl to an allyl alcohol without an allylic shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the silyl ethers, silyl acetates are faster to hydrolyze, with the advantage that the released acetic acid is less aggressive. (wikipedia.org)
  • yields
  • Due to lower yields and the extra steps required (because of the additional dehydration), the quinic acid route was dropped in favour of the one based on shikimic acid, which received further improvements by Hoffmann-La Roche. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • In addition, this invention relates to a means for detecting the presence of a nucleic acid sequence such as a gene or mRNA using a labeled single-stranded hybridization probe containing a complementary nucleic acid sequence. (google.com)
  • Hybridization probes, for example, contain a nucleic acid sequence complementary to the nucleic acid sequence or to the gene to be detected. (google.com)
  • describe a method for detecting infectious disease-causing microbes using labeled nucleotide probes complementary to nucleic acid contained by the pathogenic microbe. (google.com)
  • Provided is a novel nucleic acid molecule that can inhibit the expression of a gene and can be produces easily and efficiently. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • situ
  • The bromine electrophile is generated by diatomic bromine or another source such as potassium bromide, which can be oxidized to generate bromine in situ by the peracetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • THEREOF
  • or a therapeutically acceptable acid addition salt thereof, which compound is useful in the treatment of HCMV infection. (google.com)
  • Lewis
  • and wherein the process is optionally carried out in the presence of metallic or non-metallic Lewis acid M 3 Y.sup. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. sub.q under conditions sufficient to form said compound of formula I, wherein the process is optionally carried out in the presence of metallic or non-metallic Lewis acid M 3 Y.sup. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • aldehyde
  • If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid), then the prefix "hydroxy" is used, e.g., as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH 3C(O)CH 2OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediates
  • The disclosure relates to a method for preparing a compound of formula (I), ##STR00001## wherein P 1 and P 2 are groups protecting the carboxylic acid and oxyamine functions, starting from pyroglutamic acid (S). The disclosure also relates to novel intermediates. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • wherein
  • 5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the compound of formula (b) is treated with lithium chloride in the presence of methane sulfonic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the amine of the compound of formula (III) is de-protected by the action of methane sulfonic acid, without prior isolation of this compound. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • ##STR00009## wherein P 1 and P 2 are defined as here above, the oxime function of which is reduced by the action of a reducing agent, in order to obtain the expected compound of formula (I) which, if desired, is put in the form of a salt by the action of an acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a linear or branched aliphatic group. (google.com)
  • 4. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a carbocyclic alcohol or a heterocyclic alcohol. (google.com)
  • 6. The compound of claim 4, wherein the carbocyclic alcohol is selected from the group consisting of cyclohexanol, cyclopentanol, cyclooctanol, cyclodecanol, cyclododecanol, exonorborneol, and derivatives of any of the foregoing which contain at least one aliphatic or aromatic carbon branch. (google.com)
  • 8. The compound of claim 7, wherein the heterocyclic alcohol is piperidinol or a substituted piperidinol. (google.com)
  • 10. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a diol, a derivative of a diol, a polymerized diol, or a derivative of a polymerized diol. (google.com)
  • 13. The compound of claim 10, wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, polyethylene glycol, and polypropylene glycol. (google.com)
  • 15. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a polyol. (google.com)
  • 18. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is polyfunctional. (google.com)
  • 19. The compound of claim 18, wherein the functional moieties include at least one hydroxy group or at least one carboxylic acid group. (google.com)
  • isolation
  • Offered acid is used for the isolation and growth of taurine-utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria and in phototrophic growth experiments. (alphachemikaindia.com)