• nucleic acids
  • The present invention relates to devices, systems, and methods for continuous imaging of nucleic acids. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In one embodiment, the invention herein generally relates to a device for continuously imaging nucleic acids, the device including a rotating drum in which an exterior surface of the drum includes a plurality of color sensitive pixels. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 1. A device for continuous imaging of nucleic acids, the device comprising: a rotating drum, wherein an exterior surface of the drum comprises a plurality of color sensitive pixels. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 , wherein the phosphate moieties are derived from phosphodiester linkages selected from the group consisting of a nucleic acid, an oligonucleotide or a biomolecule containing nucleic acids, carboxylates, phosphonates or phosphates. (google.ca)
  • molecule
  • Peptides can be chemically synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols
  • Mixed product gases containing esters of (meth)acrylic acid are generally non-aqueous streams, often with alcohols as the solvent-carrier, which are also subjected to purification by distillation, which also results in formation of a more concentrated and pure product solution. (patent-de.com)
  • Protection of alcohols: Acetyl (Ac) - Removed by acid or base (see Acetoxy group). (wikipedia.org)
  • The definition of inorganic acid ester that feature inorganic chemical elements links between alcohols and the inorganic acid - the phosphorus atom linking to three alkoxy functional groups in organophosphate - can be extended to the same elements in various combinations of covalent bonds between carbons and the central inorganic atom and carbon-oxygen bonds to central inorganic atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary (sec-, s-), and tertiary (tert-, t-), based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • acrylic acid
  • In 2006 the group of E.J. Corey published a novel route bypassing shikimic acid starting from butadiene and acrylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butadiene 1 reacts in an asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction with the esterification product of acrylic acid and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol 2 catalysed by the CBS catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention relates to a method for inhibiting polymerization of (meth)acrylic acid and its esters, for example during separation and purification processes, using a polymerization inhibitor. (patent-de.com)
  • When (meth)acrylic acid and its esters are prepared by conventional reaction processes, these products are generally present in a mixed product gas exiting the reactors of such processes. (patent-de.com)
  • Typically, mixed product gases containing (meth)acrylic acid are cooled and contacted with an aqueous stream in an absorption tower, thereby providing a crude product stream which is then purified, often by dehydration in a distillation step, to provide a more concentrated and pure product solution. (patent-de.com)
  • Unfortunately, under the high temperature conditions typical of purification by distillation, (meth)acrylic acid and its esters have a strong tendency to polymerize, creating unwanted polymer solids in the process equipment. (patent-de.com)
  • It is important to prevent such unwanted polymerization of (meth)acrylic acid and its esters because process equipment may become blocked and clogged with the polymer solids which tends to interfere, sometimes dangerously, with ongoing operation of the purification process. (patent-de.com)
  • One established method for inhibiting polymerization of (meth)acrylic acid and its esters involves addition of one or more substances, which inhibit such polymerization, to the process streams and process equipment during separation and purification operations. (patent-de.com)
  • More particularly, polymerization inhibitors that comprise methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride), along with one or more other compounds, such as hydroquinone (HQ) and phenothiazine (PTZ), have been found to provide good polymerization inhibiting effects for (meth)acrylic acid and its esters. (patent-de.com)
  • For example, such a method was described in U.S. Patent No. 4,021,310, which teaches the addition of a combination of three substances to a distillation column during separation and purification of a crude aqueous stream containing acrylic acid or its esters. (patent-de.com)
  • According to the disclosure of this patent, this method achieved a synergistic polymerization inhibiting effect when the aforesaid compounds were simultaneously present in the distillation of aqueous streams containing acrylic acid and its esters. (patent-de.com)
  • atom
  • 7. The compound of claim 4, wherein the heterocyclic alcohol includes at least one atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen, in at least one cyclic chain. (google.com)
  • In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • labile
  • Tiekink, E. R. T.: Tert-butoxysilanols as model compounds for labile key intermediates of the sol-gel process: crystal and molecular structures of (t-BuO)3SiOH and HO[(t-BuO)2SiO]2H, Appl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each amino acid to be coupled to the peptide chain N-terminus must be protected on its N-terminus and side chain using appropriate protecting groups such as Boc (acid-labile) or Fmoc (base-labile), depending on the side chain and the protection strategy used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • workup
  • Selective acylation with acetic anhydride (under buffered conditions, the 5-amino group is protonated owing to a considerable difference in pKa, 4.2 vs 7.9, preventing acetylation) yields the desired N-acetylated product in crystalline form upon extractive workup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent workup produced the expected alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • shikimic acid
  • Its commercial production starts from the biomolecule shikimic acid harvested from Chinese star anise with a limited worldwide supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its limited supply, searches for alternative synthetic routes preferably not requiring shikimic acid are underway and to date several such routes have been published. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current production method is based on the first scalable synthesis developed by Gilead Sciences starting from naturally occurring quinic acid or shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to lower yields and the extra steps required (because of the additional dehydration), the quinic acid route was dropped in favour of the one based on shikimic acid, which received further improvements by Hoffmann-La Roche. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reported azide-free Roche synthesis of tamiflu is summarised graphically below: The synthesis commences from naturally available (−)-shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final product is obtained in high purity (99.7%) and an overall yield of 17-22% from (−)-shikimic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roche has other routes to oseltamivir that do not involve the use of (−)-shikimic acid as a chiral pool starting material, such as a Diels-Alder route involving furan and ethyl acrylate or an isophthalic acid route, which involves catalytic hydrogenation and enzymatic desymmetrization. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the availability of a cheap chiral building block can overcome these additional costs (e.g. shikimic acid for oseltamivir). (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • R1 and R3 (as well as R2 and "Et") can be varied by the application of appropriate β-ketoesters readily made by a synthesis emanating from acid chlorides, Meldrum's acid, and the alcohol of one's choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoyl (Bz) group is common in oligonucleotide synthesis for protection of N4 in cytosine and N6 in adenine nucleic bases and is removed by treatment with a base, most often with aqueous or gaseous ammonia or methylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical synthesis facilitates the production of peptides which are difficult to express in bacteria, the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, peptide/protein backbone modification, and the synthesis of D-proteins, which consist of D-amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneered by Robert Bruce Merrifield, SPPS caused a paradigm shift within the peptide synthesis community, and allows the rapid assembly of a peptide chain through successive reactions of amino acids onto an insoluble porous support. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The compound is dissolved in formic acid and stirred at room temperature until the reaction is complete by TLC (usually 12 hours). (virginia.edu)
  • CH3CH2OH(l) + O2(g) → CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) The electric current produced by this reaction is measured by a microcontroller, and displayed as an approximation of overall blood alcohol content (BAC) by the Alcosensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This avoids unwanted reaction at those groups during the peptide coupling step, which occurs between the peptide N-terminal amine and the C-terminal carboxylate of the amino acid to be coupled. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPPS is limited by reaction yields, and typically peptides and proteins in the range of 70 amino acids are pushing the limits of synthetic accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because electrophiles accept electrons, they are Lewis acids (see acid-base reaction theories). (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction occurs in a similar way to the addition reaction but has an extra step in which the OSO3H group is replaced by an OH group, forming an alcohol: C2H4 + H2O → C2H5OH As can be seen, the H2SO4 does take part in the overall reaction, however it remains unchanged so is classified as a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The electrophiles frequently seen in the organic syntheses are cations such as H+ and NO+, polarized neutral molecules such as HCl, alkyl halides, acyl halides, and carbonyl compounds, polarizable neutral molecules such as Cl2 and Br2, oxidizing agents such as organic peracids, chemical species that do not satisfy the octet rule such as carbenes and radicals, and some Lewis acids such as BH3 and DIBAL. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 10. The system according to claim 6, wherein the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescent chemistry reagents comprise a saturated oxalate solution, a concentrated hydrogen peroxide solution, and at least one fluorescent dye attached to the nucleic acid. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a linear or branched aliphatic group. (google.com)
  • 4. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a carbocyclic alcohol or a heterocyclic alcohol. (google.com)
  • 6. The compound of claim 4, wherein the carbocyclic alcohol is selected from the group consisting of cyclohexanol, cyclopentanol, cyclooctanol, cyclodecanol, cyclododecanol, exonorborneol, and derivatives of any of the foregoing which contain at least one aliphatic or aromatic carbon branch. (google.com)
  • 8. The compound of claim 7, wherein the heterocyclic alcohol is piperidinol or a substituted piperidinol. (google.com)
  • 10. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a diol, a derivative of a diol, a polymerized diol, or a derivative of a polymerized diol. (google.com)
  • 13. The compound of claim 10, wherein the alcohol is selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, polyethylene glycol, and polypropylene glycol. (google.com)
  • 15. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is a polyol. (google.com)
  • 18. The compound of claim 1, wherein the alcohol of element (a) is polyfunctional. (google.com)
  • Assays are performed by a capsule chemistry analytical assay method wherein fluid capsules comprising discrete aqueous segments containing either a chemiluminescent dioxetane reagent or an activating agent separated by an oil-based isolating fluid are flowed through a conduit, and subsequently reacted to produce light. (patents.com)
  • 5. The functionalized support material of claim 4 wherein the mild conditions comprise a treatment selected from the group consisting of exposure to moderate acid, exposure to weak acid, exposure to moderate base, exposure to weak base, photolysis, thiolysis, palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic transfer, rhodium-catalyzed nucleophilic transfer, hydrogenation and fluoridolysis. (google.ca)
  • oxidation
  • His Breathalyzer used chemical oxidation and photometry to determine alcohol concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fleming-Tamao oxidation, or Tamao-Kumada-Fleming oxidation, converts a carbon-silicon bond to a carbon-oxygen bond with a peroxy acid or hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or inorganic. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • To a solution of the N-protected amino acid , DMAP (0.5 eq), and tBuOH (1.2 eq) in dry DCM at 0 ° under an inert atmosphere, is added EDCI (1.1. (virginia.edu)
  • The free N-terminal amine of the peptide is coupled to a single N-protected amino acid unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal protecting group is removed in the subsequent step, revealing a new N-terminal amine onto which a further amino acid may be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus highly optimized amide bond formation conditions are required, employing highly efficient coupling reagents and adding an excess of each amino acid (between 2- and 10-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimization of amino acid racemization during coupling is also of vital importance to avoid epimerization in the final peptide product. (wikipedia.org)
  • acetal
  • After the step involving the hydride is complete, the acetal is removed (by reacting it with an aqueous acid), giving back the original carbonyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • With the librated methanesulfonic acid, the aziridine opens cleanly to yield a diamine that immediately undergoes a second transimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Benzoyl (Bz) - Removed by acid or base, more stable than Ac group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The perhydroxylated silanol, sometimes called orthosilicic acid, is often discussed in vague terms, but has not been well characterized. (wikipedia.org)