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  • dumping radioactive waste
  • In the late 1950s and early 1960s, there were several controversies about dumping radioactive waste off the coasts of the United States by companies licensed by the Atomic Energy Commission, into the Irish Sea from the British reprocessing facility at Windscale, and into the Mediterranean Sea by the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sewage Treatment
  • These include pipes or man-made ditches from stationary locations such as sewage treatment plants, factories, industrial wastewater treatment facilities, septic systems, ships, and other sources that are clearly discharging pollutants into water sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Pennsylvania, where the hydraulic fracturing drilling boom began in 2008, most drinking-water intake plants downstream from those sewage treatment plants have not tested for radioactivity since before 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • discharges
  • These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. (angelfire.com)
  • Ballast water discharges are believed to be the leading source of invasive species in Lebanese marine waters, thus posing public health and environmental risks, as well as significant economic cost to industries such as commercial and recreational fisheries, agriculture, and tourism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike developed countries, Lebanon do not have any regulations on the ballast water discharges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory efforts may include identifying and categorizing water pollutants, dictating acceptable pollutant concentrations in water resources, and limiting pollutant discharges from effluent sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • territorial waters
  • Rhoades's crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near Sphinxhaven, in German East African territorial waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Lebanon, marine conservation, marine pollution response, and implementation of the international maritime conventions such as the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships are the concern of the Lebanese navy, since it is the only state authority that can enforce the maritime law in both Lebanese exclusive economic zone and territorial waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition many cattle carriers dump their animal cadavers in the Lebanese territorial waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • acids
  • Acid rain , a form of precipitation that contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids, can contaminate drinking water and vegetation, damage aquatic life, and erode buildings. (questia.com)
  • oxygen
  • When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. (angelfire.com)
  • The permanent stratification of Lake Malawi's water and the oxic-anoxic boundary (relating to oxygen in the water) are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissolved air molecules, especially oxygen Salt, which makes water brackish, having more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • See Marpol 73/78 annex V.[citation needed] The Army conduct maneuver in fighting oil pollution Missions of the Lebanese navy Archived 2015-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • Including flammable liquids, liquids capable of causing damage to wastewater facilities (this can be determined by the pH), highly viscous materials capable of causing an obstruction in the wastewater system, radioactive materials, materials that have or create a strong odor, wastewater capable of significantly raising the temperature of the system, and pharmaceuticals or endocrine disruptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sources
  • The technology exists for point sources of pollution to be monitored and regulated, although political factors may complicate matters. (angelfire.com)
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (questia.com)
  • Point sources of water pollution are described by the CWA as "any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance from which pollutants are or may be discharged. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law authorized the Surgeon General and the Public Health Service to develop programs to combat pollution that was harming surface and underground water sources, but did not create any new regulatory or enforcement authority for pollution control. (wikipedia.org)
  • 550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources, 131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblast's territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are concerns these chemicals could contaminate raw water sources that are commonly used for drinking water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioactive sources are used for logging formation parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sealed radioactive sources are routinely used in formation evaluation of both hydraulically fractured and non-fracked wells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Licenses are required for access, transport, and use of radioactive sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • However, river otters remain rare or absent in the southwestern United States and water quality and development limit recovery of populations in some areas. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Air pollution may possibly harm populations in ways so subtle or slow that they have not yet been detected. (questia.com)
  • concentrations
  • Research aboard the newly acquired Arctic-going Research Vessel Ernest Holt established an important link between fishable cod concentrations and water temperatures and identified cod migration routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water quality standards are legal standards or requirements governing water quality, that is, the concentrations of water pollutants in some regulated volume of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where high annual rates of phosphorus fertilizer are used, this can result in uranium-238 concentrations in soils and drainage waters that are several times greater than are normally present. (wikipedia.org)
  • dust
  • Construction industries can use raw water for making cement or for damping down unsealed roads to prevent dust rising. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazardous
  • There have been a number of cases, particularly involving Sukleen, dumping its waste (including radioactive waste and hazardous medical waste) in the vicinity of the Karantina region. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitat
  • Mining for raw materials often causes water pollution, habitat destruction and socio-economic harm. (nature.com)
  • Loss of Habitat 'Marine pollution is a big issue. (prezi.com)
  • Such standards are generally expressed as levels of a specific water pollutants (whether chemical, physical, biological, or radiological) that are deemed acceptable in the water volume, and are generally designed relative to the water's intended use - whether for human consumption, industrial or domestic use, recreation, or as aquatic habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • flows
  • The highest concentration in the filter-feeding copepods is not at the mouths of these rivers but 70 miles south, nearer Atlantic City, because water flows close to the coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even within jurisdictions, complexities may arise where water flows between subsurface and surface, or saturates land without permanently inundating it (wetlands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, particulate matter is congregated with aluminum sulphate and other coagulants, such as polymers, which the water flows in a cascade that mixes the chemicals and raw water with the coagulants. (wikipedia.org)
  • mercury
  • Burning coal pollutes the air, sickening and killing people, and introduces toxic mercury into the aquatic food chain. (nature.com)
  • Two-thirds of the toxic mercury in our oceans is a result of manmade pollution from metal production, pulp industries, waste handling and coal production. (biologicaldiversity.org)
  • 1960s
  • Although Congress had been holding hearings and considering additional pollution control legislation in the late 1960s, these widely publicized incidents increased the pressure on Congress to act, which they eventually did with the 1972 Clean Water Act, the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and later the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerably
  • While the impacts of water pollution vary considerably based on a variety of site-specific factors, they may be either direct or indirect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malawi has typically been estimated to be 1-2 million years old (mya), but more recent evidence points to a considerably older lake with a basin that started to form about 8.6 mya and deep-water condition first appeared 4.5 mya. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon dioxide
  • Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned (oxidized to carbon dioxide and water), producing significant amounts of energy per unit mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, raw water is adjusted for alkalinity and pH with the addition of hydrated lime and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • powers
  • Federal clean water act - Department designated as state agency, authority - Delegation of authority - Powers, duties, and functions. (wa.gov)
  • Exercise of powers under RCW 90.48.260 - Aquatic resource mitigation. (wa.gov)
  • dilute
  • Most scientists believed that the oceans were so vast that they had unlimited ability to dilute, and thus render pollution harmless. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Examples of such magnetofluids include plasmas, liquid metals, salt water and electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the United States Clean Water Act (CWA) defines "pollution" (i.e., water pollution) very broadly to include any and all "man-made or man-induced alteration of the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological integrity of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coastal
  • More recent research shifted emphasis away from shellfish cultivation to the ecology of coastal waters and coastal zone management. (wikipedia.org)
  • marine
  • Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to protect the ocean from marine pollution, policies have been developed internationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although marine pollution has a long history, significant international laws to counter it were only enacted in the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine pollution was a concern during several United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea beginning in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Mediterranean Sea controversy, for example, Jacques Cousteau became a worldwide figure in the campaign to stop marine pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine pollution made further international headlines after the 1967 crash of the oil tanker Torrey Canyon, and after the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill off the coast of California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine pollution was a major area of discussion during the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm. (wikipedia.org)
  • That year also saw the signing of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, sometimes called the London Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of factors affect the water and coastline of Lebanon, including marine pollution and the environmental impact of shipping. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pollutions have a direct effect on the marine life in these regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • indirectly
  • Waste heat energy, which remains due to the finite efficiency of the Carnot, Rankine, or Diesel power cycle, is released directly to the atmosphere or river/lake water, or indirectly to the atmosphere using a cooling tower with river or lake water used as a cooling medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • petroleum
  • Petroleum refineries are responsible for extensive hydrocarbon and particulate pollution. (questia.com)
  • Aquatic phytoplankton and zooplankton that died and sedimented in large quantities under anoxic conditions millions of years ago began forming petroleum and natural gas as a result of anaerobic decomposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Fisher and others, "A comprehensive study of the analysis and economic benefits of radioactive tracer engineered stimulation procedures," Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 30794-MS, October 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enforcement
  • Water quality standards affected by forest practices - Department of ecology solely responsible for water quality standards - Forest practices rules - Adoption - Examination - Enforcement procedures. (wa.gov)
  • waste
  • Cyanide and high-level radioactive waste, for example, were put on the black list. (wikipedia.org)
  • This definition begins to define both the classes or types of materials (e.g., solid waste) and energies (e.g., heat) that may constitute water pollution, and indicates the moment at which otherwise useful materials may be transformed into pollution for regulatory purposes: when they are "discharged into water," defined elsewhere as "addition" of the material to regulated waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical waste may fall under regulations such as COSHH in the United Kingdom, or the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • An example of this type of water pollution is when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain, in the form of run-off which in turn effects aquatic life. (angelfire.com)
  • The dramatic and debilitating effects of severe air pollution episodes in cities throughout the world-such as the London smog of 1952 that resulted in 4,000 deaths-have alerted governments to the necessity for crisis procedures. (questia.com)
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (questia.com)
  • Effects of water pollution! (prezi.com)
  • Determining appropriate water quality standards generally requires up-to-date scientific data on the health or environmental effects of the pollutant under review. (wikipedia.org)
  • A downside to reverse osmosis is that the removing of most minerals from water can have negative effects on its taste. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • A 1995 study found that radioactive tracers were used in over 15% of stimulated oil and gas wells. (wikipedia.org)
  • K. Fisher and others, "A comprehensive study of the analysis and economic benefits of radioactive tracer engineered stimulation procedures," Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 30794-MS, October 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millstone 1 was a General Electric boiling water reactor, producing 660 MWe, shut down in November 1995 before being permanently closed in July 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discharges
  • General permit OKR10 : for storm water discharges from construction activities within the state of Oklahoma. (ok.gov)
  • as amended, except as provided in Part 1.3.2 of this permit, owners/operators of storm water discharges from construction activities, located in an area specified in Part 1.2, are authorized to discharge in accordance with the conditions and requirements set forth herein. (ok.gov)
  • Only those owners/operators of storm water discharges from construction activities in the general permit area who submit a Notice of Intent (NOI) and receive an authorization to discharge in accordance with Part 2 of this permit are authorized under this general permit. (ok.gov)
  • Signed: __/Jon L Craig/____ _____/Mark Derichsweiler/________ Jon L. Craig, Director Mark Derichsweiler, P.E, Engineering Manager Water Quality Division Water Quality Division GENERAL PERMIT OKR10 FOR STORM WATER DISCHARGES FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE STATE OF OKLAHOMA Table of Contents Page Subject No. Part 1 Coverage Under This Permit. (ok.gov)
  • 9 3.1 Prohibition on Non-Storm Water Discharges. (ok.gov)
  • 18 4.5.9 Non-Storm Water Discharges. (ok.gov)
  • Ballast water discharges are believed to be the leading source of invasive species in Lebanese marine waters, thus posing public health and environmental risks, as well as significant economic cost to industries such as commercial and recreational fisheries, agriculture, and tourism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike developed countries, Lebanon do not have any regulations on the ballast water discharges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deforestation
  • Some human activities that cause damage (either directly or indirectly) to the environment on a global scale include human reproduction, overconsumption, overexploitation, pollution, and deforestation, to name but a few. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Microbially induced corrosion of materials, such as carbon steel, have serious implications in the safe storage of radioactive waste within repositories and storage containers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their lifestyle (including overall affluence and resource utilization) and the pollution they generate (including carbon footprint) are equally important. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactors
  • The judge rejected federal claims that scientists needed to test areas around the Yucca site to "meet congressional mandates" and demonstrate the suitability of the site for entombing 77,000 tons of radioactive waste now being stored at nuclear reactors in 39 states. (blogspot.com)
  • Millstone Units 2 and 3, both pressurized water reactors (one from Westinghouse and one from Combustion Engineering), were sold to Dominon Resources by Northeast Utilities in 2000 and continue to operate. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid mine dra
  • Acid mine drainage is generated when mining activities expose sulphidic rock to water and oxygen leading to generation of sulphuric acid effluents rich in Fe, Al, SO 4 and Mn with minor concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mg, Ca, Pb depending on the geology of the rock hosting the minerals. (scielo.org.za)
  • Bioremediation techniques are also used on contaminated surface water and ground water often associated with acid mine drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • Retrieved April 1, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com- /releases/2010/03/100329075919.htmesearch is also helping us unravel the global environmental impacts of plastic pollution," he said. (blogspot.com)
  • The applications of technology often result in unavoidable and unexpected environmental impacts, which according to the I = PAT equation is measured as resource use or pollution generated per unit GDP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Congress had been holding hearings and considering additional pollution control legislation in the late 1960s, these widely publicized incidents increased the pressure on Congress to act, which they eventually did with the 1972 Clean Water Act, the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and later the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, regulation of point source water pollution in the United States included health- and use-based standards to protect environmental and economic interests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amends the Water Resources Development Act of 1992 to select a disposal method that is not the least-cost option if the incremental costs are reasonable in relation to the environmental benefits. (wikipedia.org)
  • waste
  • U.S. District Judge Roger Hunt upheld Nevada's right to enforce its water laws and ruled that Nevada can shut off water that the U.S. Department of Energy says it needs for drilling at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. (blogspot.com)
  • Waste heat energy, which remains due to the finite efficiency of the Carnot, Rankine, or Diesel power cycle, is released directly to the atmosphere or river/lake water, or indirectly to the atmosphere using a cooling tower with river or lake water used as a cooling medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The corrosion reaction involving water is slow, whereas the corrosion of Fe0 with dissolved oxygen is fast, presuming there is O2 present. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes sediment (loose soil) inputs that decrease the amount of light that can penetrate through the water, reducing plant growth and diminishing oxygen availability for other aquatic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • The series of fifty-two seven minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau-a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The released sulfur is trapped in water to produce sulfuric acid, which is sold to offset the cost of installing the scrubber. (blogspot.com)
  • However, it may be used in cogeneration plants to heat buildings, produce hot water, or to heat materials on an industrial scale, such as in some oil refineries, plants, and chemical synthesis plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • 2) Examinations of transfer routes of radioactive cesium in coastal rocky seafloor revealed that transition of radioactive cesium from suspended or descending particles, and from organic fraction of sediments was small. (nii.ac.jp)
  • mineral
  • 550 solid mineral deposits with 19 types of mineral resources, 131 fresh and 13 mineral subsoil water sources have been discovered in the oblast's territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • pesticides
  • Neonicotinoids , pesticides linked to bee die-offs around the world, are another water contaminant Americans have to contend with. (fourwinds10.com)
  • limitations
  • The federal government can't ignore state limitations and continue using water for drilling test bore holes near the repository site. (blogspot.com)
  • 1996
  • The Water Resources Development Act of 1996 (WRDA 1996) is part of Pub.L. 104-303, was enacted by Congress of the United States on October 12, 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaking valve forced shutdown multiple equipment failures detected: February 20, 1996 Permanently ceased operations: July 21, 1998 Millstone 2 is a Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor plant built in the 1970s, and has a maximum power output of 2700 thermal megawatts, or MWth (870 MWe). (wikipedia.org)
  • sources of water
  • The remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • disposal
  • Reuse can reduce the pollution and resource use associated with manufacturing a new item, and can delay or eliminate disposal of the item. (blogspot.com)
  • electricity
  • The electricity supplied power to lights, heating, produced hot water, ran an elevator as well as labor-saving devices and farm buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very few MHD generators have been built which directly convert the energy of hot, moving water into electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • In case of contact with material, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. (speclab.com)
  • public
  • There is no risk to the public, or to water supplies under normal usage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications include aquifers and public drinking water supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law authorized the Surgeon General and the Public Health Service to develop programs to combat pollution that was harming surface and underground water sources, but did not create any new regulatory or enforcement authority for pollution control. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • Atrazine is the most common water contaminant in the U.S., where it was initially approved for use in 1958. (fourwinds10.com)
  • In 1979 the cement works and quarry were converted into Beddingham Landfill Site, which was above a water table and was not initially lined. (wikipedia.org)
  • dust
  • Flue gas enters through the top of the cone-shaped venturi scrubber and water , injected horizontally, forms droplets that absorb dust and other particles. (blogspot.com)
  • Exposure to lead can happen from breathing workplace air or dust, eating contaminated foods, or drinking contaminated water. (home-air-purifier-expert.com)