• ions
  • Fluoride ions, when present at the plaque/enamel interface, reduce demineralization and promote remineralization in the presence of a cariogenic challenge (Margolis, 1993). (umich.edu)
  • New technologies aimed at maintaining an effective level of fluoride ions in the oral cavity, such as low-release devices, will also be considered (Toumba, Curzon, 1993). (umich.edu)
  • Due to its high solubility in water and organic solvents, it is a convenient source of fluoride ions, and can be used to fluorinate alkyl halides under mild conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are only present in trace quantities in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon tetrafluoride are not sources of fluoride ions under ordinary conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures often deviate from those of the chlorides, as illustrated by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F− centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluoride ions reduce the rate of tooth enamel demineralization and increase the rate of remineralization of teeth at the early stages of cavities. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Even without fluoride, teeth experience alternating increases and decreases in mineral content, depending upon how acidic or basic the mouth is, and depending upon the concentration of other substances in the mouth, such as phosphate and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • tooth surface
  • Another example of a theoretical basis for a combined preventive approach involves the distribution of coronal caries by tooth surface in many communities, particularly those in which fluoride is widely used. (umich.edu)
  • preventive
  • Since the preventive effects of fluoride are concentrated on smooth surfaces, it is not surprising that data from many of these communities show that caries lesions in children and young adults tend to be confined to posterior teeth and occlusal surfaces. (umich.edu)
  • 1995
  • For example, studies by Ripa and colleagues (1987), Goggin and colleagues (1991), Sterritt and colleagues (1994), and Selwitz and colleagues (1995) have measured the benefits of a combined fluoride and fissure sealant approach. (umich.edu)
  • fluorapatite
  • Strictly speaking, fluoride therapy repairs rather than prevents damage to the teeth, causing the mineral fluorapatite to be incorporated into damaged tooth enamel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main mineral found in natural tooth enamel is hydroxyapatite rather than the fluorapatite created in the presence of fluoride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride reduces the decay of tooth enamel by the formation of fluorapatite and its incorporation into the dental enamel. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • One method is the thermal decomposition of silver tetrafluoroborate: AgBF4 → AgF + BF3 In an alternative route, silver(I) oxide is dissolved in concentrated aqueous hydrofluoric acid, and the silver fluoride is precipitated out of the resulting solution by acetone. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • The ingestion of fluoride as primary teeth are being developed has shown that the teeth have formed stronger and more resistant for caries. (wikipedia.org)
  • effective
  • It is possible to coat a silicon surface with a uniform silver microlayer (0.1 to 1 μm thickness) by passing AgF vapour over it at 60-800 °C. The relevant reaction is: 4AgF + Si → 4Ag + SiF4 Multiple studies have shown silver(I) fluoride to be an effective anti-caries agent, although the mechanism is the subject of current research. (wikipedia.org)
  • dental
  • The presentations cover an overview of the dental team, ethics and jurisprudence, infection control procedures, intra-oral tissues and dental anatomy, types of fluoride, and fluoride application. (usi.edu)
  • Lectures will cover the planning of dental facilities resource application, personnel and budget management, organizing and patient scheduling recall systems, dental records management, inventory control, budgeting the staff/patient interaction. (edu.sa)
  • The fluoride was administered during his first visit to the dentist, and the dental office was later found liable for the death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • Tetralkylammonium fluorides can be conveniently prepared in the laboratory by the reaction of the tetralkylammonium bromide with an aqueous AgF solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • ambient
  • At ambient temperature and pressure, silver(I) fluoride exists as the polymorph AgF-I, which adopts a cubic crystal system with space group Fm3m in the Hermann-Mauguin notation. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Fluoride is naturally present at low concentration in most fresh and saltwater sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • A further 28 countries have water that is naturally fluoridated, though in many of them the fluoride is above the recommended safe level. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • For example, only four studies were found that had examined the effectiveness of combining chlorhexidine and fluoride (Spets-Happonen, Luoma, Forss, et al. (umich.edu)
  • clinical
  • Although the treatment is generally recognised to be safe, fluoride toxicity has been a significant clinical concern in paediatric applications, especially as some commercial preparations have had considerable silver(II) fluoride contamination in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • in general levels rarely exceed 10 mg/litre In some locations, such as Tanzania, the drinking water contains dangerously high levels of fluoride, leading to serious health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, the name fluoride is also used in compositional IUPAC nomenclature which does not take the nature of bonding involved into account. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, mature leaves contain as much as 10 to 20 times the fluoride levels of young leaves from the same plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Seawater fluoride levels are usually in the range of 0.86 to 1.4 mg/L, and average 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per litre). (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, it is now well-established that fluoride�s primary method of action is a topical one. (umich.edu)
  • An example is given by the following reaction: Another organic synthetic method using silver(I) fluoride is the BINAP-AgF complex catalyzed enantioselective protonation of silyl enol ethers: The reaction of silver acetylide with a concentrated solution of silver(I) fluoride results in the formation of a chandelier-like [Ag+ cluster with endohedral acetylenediide. (wikipedia.org)
  • amount
  • In 1974 a three-year-old child swallowed 45 milliliters of 2% fluoride solution, estimated to be triple the fatal amount, and then died. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • for fluoride this is especially true in large regions of India, China, Central Africa and South America, and locally in many parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)