• ions
  • Fluoride ions, when present at the plaque/enamel interface, reduce demineralization and promote remineralization in the presence of a cariogenic challenge (Margolis, 1993). (umich.edu)
  • New technologies aimed at maintaining an effective level of fluoride ions in the oral cavity, such as low-release devices, will also be considered (Toumba, Curzon, 1993). (umich.edu)
  • Due to its high solubility in water and organic solvents, it is a convenient source of fluoride ions, and can be used to fluorinate alkyl halides under mild conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are only present in trace quantities in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, sulfur hexafluoride and carbon tetrafluoride are not sources of fluoride ions under ordinary conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For compounds containing more than one fluoride per cation, the structures often deviate from those of the chlorides, as illustrated by the main fluoride mineral fluorite (CaF2) where the Ca2+ ions are surrounded by eight F− centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluoride ions reduce the rate of tooth enamel demineralization and increase the rate of remineralization of teeth at the early stages of cavities. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Even without fluoride, teeth experience alternating increases and decreases in mineral content, depending upon how acidic or basic the mouth is, and depending upon the concentration of other substances in the mouth, such as phosphate and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • From extensive research it has been established that approximately one part fluoride per one million parts (1 ppm) of water prevents up to 60 percent of the tooth decay that would ordinarily occur. (synscape.net)
  • minerals
  • When this balance is skewed due to frequent intake of fermentable carbohydrates, poor oral hygiene, and lack of fluoride consumption, there is a continuous loss and little gain of minerals over a long period of time, which can ultimately cause what we know as tooth decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Many fluoride minerals are known, but of paramount commercial importance is fluorite (CaF2), which is roughly 49% fluoride by mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater (well water) concentrations vary even more, depending on the presence of local fluoride-containing minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Since the preventive effects of fluoride are concentrated on smooth surfaces, it is not surprising that data from many of these communities show that caries lesions in children and young adults tend to be confined to posterior teeth and occlusal surfaces. (umich.edu)
  • Fluoride can also be applied topically to the surface of the teeth. (deltadental.com)
  • It was only after many years of investigation by scientists at the National Institutes of Health and elsewhere that it was determined that fluoride is responsible for protecting teeth from dental decay. (synscape.net)
  • Fluoride benefits the teeth that have erupted as well as those developing in the jaws. (synscape.net)
  • If too much fluoride is consumed while teeth are developing, a condition called dental fluorosis (white spots on the teeth) may result. (synscape.net)
  • Strictly speaking, fluoride therapy repairs rather than prevents damage to the teeth, causing the mineral fluorapatite to be incorporated into damaged tooth enamel. (wikipedia.org)
  • halides
  • In contrast with the other silver halides, anhydrous silver(I) fluoride is not appreciably photosensitive, although the dihydrate is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoride is distinct in this regard among the halides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of its reactivity, fluoride differs significantly from chloride and other halides, and is more strongly solvated in protic solvents due to its smaller radius/charge ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • supplements
  • However, the use of fluoride supplements during the last 6 months of pregnancy has no significant impact on the incidence of fluorosis in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • drops
  • If your community doesn't add fluoride to the water supply, your child should be receiving drops of a fluoride/vitamin combination as soon as possible after birth. (deltadental.com)
  • tooth surface
  • Another example of a theoretical basis for a combined preventive approach involves the distribution of coronal caries by tooth surface in many communities, particularly those in which fluoride is widely used. (umich.edu)
  • effective
  • It is possible to coat a silicon surface with a uniform silver microlayer (0.1 to 1 μm thickness) by passing AgF vapour over it at 60-800 °C. The relevant reaction is: 4AgF + Si → 4Ag + SiF4 Multiple studies have shown silver(I) fluoride to be an effective anti-caries agent, although the mechanism is the subject of current research. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Fluoride is one of many elements naturally occurring in the earth, and is found in varying amounts in almost all waters and soils. (synscape.net)
  • Fluoride is naturally present at low concentration in most fresh and saltwater sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • A further 28 countries have water that is naturally fluoridated, though in many of them the fluoride is above the recommended safe level. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • For example, studies by Ripa and colleagues (1987), Goggin and colleagues (1991), Sterritt and colleagues (1994), and Selwitz and colleagues (1995) have measured the benefits of a combined fluoride and fissure sealant approach. (umich.edu)
  • acid
  • One method is the thermal decomposition of silver tetrafluoroborate: AgBF4 → AgF + BF3 In an alternative route, silver(I) oxide is dissolved in concentrated aqueous hydrofluoric acid, and the silver fluoride is precipitated out of the resulting solution by acetone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ambient
  • At ambient temperature and pressure, silver(I) fluoride exists as the polymorph AgF-I, which adopts a cubic crystal system with space group Fm3m in the Hermann-Mauguin notation. (wikipedia.org)
  • dental
  • Lectures will cover the planning of dental facilities resource application, personnel and budget management, organizing and patient scheduling recall systems, dental records management, inventory control, budgeting the staff/patient interaction. (edu.sa)
  • found
  • For example, only four studies were found that had examined the effectiveness of combining chlorhexidine and fluoride (Spets-Happonen, Luoma, Forss, et al. (umich.edu)
  • water
  • More fluoride (approximately 4.5 times the concentration used in public water supplies) is recommended in the school water supply to compensate for the time that children are not in school. (synscape.net)
  • in general levels rarely exceed 10 mg/litre In some locations, such as Tanzania, the drinking water contains dangerously high levels of fluoride, leading to serious health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • All vegetation contains some fluoride, which is absorbed from soil and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • An example is given by the following reaction: Another organic synthetic method using silver(I) fluoride is the BINAP-AgF complex catalyzed enantioselective protonation of silyl enol ethers: The reaction of silver acetylide with a concentrated solution of silver(I) fluoride results in the formation of a chandelier-like [Ag+ cluster with endohedral acetylenediide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetralkylammonium fluorides can be conveniently prepared in the laboratory by the reaction of the tetralkylammonium bromide with an aqueous AgF solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • for fluoride this is especially true in large regions of India, China, Central Africa and South America, and locally in many parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)