• mitochondria
  • Controlled' is not the word I would use (not in most cases of mammalian apoptosis, anyway), since the originating signal that triggers apoptosis of a given cell usually comes from outside the cell, but yes, mitochondria play a central and quite early role in apoptosis. (bio.net)
  • A small protein called cytochrome c, which is normally part of the respiratory chain, was 'to general stupefaction' (I quote a recent paper) discovered, only a few years ago, to be massively released from mitochondria into the cytosol shortly before apoptosis occurs. (bio.net)
  • The process triggering apoptosis starts when the mitochondria releases AIF, which exits through the mitochondrial membrane, enters the cytosol, and finally ends up in the cell nucleus where it signals the cell to condense its chromosomes and fragment its DNA molecules in order to prepare for cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study indicates that it may be at the mitochondria where the various processes (ligan-dependent receptor activation and cytosolic signaling) pathways are activated by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may direct the destruction of keratinocytes through apoptosis by activating caspase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is MAC the knife that cuts cytochrome c from mitochondria during apoptosis? (wikipedia.org)
  • After activation, PUMA interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thus freeing Bax and/or Bak which are then able to signal apoptosis to the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. (bio.net)
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array os stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines regulating cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first described as a "shrinkage necrosis", and then this term was replaced by apoptosis to emphasize its role opposite mitosis in tissue kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • caspases
  • We now know that, when released, it initiates a cascade of activation of special proteases called caspases, which do much of the actual work of apoptosis. (bio.net)
  • Apoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). (genome.jp)
  • Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine proteases called caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cowpox is a orthopox virus that increases their chances of survival and infection by inhibition of specific caspases and preventing inflammatory responses and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, it was shown by David Vaux and Stuart Kim at Stanford that human bcl-2 gene could inhibit programmed cell death in the worm, thus linking programmed cell death and apoptosis - revealing them to be the same, evolutionarily conserved process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations on the gene that encodes cIAP1 are related to hemorrhage and vascular regression because of the defects it represents on the endothelial cell survival and the modification of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) also known as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the C12orf5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and quickly remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to the neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kerr had initially used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes of disposal of cellular debris whose results do not damage the organism differentiate apoptosis from necrosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Kerr had originally used the term "programmed cell necrosis" to describe the phenomenon but in the 1972 article this process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Apoptosis is a physiological process, that promotes the active suicide of cells, resulting in an advantage, unlike necrosis which occurs from trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a signal article published in 1972, John F. Kerr, Andrew H. Wyllie and A. R. Currie, coined the term "apoptosis" in order to differentiate naturally occurring developmental cell death, from the necrosis that results from acute tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Cells undergoing apoptosis do tend to shrink during the loss of cytoplasm as apoptotic bodies are formed and released. (bio.net)
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • programmed cell
  • For many years, the terms "apoptosis" and "programmed cell death" were not highly cited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis may be the best characterized form of programmed cell death-but it isn't in isolation, said Joan W. Miller, MD. (modernmedicine.com)
  • This investigation looked at how spaceflight influences immune cell function, including the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (nasa.gov)
  • For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a highly cited term. (wikipedia.org)
  • UVB-induced apoptosis is the programmed cell death of cells that become damaged by ultraviolet rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although bcl-2 was the first component of the cell death mechanism to be cloned in any organism, identification of other components of the vertebrate mechanism had to await the linking of apoptosis with the mechanism for programmed cell death in the worm. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner , Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since apoptosis is a last resort alternative, it takes the initiation of multiple other genes (ING2, p53, or Ras subfamily) expressed before the cell is finally programmed for death. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Either by knocking down MAC's main components or by its pharmacological inhibition, the end result is prevention of cytochrome c release and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferate
  • When a cell is tumorous it does not cease to proliferate inhibiting the apoptosis, as a result, in cancerous cells cIAP1 is rarely located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Ferroptosis and necroptosis are recently recognized forms of regulated cell death that differs considerably from apoptosis. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy , whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T-lymphocyte (white blood cells originating in the thymus) activity in microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Inhibition of caspase 8 also prevents cell death signals by ligation of a TNF super family member known as death receptors, that signal for apoptosis through caspase 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also noted that the characteristic structural changes of apoptosis were present in cells that died in order to maintain an equilibrium between cell proliferation and death in a particular tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis has proven to be tightly interwoven with other essential cell pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currie
  • Kerr, Wyllie and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen , with suggesting the term apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • It has been suggested that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight might be linked to apoptosis, based on morphological anomalies and cDNA microarray analysis of space-flown human lymphoblastoid (Jurkat) cells. (nasa.gov)
  • In this context, 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) plays a central role in interleukin-2 expression and activation of human lymphocytes, and is involved in the initiation of programmed death (apoptosis) triggered by several stimuli in different human cells. (nasa.gov)
  • It has been demonstrated that incubation of lymphocytes and neuronal cells in elevated concentrations of potassium ions provides protection from apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • It aims to stimulate both research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, AIDS, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, osteoporosis and ageing. (springer.com)
  • This book, with contributions from experts in the field, provides a timely compilation of reviews of mechanisms of apoptosis. (platekompaniet.no)
  • kinase
  • PUMA apoptosis may also be induced independently of p53 activation by other stimuli, such as oncogenic stress growth factor and/or cytokine withdrawal and kinase inhibition, ER stress, altered redox status, ischemia, immune modulation, and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greek
  • In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "falling off" of leaves from a tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • I had a long discussion about the meaning and pronunciation of 'apoptosis' with a friend of mine who is an expert on New Testament and classical Greek. (bio.net)
  • signals
  • PUMA is involved in p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis induced by a variety of signals, and is regulated by transcription factors, not by post-translational modifications. (wikipedia.org)