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  • gene
  • Overexpression of c-myc gene into cultured fibroblast cells has been reported to elicit massive apoptosis upon serum deprivation, in diploid rat fibroblasts, serum deprivation induced apoptosis following withdrawal of serum, which was antagonized by the addition of low doses of ET-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The apoptosis observed in the diploid fibroblasts has been demonstrated to be c-myc-dependent, since disruption of one endogenous c-myc gene copy using targeted homologous recombination resulted in marked decrease in serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shichiri M.et al: 'Biphasic regulation of the preproendothelin-1 gene by c-Myc' Endocrinology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Iwashita M.et al: 'Transfection of inducible n/tric oxide synthase gene causes apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells' Circulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that mollugin suppressed activation of NF- κ B and NF- κ B-dependent gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1), and angiogenesis (FGF-2 and VEGF). (hindawi.com)
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array os stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines regulating cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations on the gene that encodes cIAP1 are related to hemorrhage and vascular regression because of the defects it represents on the endothelial cell survival and the modification of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEDF induces PPAR-gamma expression which in turn induces p53, a tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase C2 domain-containing gamma polypeptide is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIK3C2G gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death, the cell is involved in causing its own death, and gene expression is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • p38 MAP kinase assay was carried out using ATF-2 as substrate in the presence of γ 32 P. In addition, the kinase assay samples were separated by SDS /PAGE (10%) and radioactivity incorporated into ATF2 was detected by autoradiography. (arvojournals.org)
  • Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor ATF2/CREB2 has been shown to be a substrate of this kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The BCR is a key signaling molecule that triggers pathways that can induce B-cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, anergy, and apoptosis (for a review, see Niiro and Clark 12 ). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Collectively, this is the first report to demonstrate the effectiveness of mollugin as a candidate for a chemotherapeutic agent in OSCCs via the upregulation of the HO-1 and Nrf2 pathways and the downregulation of NF- κ B. (hindawi.com)
  • induce apoptosis
  • The absolute stereochemistry of the naturally occurring metabolite revealed it to be (+)-Cytotrienin A. Cytotrienin A has a median effective dose value of 7.7 nM to induce apoptosis on HL-60 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • It is thought that erythroid differentiation is primarily dependent on the presence and induction of erythroid transcriptional factors such as GATA-1, FOG-1 and EKLF, as well as the suppression of myeloid/lymphoid transcriptional factors such as PU.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFU-e progenitors enter the cell cycle at the time of GATA-1 induction and PU.1 suppression in a developmental manner rather than due to EpoR signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • We found that NOD2 through its N-terminal caspase recruitment domain directly binds and activates caspase-1 to trigger IL-1β processing and secretion in MDP-stimulated macrophages, whereas the C-terminal leucine-rich repeats of NOD2 prevent caspase-1 activation in nonstimulated cells. (pnas.org)
  • PI3K generates the key second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate, which recruits other BCR signaling molecules to the membrane and activates the downstream kinase Akt. (bloodjournal.org)
  • caspase
  • Importantly, Bacillus anthracis infection induces IL-1β secretion in a manner that depended on caspase-1 and NOD2. (pnas.org)
  • In vitro , Anthrax lethal toxin strongly potentiated IL-1β secretion, and that response was NOD2 and caspase-1-dependent. (pnas.org)
  • Secretion of IL-1β, −18, and −33 by activated macrophages depends on the protease caspase-1 that converts their precursors to the mature and biologically active cytokines ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The mechanism by which caspase-1 is activated to induce processing of pro-IL-1β and related cytokines is not well understood. (pnas.org)
  • NLR proteins are essential for activation of caspase-1 by various bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium , Staphylococcus aureus , and Listeria monocytogenes and are involved in sensing of bacterial cell wall products ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1 mM) resulted in a marked increase in mitochondrial damage (e.g., cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release, loss of ΔΨm), caspase activation, and apoptosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cIAP1 is recruited to TNF receptor complexes where they support cell survival through NF-κB activation while suppressing apoptosis by preventing caspase activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increase in apoptosis in response to treatment was also apparent in the increase in BAX and the decrease in Bcl-2 levels as well as the proteolytic cleavage of both caspase-3 and PARP as revealed by Western blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptor
  • In fibroblasts, ET-1 suppressed apoptosis via the ETA receptor through activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase whereas the mechanism behind ETB receptor-mediated endothelial apoptosis remains unclarified. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shichiri M.et al: 'ETB-receptor-mediated suppression of endothelial apoptosis' Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • NOD2, a NOD-like receptor (NLR), is an intracellular sensor of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that was suggested to promote secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. (pnas.org)
  • 1 Recent studies have indicated that the B-cell receptor (BCR) is a major determinant of the clinical course in CLL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the retraction statement for one of the articles, "A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control", the authors of the paper, minus the two Russian researchers, alleged Bulanova and Budagian performed both the experiments and the data manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEDF enhances gamma-secretase activity, leading to the cleavage of the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) transmembrane domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This guidance cue for axons of neurons is signaled through receptor complexes containing Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and a co-receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group used human insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) to stimulate cell death in 293T cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, observing distinct differences from other forms of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraptosis-like phenotype has also been described in human colorectal cancer cells following overactivation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src suggesting potential involvement of Src-signalling in paraptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conformational changes result in the autophosphorylation of Jak2 kinases that are pre-associated with the receptor (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Effects of the PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 (LY) have been examined in relation to responses of human leukemia cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The use of specific kinases inhibitors may provide excellent tools to prevent RPE apoptosis specifically in RPE diseases involving ROS and other stress-related compounds such as in AMD. (epfl.ch)
  • Therefore, paraptosis was concluded to differ from apoptosis (cell death type 1) in being unaffected by inhibitors of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Involvement of p38 MAP kinase in ET-1 Mediated Apoptosis of Retinal Ganglion Cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Previous studies from our laboratory have shown ET-1 treatment promotes apoptosis of cultured rat retinal ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if p38 MAP kinase is involved in ET-1 mediated apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Virally transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC5) were treated with 100nM ET-1 for 5, 10 and 15 min. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activation of p38 MAP Kinase in RGC5 cells following treatment with ET-1 (100nM) may contribute to ET-1 mediated apoptosis in RGC5 cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The journal publishes original observations on genetic, cellular, biochemical, structural and molecular aspects of DNA repair, mutagenesis, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and other biological responses in cells exposed to genomic insult, as well as their relationship to human disease . (elsevier.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells are known to develop apoptosis following growth factor deprivation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an autocrine/paracrine survival factor I from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis for cultured rat endothelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Endothelial cells also underwent apoptosis by the addition of nitric oxide donors and natriuretic peptides, whose effects were also antagonized by ET-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These observations suggest that apoptosis survival activity of ET-1 in endothelial cells is not restricted to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kato H.et al: 'Adreno medullin as an autocrine paracrine apoptosis survival factor for rat endothelia cells' Endocrinology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shichiri M.et al: 'Endothelin-1 as an autocrine/paracrine apoptosis survival tactor for endothelial cells' Hypertension. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We thus investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by mollugin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCs). (hindawi.com)
  • When a cell is tumorous it does not cease to proliferate inhibiting the apoptosis, as a result, in cancerous cells cIAP1 is rarely located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the hallmarks of cancer cells are aberrant cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a signaling molecule that interacts with one of two receptors on cells targeted for apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, upregulation of RASD1 leading to increased apoptosis has been observed in several human cancer cell lines such as DU-154 human prostate cancer cells and in human breast cancer cells MCF-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the latter, high concentrations of calycosin significantly suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, thereby promoting apoptosis of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to apoptosis, staining techniques can be used to identify paraptotic cells by highlighting the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the plasma membrane cytoplasmic (inner) leaflet to the cell surface or outer leaflet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In A549 cells, where cytotrienin A has been shown to be less effective, cyt A inhibits the expression of ICAM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osada, H. "Cytotrienin A, a Novel Apoptosis Inducer in Human Leukemia HL-60 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cascades
  • Accordingly, a wide range of phytochemicals derived from medicinal plants have been reported to exhibit anticancer activity by targeting several signaling cascades associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Publications] Suenobu N.et al: 'Natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide induee endothelial apoptosis via cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism' Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis & Vascular Biology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Yet, the molecular mechanism by which NOD2 can stimulate IL-1β secretion, and its biological significance were heretofore unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Simon H-U, Yousefi S, Schranz C, Schapowal A, Bachert C, Blaser K (1997) Direct demonstration of delayed eosinophil apoptosis as a mechanism causing tissue eosinophilia. (springer.com)
  • proteins
  • Once ruptured, particles and substances are released, including: (1) high mobility group B-1 (HMGB1) (2) heat shock proteins and (3) various other proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the presence of inactive MST/Krs proteins and dominant negative c-Jun completely inhibited apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Mollugin-induced cell death involved apoptosis, characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, flow cytometric analysis of sub-G 1 phase arrest, and annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. (hindawi.com)
  • Using the WST assay, the pentane fraction (F1) and 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) were shown to possess the highest cytotoxicity against both cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neutrophil apoptosis (programmed cell death) is now recognised to play a fundamental role in the physiological resolution of innate immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Ross EA, Douglas MR, Wong SH, Ross EJ, Curnow SJ, Nash GB, Rainger E, Scheel-Toellner D, Lord JM, Salmon M et al (2006) Interaction between integrin alpha9beta1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) inhibits neutrophil apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • A peptide inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase protects against both aminoglycoside and acoustic trauma-induced auditory hair cell death and hearing loss. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This phosphatase can also dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases, and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraptosis (from the Greek παρά para, "related to" and apoptosis) is a type of programmed cell death, morphologically distinct from apoptosis and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • At present, the most well-established function of EpoR is to promote proliferation and rescue of erythroid (red blood cell) progenitors from apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Furthermore, mollugin induced the activation of p38, ERK, and JNK and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (hindawi.com)
  • human
  • Macrophages from mice carrying a frameshift mutation at position 2939 of Nod2 , which corresponds to a common CD-associated human mutation, − 3020insC -, secrete more IL-1β than WT macrophages upon MDP stimulation ( 12 ). (pnas.org)