• control of aphids
  • This revision and update of the well-received first edition published ten years ago reflects the expansion of research in genomics, endosymbionts and semiochemicals, as well as the shift from control of aphids with insecticides to a more integrated approach imposed by increasing resistance in the aphids and government restrictions on pesticides. (cabi.org)
  • Be sure to select a product labeled for control of aphids on the pine or other trees you have found infested. (nmsu.edu)
  • Control of aphids with insecticide application is the only means of managing this problem in production years that are highly favorable for aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the disease becomes established, control and prevention measures for plum pox include field surveys, use of certified nursery materials, control of aphids, and elimination of infected trees in nurseries and orchards. (wikipedia.org)
  • insect
  • Richard Harrington retired in 2015 as Head of the Rothamsted Insect Survey, with which he worked for 36 years on aphid monitoring and forecasting. (cabi.org)
  • However, if you find numerous lady bird beetles or lacewing larvae in the tree, you should allow the natural controls, these insect predators of aphids, to do the job. (nmsu.edu)
  • The soybean aphid possesses a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle, which means the insect alternates hosts and undergoes sexual reproduction for at least part of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aphid is a type of sap-feeding insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fauna Europaea lists six subspecies: A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis A. f. eryngii A. f. evonymi A. f. fabae A. f. mordvilkoi A. f. solanella The black bean aphid is a small, soft-bodied insect that has specialised piercing and sucking mouthparts which are used to suck the juice from plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aphid is usually seen in large numbers and is a tiny, plump insect about two millimetres long with a small head and bulbous abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beech blight aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator) is a small insect in the order Hemiptera that feeds on the sap of American beech trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to survivability in sub zero temperatures, the aphids are also capable of rapid cold hardiness (RCH) which allows an insect to develop protection against sudden sub freezing temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids: insect pest that sucks sap from plant tissue, excreting a substance called honeydew, which invites other fungal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • soybean aphids
  • Eggs begin to hatch into fundatrices when temperatures in the spring reach 10 °C (50 °F).[citation needed] Colonization of buckthorn by soybean aphids in the spring can lead to curling of leaves and twigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These winged soybean aphids begin the spring migration to their secondary host, soybean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soybean aphids go through approximately 15 generations on soybean, all of which are primarily composed of apterous females produced through viviparous parthenogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding by soybean aphids injures soybean by interfering with photosynthetic pathways-more specifically, biological mechanisms responsible for restoring chlorophyll to a low energy state are impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this stage, small colonies of soybean aphids appear patchy, occurring on single plants scattered throughout a field. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these early colonies, soybean aphids are typically grouped on tender, young leaves of soybean plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infested plant ages, soybean aphids remain on leaves near the top of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated a positive correlation exists between upper leaf nitrogen content of soybean and the occurrence of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the relatively low densities of soybean aphids during this stage have been found to have minimal impacts on soybean yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second stage, or pre-peak stage, can begin as early as late June and is characterized by dramatic increases in densities of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • As colonies expand and temperatures increase, soybean aphids move toward lower portions of the soybean plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimal temperature for soybean aphid development occurs between 25 and 30 °C, and exposure to prolonged temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) decrease survival rates and fecundity of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yield losses as high as 50 to 70% have been documented as a result of prolonged exposure to high densities of soybean aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • honeydew
  • As the sap has an excess of sugar from the aphids' perspective, they excrete a sugary syrup, called honeydew. (nmsu.edu)
  • As the plant sap flows through its body, the aphid uses only a few of the nutrients in the sap and the rest is excreted as 'honeydew,' which makes leaves on affected trees appear shiny. (calgary.ca)
  • Fungus then grows on this honeydew, creating a black scum that can stick to cars, patio furniture, decks and sidewalks located beneath aphid-infested trees. (calgary.ca)
  • This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of sooty mould. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphididae
  • The pea aphid genome and other of its features are the focus of studies covering the following areas: Symbiosis with bacteria - As all aphididae, A. pisum hosts the primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids and is necessary for aphid reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • Other common names include blackfly, bean aphid and beet leaf aphid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding by this aphid will also cause the flag leaf to turn white and curl around the head causing incomplete head emergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the leaf grows, the aphid injects it with a substance, possibly an enzyme or hormone, that causes that the galls to form around her. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crops
  • Aphids are among the major global pest groups, causing serious economic damage to many food and commodity crops in most parts of the world. (cabi.org)
  • The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is an aphid that can cause significant losses in cereal crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Host control consists of raising crops that are possesses genes that may contribute to aphid resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • twigs
  • If you see great numbers of aphids on many of the twigs in the tree, you may choose to treat to reduce the aphid population and limit the damage to the trees. (nmsu.edu)
  • If you decide to treat, you may use a strong jet of water to wash many of the aphids from the twigs if the infested branches are within range of a strong stream of water from the garden hose. (nmsu.edu)
  • favorable
  • Reproduction - During favorable climatic conditions, all aphid young are born female and therefore all will contribute to population growth. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • ants
  • Readers will eat this book up, learning what aphids look like, how they use different parts of their bodies, and how ants and aphids help each other live. (biguniverse.com)
  • These aphids are attended by ants on both their primary and secondary hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pea aphids are not known to be farmed by ants that feed on honeydews. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • In two studies, the quantity of overwintering eggs had a strong positive correlation with the severity of soybean aphid outbreaks in the following spring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aphids that hatch from these eggs in the spring are wingless females known as stem mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • plum
  • There are six strains of plum pox virus: PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-EA, PPV-C, PPV-Rec (Recombinant), and PPV-W. PPV-M isolates are more aggressive in peach, are aphid vectored more efficiently, and spread more rapidly in an orchard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winged aphids can transmit plum pox within an orchard, and over short distances (200-300 meters) to trees in nearby orchards. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • The researches that found D. noxia resistant strains of wheat were in 1996 but genotypes of aphids that were able to overcome these resistance strains began to appear in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • buckthorn
  • Sensing the end of summer, the aphids are moving en masse to their winter host, buckthorn . (scienceblogs.com)
  • George Heimpel suggests that this whole thing is an invasion meltdown initiated by introduced earthworms, which modify the soil to favor buckthorn growth, which then favors the growth of aphids, which then are good food for the invasive ladybug Harmonia axyridis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • insecticidal
  • Horticultural oil or insecticidal soaps are a safer method of destroying aphids and should be tried first before resorting to imidacloprid. (gardenguides.com)
  • phloem
  • The aphid further increases the nutritional drainage of the host plant through eliciting an increase in essential amino acid in the phloem sap by triggering a breakdown of proteins in the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding
  • The body structure of aphids is simplified to perform only the functions of feeding and reproduction, while retaining the ability to walk. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Early signs of plant damage are yellow or light red spotting, or curling leaves where the aphids are feeding. (calgary.ca)
  • Aphid feeding in wheat results in qualitative and quantitative losses in flour yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • First the aphid must acquire the virus by feeding on a PLRV infected plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • When feeding on grasses, the aphids suck the sap and at first cause yellow or red spots on the leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • missile
  • a Sparrow equivalent, and the AA-8 Aphid , a relatively small missile for close-in use, were introduced during the 1970s. (britannica.com)
  • population
  • An aphid population is therefore able to grow geometrically for a considerable period of time. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Several parasites are known to attack this aphid and it is thought that they will in time be effective in reducing the population numbers of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these genes are marked for selective breeding, it may serve to manage the population of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cycle allows the aphid to increase its population dramatically in a relatively short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parthenogenesis
  • The production of female offspring by parthenogenesis is referred to as thelytoky (e.g., aphids) while the production of males by parthenogenesis is referred to as arrhenotoky (e.g., bees). (wikipedia.org)
  • They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pine
  • These aphids are a type of aphid which infests pine trees and causes some problems. (nmsu.edu)
  • A few years ago I spoke to a gentleman who, when looking closely at these aphids, forgot that pine needles have a sharp point. (nmsu.edu)
  • The aphids feed by piercing the stem of the pine with a stylet mouthpart. (nmsu.edu)
  • Despite their names, taxonomically, the woolly conifer aphids like the pine aphid, the spruce aphid, and the balsam woolly aphid are not true aphids, but adelgids, and lack the cornicles of true aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pest
  • The book remains a comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the biology of aphids, the various methods of controlling them and the progress of integrated pest management as illustrated by ten case histories. (cabi.org)
  • After its detection in the US in 1986, the Russian wheat aphid quickly became a major pest of wheat and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies
  • The aphids themselves are a light bluish color with bodies covered with long, white, waxy filaments giving them a woolly appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduce
  • On a growth medium without amino acids, aphids can grow and reproduce. (uconn.edu)
  • However, if an antibiotic that kills bacteria is added to the medium, the aphids fail to grow and reproduce. (uconn.edu)
  • Symptoms
  • The result of being a host of an aphid are damages through nutrient drainage which develops into symptoms such as chlorosis, necrosis, wilting, stunting and other growth impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundance
  • However, even very small percentages of virus can be a problem if green peach aphids appear very early and in abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Research has been conducted to identify the specific genes that can be attributed to aphid resistance and the information marked to assist in breeding aphid resistant strain of wheat or barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns
  • This coevolution is apparent in the similarity between the branching patterns of the aphid phylogenetic tree and those of the symbionts. (uconn.edu)
  • amino acids
  • Besides being a nuisance for owners of cars parked under pines or people sitting on chairs or benches under the trees, the aphids are robbing the trees of the sugars and amino acids that they have synthesized from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. (nmsu.edu)
  • This cycling of amino acids permits the growth and reproduction of aphids. (uconn.edu)