• control of aphids
  • This revision and update of the well-received first edition published ten years ago reflects the expansion of research in genomics, endosymbionts and semiochemicals, as well as the shift from control of aphids with insecticides to a more integrated approach imposed by increasing resistance in the aphids and government restrictions on pesticides. (cabi.org)
  • Be sure to select a product labeled for control of aphids on the pine or other trees you have found infested. (nmsu.edu)
  • Control of aphids with insecticide application is the only means of managing this problem in production years that are highly favorable for aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the disease becomes established, control and prevention measures for plum pox include field surveys, use of certified nursery materials, control of aphids, and elimination of infected trees in nurseries and orchards. (wikipedia.org)
  • insect
  • Richard Harrington retired in 2015 as Head of the Rothamsted Insect Survey, with which he worked for 36 years on aphid monitoring and forecasting. (cabi.org)
  • However, if you find numerous lady bird beetles or lacewing larvae in the tree, you should allow the natural controls, these insect predators of aphids, to do the job. (nmsu.edu)
  • The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. (wikipedia.org)
  • The soybean aphid possesses a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle, which means the insect alternates hosts and undergoes sexual reproduction for at least part of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aphid is a type of sap-feeding insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) is a small black insect in the Aphis genus, with a broad, soft body, a member of the order Hemiptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fauna Europaea lists six subspecies: A. f. cirsiiacanthoidis A. f. eryngii A. f. evonymi A. f. fabae A. f. mordvilkoi A. f. solanella The black bean aphid is a small, soft-bodied insect that has specialised piercing and sucking mouthparts which are used to suck the juice from plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aphid is usually seen in large numbers and is a tiny, plump insect about two millimetres long with a small head and bulbous abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beech blight aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator) is a small insect in the order Hemiptera that feeds on the sap of American beech trees. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to survivability in sub zero temperatures, the aphids are also capable of rapid cold hardiness (RCH) which allows an insect to develop protection against sudden sub freezing temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids: insect pest that sucks sap from plant tissue, excreting a substance called honeydew, which invites other fungal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • Use a strong direct spray of plain water to remove aphids without harming the beneficial insects. (calgary.ca)
  • Beneficial insects will fly away to dry off and return later to eat more aphids. (calgary.ca)
  • Predatory insects such as ladybugs will help to keep aphids under control. (calgary.ca)
  • Aphids - the green, yellow, brown, red or black pear-shaped insects with long legs and antennae - don't run away quickly when disturbed. (spectracide.com)
  • Adelgids are sometimes described as aphids, but are more properly classified as aphid-like insects, because they have no cauda or cornicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids passively feed on sap of phloem vessels in plants, as do many of their fellow members of Hemiptera such as scale insects and cicadas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was called Lake Storm "Aphid" by the National Weather Service office in Buffalo in accordance with their naming scheme of lake snow effect storms for that year, which related to insects, though locals never used that terminology and have simply referred to it as the October Surprise or the October Storm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In years that are very favorable for insects, like the 1996 season was, the aphid population can become so large that even a very low percentage of PLRV infected seed could result in sufficient spread to cause a problem, because as the aphid population increases, so does the probability that they will encounter an infected plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphididae
  • The pea aphid genome and other of its features are the focus of studies covering the following areas: Symbiosis with bacteria - As all aphididae, A. pisum hosts the primary endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids and is necessary for aphid reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • Other common names include blackfly, bean aphid and beet leaf aphid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding by this aphid will also cause the flag leaf to turn white and curl around the head causing incomplete head emergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the leaf grows, the aphid injects it with a substance, possibly an enzyme or hormone, that causes that the galls to form around her. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant sap
  • Feeding Habits - Aphids feed on plant sap by inserting their mouthparts into plant tissue. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • As the plant sap flows through its body, the aphid uses only a few of the nutrients in the sap and the rest is excreted as 'honeydew,' which makes leaves on affected trees appear shiny. (calgary.ca)
  • gall
  • This gall, rich in nutrients, provides both food and shelter for the female aphid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aphids feed on the glucose present in the gall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common gall forming aphids are the spiny witch-hazel gall aphid and the elm cockscomb gall aphid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The switch between sexuality and parthenogenesis in such species may be triggered by the season (aphid, some gall wasps), or by a lack of males or by conditions that favour rapid population growth (rotifers and cladocerans like daphnia). (wikipedia.org)
  • twigs
  • If you see great numbers of aphids on many of the twigs in the tree, you may choose to treat to reduce the aphid population and limit the damage to the trees. (nmsu.edu)
  • If you decide to treat, you may use a strong jet of water to wash many of the aphids from the twigs if the infested branches are within range of a strong stream of water from the garden hose. (nmsu.edu)
  • favorable
  • Reproduction - During favorable climatic conditions, all aphid young are born female and therefore all will contribute to population growth. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • ants
  • Readers will eat this book up, learning what aphids look like, how they use different parts of their bodies, and how ants and aphids help each other live. (biguniverse.com)
  • These aphids are attended by ants on both their primary and secondary hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pea aphids are not known to be farmed by ants that feed on honeydews. (wikipedia.org)
  • plum
  • There are six strains of plum pox virus: PPV-D, PPV-M, PPV-EA, PPV-C, PPV-Rec (Recombinant), and PPV-W. PPV-M isolates are more aggressive in peach, are aphid vectored more efficiently, and spread more rapidly in an orchard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Winged aphids can transmit plum pox within an orchard, and over short distances (200-300 meters) to trees in nearby orchards. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • The researches that found D. noxia resistant strains of wheat were in 1996 but genotypes of aphids that were able to overcome these resistance strains began to appear in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • honeydew
  • As the sap has an excess of sugar from the aphids' perspective, they excrete a sugary syrup, called honeydew. (nmsu.edu)
  • Fungus then grows on this honeydew, creating a black scum that can stick to cars, patio furniture, decks and sidewalks located beneath aphid-infested trees. (calgary.ca)
  • This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of sooty mould. (wikipedia.org)
  • buckthorn
  • Sensing the end of summer, the aphids are moving en masse to their winter host, buckthorn . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Maybe (I almost hope) these aphids will become vectors for some horrible buckthorn disease, thus reducing the impact of Rhamnus cathartica , a notorious invasive species from Asia that is causing considerable ecological degradation in upper Midwestern forests and woodlands. (scienceblogs.com)
  • George Heimpel suggests that this whole thing is an invasion meltdown initiated by introduced earthworms, which modify the soil to favor buckthorn growth, which then favors the growth of aphids, which then are good food for the invasive ladybug Harmonia axyridis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • phloem
  • The aphid further increases the nutritional drainage of the host plant through eliciting an increase in essential amino acid in the phloem sap by triggering a breakdown of proteins in the host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feeding
  • The body structure of aphids is simplified to perform only the functions of feeding and reproduction, while retaining the ability to walk. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Early signs of plant damage are yellow or light red spotting, or curling leaves where the aphids are feeding. (calgary.ca)
  • Aphid feeding in wheat results in qualitative and quantitative losses in flour yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • First the aphid must acquire the virus by feeding on a PLRV infected plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • When feeding on grasses, the aphids suck the sap and at first cause yellow or red spots on the leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasites
  • Several parasites are known to attack this aphid and it is thought that they will in time be effective in reducing the population numbers of aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • missile
  • a Sparrow equivalent, and the AA-8 Aphid , a relatively small missile for close-in use, were introduced during the 1970s. (britannica.com)
  • Parthenogenesis
  • The production of female offspring by parthenogenesis is referred to as thelytoky (e.g., aphids) while the production of males by parthenogenesis is referred to as arrhenotoky (e.g., bees). (wikipedia.org)
  • They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pine
  • These aphids are a type of aphid which infests pine trees and causes some problems. (nmsu.edu)
  • A few years ago I spoke to a gentleman who, when looking closely at these aphids, forgot that pine needles have a sharp point. (nmsu.edu)
  • The aphids feed by piercing the stem of the pine with a stylet mouthpart. (nmsu.edu)
  • Despite their names, taxonomically, the woolly conifer aphids like the pine aphid, the spruce aphid, and the balsam woolly aphid are not true aphids, but adelgids, and lack the cornicles of true aphids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pest
  • The book remains a comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the biology of aphids, the various methods of controlling them and the progress of integrated pest management as illustrated by ten case histories. (cabi.org)
  • After its detection in the US in 1986, the Russian wheat aphid quickly became a major pest of wheat and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • In two studies, the quantity of overwintering eggs had a strong positive correlation with the severity of soybean aphid outbreaks in the following spring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aphids that hatch from these eggs in the spring are wingless females known as stem mothers. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies
  • The aphids themselves are a light bluish color with bodies covered with long, white, waxy filaments giving them a woolly appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduce
  • On a growth medium without amino acids, aphids can grow and reproduce. (uconn.edu)
  • However, if an antibiotic that kills bacteria is added to the medium, the aphids fail to grow and reproduce. (uconn.edu)
  • Symptoms
  • The result of being a host of an aphid are damages through nutrient drainage which develops into symptoms such as chlorosis, necrosis, wilting, stunting and other growth impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundance
  • However, even very small percentages of virus can be a problem if green peach aphids appear very early and in abundance. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Research has been conducted to identify the specific genes that can be attributed to aphid resistance and the information marked to assist in breeding aphid resistant strain of wheat or barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns
  • This coevolution is apparent in the similarity between the branching patterns of the aphid phylogenetic tree and those of the symbionts. (uconn.edu)
  • amino acids
  • Besides being a nuisance for owners of cars parked under pines or people sitting on chairs or benches under the trees, the aphids are robbing the trees of the sugars and amino acids that they have synthesized from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. (nmsu.edu)
  • This cycling of amino acids permits the growth and reproduction of aphids. (uconn.edu)
  • wheat
  • The Russian wheat aphid is native to southwestern parts of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flour derived from aphid infested wheat has a significant negative effect on the gliadin/glutenin ratio which reduces the bread making quality of aphid infested wheat plant flour. (wikipedia.org)