• cardiac
  • Isoproterenol infusion during cardiac catheterization as a simulator of exercise was evaluated with hemodynamic studies in children with pulmonary (15) or aortic (8) valve stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Peak pulmonary and aortic valve gradients as well as right and left ventricular dp/dt/p were significantly higher and cardiac index significantly lower with isoproterenol as compared to exercise. (ahajournals.org)
  • Grading of aortic valve stenosis at 64-slice spiral computed tomography: comparison with transthoracic echocardiography and calibration against cardiac catheterization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 202 patients (among them 160 patients with aortic valve stenosis) underwent MSCT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac catheterization (CATH). (biomedsearch.com)
  • A narrow pulse pressure is also caused by aortic valve stenosis and cardiac tamponade. (wikipedia.org)
  • For verification purposes of the obtained valve area using echocardiogram and doppler measures, especially if the obtained valve area is in the range requiring surgery and cardiac output is low, the Gold standard of left heart catheterization for true hemodynamics should be obtained for validation using the Gorlin formula, so patient does not go for unneeded surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow across the aortic valve is calculated by taking the cardiac output (measured in liters/minute) and dividing it by the heart rate (to give output per cardiac cycle) and then dividing it by the systolic ejection period measured in seconds per beat (to give flow per ventricular contraction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Valve Area (cm 2 ) = Cardiac Output ( ml min ) Heart rate ( beats min ) ⋅ Systolic ejection period (s) ⋅ 44.3 ⋅ mean Gradient (mmHg) {\displaystyle {\text{Valve Area (cm}}^{2}{\text{)}}={\frac {{\text{Cardiac Output }}({\frac {\text{ml}}{\text{min}}})}{{\text{Heart rate }}({\frac {\text{beats}}{\text{min}}})\cdot {\text{Systolic ejection period (s)}}\cdot 44.3\cdot {\sqrt {\text{mean Gradient (mmHg)}}}}}} The Gorlin equation is related to flow across the valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, the valve area may be erroneously calculated as stenotic if the flow across the valve is low (i.e. if the cardiac output is low). (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting simplified formula is: Aortic Valve area (cm 2 ) ≈ Cardiac Output ( litre min ) Peak to Peak Gradient (mmHg) {\displaystyle {\text{Aortic Valve area (cm}}^{2}{\text{)}}\approx {\frac {{\text{Cardiac Output}}({\frac {\text{litre}}{\text{min}}})}{\sqrt {\text{Peak to Peak Gradient (mmHg)}}}}} The Agarwal-Okpara-Bao equation is a new form of AVA evaluation equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In people with aortic valve stenosis, the stenotic aortic valve becomes increasingly narrowed resulting in an increase the speed of the blood through the valve in order to maintain cardiac output. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulmonary
  • Comparison of the cardiocirculatory effects of exercise and isoproterenol in children with pulmonary or aortic valve stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The atrial septum is removed, the aortic arch is reconstructed to remove any hypoplasia, and then the main pulmonary artery is connected into this reconstructed arch, resulting in the right ventricle ejecting directly into systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afterload is, therefore, a consequence of aortic large vessel compliance, wave reflection, and small vessel resistance (LV afterload) or similar pulmonary artery parameters (RV afterload). (wikipedia.org)
  • The area enclosed by the PV loop is a measure of the ventricular stroke work, which is a product of the stroke volume and the mean aortic or pulmonary artery pressure (afterload), depending on whether one is considering the left or the right ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) may be due to a defect in the pulmonic valve, the supravalvar region, the infundibulum, or the pulmonary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This compound has also been used as a treatment for aortic valve stenosis, oesophageal varices, myocardial infarction, pulmonary hypertension, respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn, shock, and ergot toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Heyde's syndrome is now known to be gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasic lesions due to acquired vWD-2A deficiency secondary to aortic stenosis, and the diagnosis is made by confirming the presence of those three things. (wikipedia.org)
  • aneurysm
  • It can also become necessary for the treatment of aortic aneurysm, less frequently for congenital aortic stenosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The details of the aortic valve repair procedure depend on the possibility of congenital malformation of the valve, the type and degree of secondary deformation, and the existence of an aortic aneurysm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of this analysis including the possible presence of an aortic aneurysm then determine the plan for the repair procedure which must be individualized for every patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intervention
  • The newborn's aortic valve is so narrowed that the heart cannot pump enough blood to nourish the body, so immediate intervention is needed - usually by interventional catheterization with balloon dilation or by surgically replacing the aortic valve. (childrenshospital.org)
  • risk factors
  • Background- Hypercholesterolemia and old age are clinical risk factors for development of aortic valve stenosis, and hypercholesterolemia is a putative therapeutic target. (ahajournals.org)
  • 50mm and risk factors and connective tissue disease The goal of the operation is the improvement of life expectancy and treatment of heart failure as the consequence of dysfunction of the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • valvuloplasty
  • Some young people or pregnant women may have another procedure called balloon valvuloplasty to enlarge the valve opening. (webmd.com)
  • Another less invasive procedure, balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) may result in benefit but this is for only for a few months. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Some people who cannot have open-heart surgery may have a minimally invasive procedure to replace the valve. (webmd.com)
  • The Norwood procedure is a procedure to correct fetal aortic stenosis that occurs after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repair of a defected mitral valve is a potential future hybrid procedure, that is still dependent on approval of the necessary devices by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • A repair procedure may not last forever, but in many instances the durability of an aortic valve repair will markedly exceed that of a biological prosthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ultimate goal of the procedure is the restoration of a normal form of the aortic valve, which will then lead to near-normal function and good durability of the repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doppler
  • From these, it is easy to calculate the area (cm2) of the aortic valve by simply dividing the LV Stroke Volume (cm3) by the AV VTI(cm) measured on the spectral Doppler display using continuous-wave Doppler. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • Studies investigating the natural history of aortic valve stenosis in adults show that the disease is progressive, but the longer we can preserve a patient's natural valve, the lower the risk of future complications. (bmj.com)