• pulmonary
  • Afterload is, therefore, a consequence of aortic large vessel compliance, wave reflection, and small vessel resistance (LV afterload) or similar pulmonary artery parameters (RV afterload). (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Although aquatic animals have evolved profound physiological adaptations to conserve oxygen during submersion, the apnea and breath-holding duration, bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and redistribution of cardiac output occur also in terrestrial animals as a neural response, but the effects are more profound in natural divers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slowing the heart rate reduces the cardiac oxygen consumption, and compensates for the hypertension due to vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • aorta
  • This investigation has been a comparison of the intimal metabolism of the aorta in normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, and at various aortic locations. (ahajournals.org)
  • A method of using the present invention includes the steps of adjusting outflow from the pump to optimize the mixing of red blood cells in the aorta and thereby enhance oxygen delivery to tissues by minimizing blood cell concentration in the center of the aorta. (google.es)
  • In cartilaginous fishes and teleosts, the heart lies low in the body and pumps blood forward through the ventral aorta, which splits up in a series of paired aortic arches, each corresponding to a gill arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • gills
  • Particularly in tropical swampland habitats, atmospheric oxygen is much more stable, and may have prompted a reliance of lungs rather than gills for primary oxygen uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once NEC of the zebrafish gills come in contact with either environmental or aortic hypoxia, an outward K+ "leak" channel is inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • extraction
  • Qs fell from 2.4 +/- 0.7 to 1.8 +/- 0.41.min-1.m-2 (p less than 0.05), SOT fell from 425 +/- 154 to 366 +/- 112 ml.O2.min-1.m-2 (p less than 0.05), and oxygen extraction increased from 0.40 +/- 0.12 to 0.46 +/- 0.13 (p less than 0.05). (ahajournals.org)
  • mismatch
  • Chest pain may occur due to increased workload on the heart resulting in a mismatch in the oxygen demand and supply to the heart muscle resulting in inadequate delivery of oxygen to meet the heart muscle's metabolic needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • 5. - 6 In cancer, for example, abnormal metabolism fuels rapid cellular growth while maintaining relative insensitivity to oxygen supply. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • During this period of heart isolation, the heart is not receiving any blood flow, thus no oxygen for metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxia
  • Fish respond to hypoxia with varied behavioral, physiological, and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organism function in an oxygen-depleted environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, hypoxia survival requires a coordinated response to secure more oxygen from the depleted environment and counteract the metabolic consequences of decreased ATP production at the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains unclear how these K+ channels are inhibited by a shortage of oxygen because there are yet to be any known direct binding sites for "a lack of oxygen", only whole cell and ion channel responses to hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelin
  • Additional small-molecule mediators that suppress baroreceptor activity and contribute to exaggerated sympathetic drive in hypertension include reactive oxygen species and endothelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Both octanoic acid and oleic acid stimulated oxygen consumption to a similar degree during hypothermic perfusion suggesting that the detrimental effect of octanoic acid was due to direct metabolic stimulation rather than uncoupling of oxidatative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biggest challenge fish face when exposed to low oxygen conditions is maintaining metabolic energy balance, as 95% of the oxygen consumed by fish is used for ATP production through the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • Per unit volume, there is much more oxygen in air than in water, and vertebrates are active animals with a high energy requirement compared to invertebrates of similar sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • underwater
  • It optimizes respiration by preferentially distributing oxygen stores to the heart and brain which allows staying underwater for extended periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children tend to survive longer than adults when deprived of oxygen underwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • A commonly used representation is the critical O2 tension (Pcrit), which is the lowest water O2 tension (PO2) at which a fish can maintain a stable O2 consumption rate (MO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • This acceleration of oxygen consumption is presumably due to either an increased energy requirement (for either accelerated synthesis or catabolism) or an uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • demand
  • The theory behind this approach is that by simultaneously limiting the oxygen demand and maximizing oxygen delivery to the heart after damage has occurred, the heart is more fully able to recover. (wikipedia.org)
  • CO is regulated principally by the demand for oxygen by the cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • central
  • During this period of development, it is proposed that neonates heavily rely on other oxygen-sensing chemoreceptors, such as the aortic body or central chemoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, there is central resetting of the aortic baroreflex in hypertensive patients, resulting in suppression of sympathetic inhibition after activation of aortic baroreceptor nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In more general terms, a chemosensor detects toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal or external environment of the human body (e.x. chemotherapy) and transmits that information to the central nervous system, (and rarely the peripheral nervous system), in order to expel the biologically active toxins from the blood, and prevent further consumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreational intoxicants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In fish, the neuroepithelial cells (NEC) have been implicated as the major oxygen sensing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most noticeable effects are on the cardiovascular system, which displays peripheral vasoconstriction, slowed pulse rate, redirection of blood to the vital organs to conserve oxygen, release of red blood cells stored in the spleen, and, in humans, heart rhythm irregularities. (wikipedia.org)
  • CO is an indicator of how well the heart is performing its function of transporting blood to deliver oxygen, nutrients, and chemicals to various cells of the body and to remove the cellular wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • The Devonian saw increasing oxygen levels which opened up new ecological niches by allowing groups able to exploit the additional oxygen to develop into active, large-bodied animals. (wikipedia.org)