• Immunology
  • Expression and Purification of Virus-like Particles for Vaccination Maria T. Arevalo 1 , Terianne M. Wong 1 , Ted M. Ross 1 1 Center for Vaccines and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia Here, we present a protocol for synthesizing virus-like particles using either baculovirus or mammalian expression systems, and ultracentrifugation purification. (jove.com)
  • Peter Openshaw FRCP FMedSci (born 11 November 1954) is a clinician-scientist working lung immunology, particularly defence against viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • He created the academic department of Respiratory Medicine and the Centre for Respiratory Infection at Imperial College and was elected President of the British Society for Immunology in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • These viruses can cause or exacerbate chronic lung diseases, such as asthma, and can be fatal in some patients. (upenn.edu)
  • Thus, RSV infections impose severe threats for exacerbating chronic lung disease, and this has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of an altered Th2 immune environment. (jimmunol.org)
  • RSV infection and associated inflammation have also been shown to be a substantial contributing factor in the exacerbation of chronic lung diseases in adults and the elderly. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) is a worldwide public health problem causing 500,000 deaths each year with the highest death rates among newborns, the elderly and adults with chronic lung diseases. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Between the age of 2 and 5 years, the presence of co-morbid conditions, especially chronic lung disease, congenital heart disease and immune deficiency, increases the risk of severe RSV infection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. (jove.com)
  • Peter J.M. Openshaw, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute at St. Mary's, Imperial College School of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • He has worked on protective and harmful immunological reactions to viruses, inflammatory lung disease and vaccine development since 1985, authoring over 200 scientific articles (H index= 52). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • It is noted by the USAMRIID that "Ribavirin has poor in vitro and in vivo activity against the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) and the flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Kyasanur forest disease)" The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat respiratory syncytial virus-related diseases in children, although the evidence to support this is rather weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with the virus has been confirmed worldwide, and has an association with many common symptoms and diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • The expression of five antiviral genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and osteopontin (OPN), was altered by both age and infection, while age was associated with the expression of 15 antiviral genes. (jove.com)
  • 2016
  • GS-5734 was rapidly pushed through clinical trials due to the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic crisis, eventually being used in at least one human patient despite its early development stage at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretions
  • Viruses in this family are often associated with respiratory infections, and are transmitted through respiratory secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is able to survive for up to seven days in respiratory secretions and remains infective at room temperature Once the virus has entered the host it binds to cellular receptors using spike proteins, similar to those found in HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vivo
  • Here, we investigated the mechanism by which these nanobodies neutralize RSV and tested their antiviral activity in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • The ability of RSV F-specific nanobodies to protect against RSV infection was investigated in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. (jove.com)
  • Lassa
  • Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but not Ebola or Marburg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins may improve this combination's efficacy in treating hepatitis C. Ribavirin is the only known treatment for a variety of viral hemorrhagic fevers, including Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection, although data regarding these infections are scarce and the drug might be effective only in early stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for filovirus infections such as Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus, though it has subsequently also been found to show reasonable antiviral activity against more distantly related viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Junin virus, Lassa fever virus, and MERS-coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • deactivate
  • They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • First is an upper respiratory infection that includes symptoms of a common cold with rhinorrhea and nasal congestion. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The most common symptoms of lower respiratory involvement include cough, retractions, and wheeze. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The comorbidity of HCoV-NL63 with other respiratory infections, has made the specific symptoms of the virus difficult to pinpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to distinguish between symptoms caused by infection of the HCoV-NL63 virus and those caused by other common human viruses, making diagnosis and detection complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms may appear less than two days after exposure to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the first symptoms are chills or a chilly sensation, but fever is also common early in the infection, with body temperatures ranging from 38 to 39 °C (approximately 100 to 103 °F). Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects mice during respiratory virus infections. (upenn.edu)
  • Studies with mice reveal that treatment with PGs at the time of viral challenge dramatically reduces RSV infection. (nationaljewish.org)
  • and intranasal administration of PG suppresses influenza A virus infection in mice. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Intranasal administration of bivalent RSV F-specific nanobodies protected BALB/c mice from RSV infection, and associated pulmonary inflammation. (ugent.be)
  • Upon infection with mucogenic strains of RSV, leukocyte infiltration in the airways was elevated and prolonged in aged mice compared to young mice. (jove.com)
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates inherent differences in response to RSV infection in young vs. aged mice, accompanied by delayed antiviral gene induction and cytokine signaling. (jove.com)
  • Anti-T1/ST2 treatment of immunocompetent mice partially inhibits Th2 differentiation and allergic airway inflammation 13 , but the effects of anti-T1/ST2 treatment have not been evaluated in virus-infected animals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • B) Genes found significantly influenced by age and infection were used to construct individual graphs at 3 dpi and illustrate differences in direction and magnitude of gene expression of the five significant genes (RIG-I, IFNAR1, IL-1β, OPN, and TLR8) associated with both age and RSV A2 infection between young (dotted) and aged (solid) mice. (nih.gov)
  • treatment
  • The recommended treatment regimen for hepatitis C virus infection, for example, includes sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (Epclusa) and ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (Harrvoni). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ACIP also publishes recommendations on the use of antiviral agents for prevention and treatment of influenza . (medscape.com)
  • Because of this, zanamivir (Relenza) was recommended as the initial choice for antiviral prophylaxis or treatment when influenza A infection or exposure was suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Ribavirin has also been used as a treatment for herpes simplex virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitazoxanide is an effective first-line treatment for infection by Blastocystis species and is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent adults and children. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also an effective treatment option for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of September 2015[update], it is in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors like tamiflu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Romark Laboratories has announced encouraging results from international Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating a controlled release version of nitazoxanide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neonatal infection can be distressing to the family and it initiates concentrated effort to treat it by clinicians.Research to improve treatment of infections and prophylactic treatment of the mother to avoid infections of the infant is ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In industrialized countries, treatment for neonatal infections takes place in the neonatal intensive care unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment for the HCoV-NL63 virus is dependent on the severity of associated symptomology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiviral treatment may be necessary for infected patients that end up in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to acute respiratory infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The infant's ability to resist infection is complicated by its immature immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired maternal infection and subsequent inflammation from Ureaplasma urealyticum is accompanied by a strong immune response and is correlated with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune response of the cells it infects and the construction of a capsid, which is unique to the varying classifications of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as specific antiviral action against both influenza A and influenza B viruses, umifenovir exhibits modulatory effects on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • The company stated that it would no longer develop Motavizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and as a result was withdrawing its licence application to the US Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends several measures for the prevention of infection with HCoV-NL63 including: washing hands often with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not touching the eyes, mouth, or nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The Pneumoviridae M2-1 protein is distinctive, and no homologue has been found in any other virus families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, through the action of the fusion protein, the virus fuses to the host plasma membrane and the nucleocapsid is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The emergence of antivirals is the product of a greatly expanded knowledge of the genetic and molecular function of organisms, allowing biomedical researchers to understand the structure and function of viruses, major advances in the techniques for finding new drugs, and the pressure placed on the medical profession to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV) infection can occur during labor and delivery, in utero through mother-to-child transmission or postnatally by way of breastfeeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further studies confirmed that the virus is not an emerging virus, but rather one that continually circulates the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • These infections have existed throughout human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • In this study, we investigated the role of Notch activation in a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-exacerbated allergic airway disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • Respiratory virus-induced asthma exacerbations are the most common trigger for induction of worsening airways disease, and understanding the etiology in allergic airway disease may provide better treatments. (jimmunol.org)
  • toxicity
  • It was reported that ribavirin was active against a variety of RNA and DNA viruses in culture and in animals, without undue toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria
  • The main pathogens of concern in T cell deficiencies are intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium and Listeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes can also cause infection acquired from tainted food and present in the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine
  • The virus was finally isolated by Max Theiler (1899-1972) in 1932 who went on to develop a successful vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Pneumoviruses are pleomorphic, capable of producing spherical and filamentous enveloped virions (virus particles) that vary in size from 150 to 200 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by the American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-1971), who proved that they were in fact, particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion that viruses were particles was not considered unnatural and fitted in nicely with the germ theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until the invention of the electron microscope in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska (1906-1988) and Max Knoll (1887-1969), that virus particles, especially bacteriophages, were shown to have complex structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes
  • The first experimental antivirals were developed in the 1960s, mostly to deal with herpes viruses, and were found using traditional trial-and-error drug discovery methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • They then introduced into the cultures chemicals which they thought might inhibit viral activity, and observed whether the level of virus in the cultures rose or fell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minitab
  • Minitab factorial analysis identified several antiviral genes that are influenced by age, infection, and a combination of both factors. (jove.com)
  • To identify which genes are uniquely regulated by the contributing factors of age or infection, a Minitab design-of-experiments (DOE) was performed on the first delta Ct derived from the PCR array analysis. (nih.gov)
  • infectious
  • Martinus Beijerinck called the filtered, infectious substance a "virus" and this discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the purified RNA of a negative sense virus is not infectious by itself, as it needs to be converted to a positive sense RNA for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • A) A Venn diagram illustrates these relationships and the significant genes associated only with age, infection, a combination of both factors, and neither on 1 dpi, 3 dpi, or 5 dpi. (nih.gov)
  • Age was found to be a statistically significant factor influencing the ΔCt in 15 genes and the Venn diagram illustrates the relationship of the contributing factors of age or infection for all 84 antiviral genes examined (Fig. 4A). (nih.gov)