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  • lung
  • These viruses can cause or exacerbate chronic lung diseases, such as asthma, and can be fatal in some patients. (upenn.edu)
  • Thus, RSV infections impose severe threats for exacerbating chronic lung disease, and this has been hypothesized to be associated with the development of an altered Th2 immune environment. (jimmunol.org)
  • RSV infection and associated inflammation have also been shown to be a substantial contributing factor in the exacerbation of chronic lung diseases in adults and the elderly. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) is a worldwide public health problem causing 500,000 deaths each year with the highest death rates among newborns, the elderly and adults with chronic lung diseases. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Between the age of 2 and 5 years, the presence of co-morbid conditions, especially chronic lung disease, congenital heart disease and immune deficiency, increases the risk of severe RSV infection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In this study, we used an aged mouse model of RSV-induced pneumonia to examine how aging alters the lung pathology, modulates antiviral gene expressions, and the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to RSV infection. (jove.com)
  • These infections can alter the long-term function of the lung and may lead to severe asthma-like responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Asthma-like responses can be induced and/or exacerbated by viral infections that impact lung function through a combination of viral- and inflammation-induced damage ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In some instances, neonatal respiratory tract infections may increase one's susceptibility to future respiratory infections and inflammatory responses related to lung disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peter Openshaw FRCP FMedSci (born 11 November 1954) is a clinician-scientist working lung immunology, particularly defence against viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has worked on protective and harmful immunological reactions to viruses, inflammatory lung disease and vaccine development since 1985, authoring over 200 scientific articles (H index= 52). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • GS-5734 was rapidly pushed through clinical trials due to the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic crisis, eventually being used in at least one human patient despite its early development stage at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretions
  • Viruses in this family are often associated with respiratory infections, and are transmitted through respiratory secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is able to survive for up to seven days in respiratory secretions and remains infective at room temperature Once the virus has entered the host it binds to cellular receptors using spike proteins, similar to those found in HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vivo
  • In vivo, induction of IL-1β and OPN were delayed but prolonged in aged mice upon RSV infection compared to young. (jove.com)
  • Here, we investigated the mechanism by which these nanobodies neutralize RSV and tested their antiviral activity in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • The ability of RSV F-specific nanobodies to protect against RSV infection was investigated in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • It is noted by the USAMRIID that "Ribavirin has poor in vitro and in vivo activity against the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) and the flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Kyasanur forest disease)" The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat respiratory syncytial virus-related diseases in children, although the evidence to support this is rather weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Functional analyses showed that the human small HERCs exhibit different degrees of antiviral activity toward HIV-1 and that HERC5 provides the strongest inhibition. (asm.org)
  • immune
  • The infant's ability to resist infection is complicated by its immature immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired maternal infection and subsequent inflammation from Ureaplasma urealyticum is accompanied by a strong immune response and is correlated with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as specific antiviral action against both influenza A and influenza B viruses, umifenovir exhibits modulatory effects on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune response of the cells it infects and the construction of a capsid, which is unique to the varying classifications of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lassa
  • Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but not Ebola or Marburg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins may improve this combination's efficacy in treating hepatitis C. Ribavirin is the only known treatment for a variety of viral hemorrhagic fevers, including Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection, although data regarding these infections are scarce and the drug might be effective only in early stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for filovirus infections such as Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus, though it has subsequently also been found to show reasonable antiviral activity against more distantly related viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Junin virus, Lassa fever virus, and MERS-coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • They then introduced into the cultures chemicals which they thought might inhibit viral activity, and observed whether the level of virus in the cultures rose or fell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, coelacanth HERC5 inhibited simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), but not HIV-1, particle production, suggesting that the antiviral activity of HERC5 emerged over 413 million years ago and exhibits species- and virus-specific restriction. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we showed that both HERC5 and HERC6 are evolving under strong positive selection, particularly blade 1 of the RCC1-like domain, which we showed is a key determinant of antiviral activity. (asm.org)
  • Some signs of severe disease include: poor feeding (less than half of usual fluid intake in preceding 24 hours) significantly decreased activity history of stopping breathing respiratory rate >70/min presence of nasal flaring and/or grunting severe chest wall recession (Hoover's sign) bluish skin The term usually refers to acute viral bronchiolitis, a common disease in infancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • deactivate
  • They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Expression and Purification of Virus-like Particles for Vaccination Maria T. Arevalo 1 , Terianne M. Wong 1 , Ted M. Ross 1 1 Center for Vaccines and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia Here, we present a protocol for synthesizing virus-like particles using either baculovirus or mammalian expression systems, and ultracentrifugation purification. (jove.com)
  • Infection with the virus has been confirmed worldwide, and has an association with many common symptoms and diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • prophylactic
  • Neonatal infection can be distressing to the family and it initiates concentrated effort to treat it by clinicians.Research to improve treatment of infections and prophylactic treatment of the mother to avoid infections of the infant is ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Romark Laboratories has announced encouraging results from international Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating a controlled release version of nitazoxanide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • First is an upper respiratory infection that includes symptoms of a common cold with rhinorrhea and nasal congestion. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The most common symptoms of lower respiratory involvement include cough, retractions, and wheeze. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Signs and symptoms may appear less than two days after exposure to the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comorbidity of HCoV-NL63 with other respiratory infections, has made the specific symptoms of the virus difficult to pinpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is difficult to distinguish between symptoms caused by infection of the HCoV-NL63 virus and those caused by other common human viruses, making diagnosis and detection complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the first symptoms are chills or a chilly sensation, but fever is also common early in the infection, with body temperatures ranging from 38 to 39 °C (approximately 100 to 103 °F). Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Identification of those who are RSV-positive can help for: disease surveillance, grouping ("cohorting") people together in hospital wards to prevent cross infection, predicting whether the disease course has peaked yet, reducing the need for other diagnostic procedures (by providing confidence that a cause has been identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends several measures for the prevention of infection with HCoV-NL63 including: washing hands often with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not touching the eyes, mouth, or nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915) and Paul Frosch (1860-1928) passed the first animal virus through a similar filter and discovered the cause of foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • It was reported that ribavirin was active against a variety of RNA and DNA viruses in culture and in animals, without undue toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria
  • The main pathogens of concern in T cell deficiencies are intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium and Listeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria monocytogenes can also cause infection acquired from tainted food and present in the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • In humans, homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) and regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1)-like domain-containing protein 5 (HERC5) is an interferon-induced protein that inhibits replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (asm.org)
  • Vaccine
  • The virus was finally isolated by Max Theiler (1899-1972) in 1932 who went on to develop a successful vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes
  • The first experimental antivirals were developed in the 1960s, mostly to deal with herpes viruses, and were found using traditional trial-and-error drug discovery methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Infections occur more commonly during the winter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of samples collected through nasopharyngeal swab is the most commonly used method for detection of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Martinus Beijerinck called the filtered, infectious substance a "virus" and this discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the purified RNA of a negative sense virus is not infectious by itself, as it needs to be converted to a positive sense RNA for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • For this reason, when ribavirin is incorporated into RNA, as a base analog of either adenine or guanine, it pairs equally well with either uracil or cytosine, inducing mutations in RNA-dependent replication in RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once sufficient P, N, L, and M2 proteins are available to create a capsid around the newly replicated genome, the virus undergoes replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two genome subgroups can be distinguished, nonsegmented and segmented, and are described as such: In viruses with nonsegmented genomes, the first step of replication is transcription of the negative strand by RdRp to form various monocistronic mRNA that code for individual viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In viruses with segmented genomes, replication occurs in the nucleus and the RdRp produces one monocistronic mRNA strand from each genome segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Pneumoviruses are pleomorphic, capable of producing spherical and filamentous enveloped virions (virus particles) that vary in size from 150 to 200 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by the American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-1971), who proved that they were in fact, particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion that viruses were particles was not considered unnatural and fitted in nicely with the germ theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until the invention of the electron microscope in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska (1906-1988) and Max Knoll (1887-1969), that virus particles, especially bacteriophages, were shown to have complex structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV) infection can occur during labor and delivery, in utero through mother-to-child transmission or postnatally by way of breastfeeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • There are currently no vaccines against RSV or specific antivirals that fight it. (rockefeller.edu)
  • For health officials, it could inform decisions on how many vaccines and antiviral drugs to stockpile, and in the case of a virulent outbreak, whether other measures, like closing schools, is necessary. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In terms of the management of T cell deficiency for those individuals with this condition the following can be applied: Killed vaccines should be used(not live vaccines in T cell deficiency) Bone marrow transplant Immunoglobulin replacement Antiviral therapy Supplemental nutrition In the U.S. this defect occurs in about 1 in 70,000, with the majority of cases presenting in early life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • Among the viral hemorrhagic fevers it is used for Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection but not Ebola or Marburg. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is noted by the USAMRIID that "Ribavirin has poor in vitro and in vivo activity against the filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg) and the flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Kyasanur forest disease)" The aerosol form has been used in the past to treat respiratory syncytial virus-related diseases in children, although the evidence to support this is rather weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • pneumonia
  • Although the name Diplococcus pneumoniae was originally assigned to the pneumococcus, the organism was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae because, like other streptococci, it grows in chains in liquid medium.Widespread vaccination has reduced the incidence of pneumococcal infection, but this organism remains the principal bacterial cause of otitis media, acute purulent rhinosinusitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. (gkhub.info)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • intranasally
  • The New England Journal of Medicine published research results on Aug. 21 from a clinical trial of a drug shown to safely reduce the viral load and clinical illness of healthy adult volunteers intranasally infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers pretreated mice intranasally with heat-killed DK128 and then infected them with a lethal dose of influenza A virus, subtype H3N2 or H1N1. (gsu.edu)
  • MECHANISMS
  • Neither of these mechanisms explains ribavirin's effect on many DNA viruses, which is more of a mystery, especially given the complete inactivity of ribavirin's 2' deoxyribose analogue, which suggests that the drug functions only as an RNA nucleoside mimic, and never a DNA nucleoside mimic. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Furthermore, cell cultures derived from patients with Hailey-Hailey disease indicate that their cells are less susceptible to certain infections, including RSV-a result that correlates with the researchers' other findings. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Identification of those who are RSV-positive can help for: disease surveillance, grouping ("cohorting") people together in hospital wards to prevent cross infection, predicting whether the disease course has peaked yet, reducing the need for other diagnostic procedures (by providing confidence that a cause has been identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends several measures for the prevention of infection with HCoV-NL63 including: washing hands often with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not touching the eyes, mouth, or nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has worked on protective and harmful immunological reactions to viruses, inflammatory lung disease and vaccine development since 1985, authoring over 200 scientific articles (H index= 52). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • A team in Charles M. Rice's lab has identified a calcium-transporting protein that is needed by many viruses during the later stages of their life cycles. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The researchers showed that depleting this protein in host cells significantly impairs the viruses' ability to spread, without harming the cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The key to creating a broad antiviral medicine is to find a host protein that many viruses need but that is not essential to the cell's survival. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The researchers launched their study by trying to find a host protein required by the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major virus that is particularly dangerous to children and the elderly, causing an estimated 3.4 million hospitalizations a year. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Even a partial loss of the protein, the calcium pump SPCA1, limited the ability of many viruses to mature and spread, the scientists found. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Cells that lack the protein were also less susceptible to initial infection. (rockefeller.edu)
  • After finding that RSV requires SPCA1, the researchers determined that many other viruses, both insect-borne and respiratory, need the protein. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The virus takes advantage of the single promoter model by having its genes arranged in relative order of protein needed for successful infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, nucleocapsid protein, N, is needed in greater amounts than RNA polymerase, L. Viruses in the Paramyxoviridae family are also antigenically stable, meaning that the glycoproteins on the viruses are consistent between different strains of the same type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The idea of the test was to determine whether or not the addition of nanosilver to viral-infected cells being grown in Petri dishes would decrease the rate of viral replication in the cells, thus demonstrating reduced infectivity of the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • For this reason, when ribavirin is incorporated into RNA, as a base analog of either adenine or guanine, it pairs equally well with either uracil or cytosine, inducing mutations in RNA-dependent replication in RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two genome subgroups can be distinguished, nonsegmented and segmented, and are described as such: In viruses with nonsegmented genomes, the first step of replication is transcription of the negative strand by RdRp to form various monocistronic mRNA that code for individual viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In viruses with segmented genomes, replication occurs in the nucleus and the RdRp produces one monocistronic mRNA strand from each genome segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune response of the cells it infects and the construction of a capsid, which is unique to the varying classifications of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • We found that pretreating the mice with heat-killed Lactobacillus casei DK128 bacteria made them resistant to lethal primary and secondary influenza A virus infection and protected them against weight loss and mortality," said Dr. Sang-Moo Kang, lead author of the study and professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State. (gsu.edu)
  • This strain of lactic acid bacteria also equipped mice with cross-protective immunity against secondary lethal infection with influenza virus. (gsu.edu)
  • Our study provides evidence that heat-killed lactic acid bacteria could potentially be administered via a nasal spray as a prophylactic drug against non-specific influenza virus infections. (gsu.edu)
  • The study's results suggest that pretreatment with lactic acid bacteria, specifically DK128, equips mice with the capacity to have protective immunity against a broad range of primary and secondary influenza A virus infections. (gsu.edu)
  • Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and can't reproduce without the assistance of a host. (onhealth.com)
  • 2,4-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol is a mild antiseptic, able to kill bacteria and viruses associated with mouth and throat infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • These results demonstrate that silver-based nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm inhibit Monkey Pox Virus infection in vitro, supporting their potential use as an anti-viral therapeutic. (blogspot.com)
  • In this in vitro (i.e., test tube) study, researchers used the monkeypox virus Zaire strain, which was originally obtained from a fatally infected human in Zaire and shown to be fatal in monkeys, as well. (blogspot.com)
  • infect
  • Viruses depend on the organisms they infect (hosts) for their very survival. (onhealth.com)
  • In other words, as the newly replicated viruses leave their inoculated cells to infect other cells, they can only reach the closest cells to them because of the gel. (blogspot.com)
  • Viruses of the families Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae are able to infect vertebrates, arthropods, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses of the family Tenuivirus only infect plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Clearly, the resistance of pneumococci to phagocytosis is central to their capacity to cause infection. (gkhub.info)
  • Several factors including cost, vaccination stigma, and acquired resistance limit the effectiveness of antiviral therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • All strains produce pneumolysin, a toxin that may cause many of the manifestations of pneumococcal infection. (gkhub.info)
  • Certain viruses -- like the ones that cause chickenpox and cold sores -- may be inactive or "latent" after the initial infection. (onhealth.com)
  • The emergence of antivirals is the product of a greatly expanded knowledge of the genetic and molecular function of organisms, allowing biomedical researchers to understand the structure and function of viruses, major advances in the techniques for finding new drugs, and the pressure placed on the medical profession to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Influenza A virus, which infects humans, birds and pigs, has many different subtypes based on hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins on the surface of the virus. (gsu.edu)
  • Matrix proteins inside the envelope stabilise virus structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is able to survive for up to seven days in respiratory secretions and remains infective at room temperature Once the virus has entered the host it binds to cellular receptors using spike proteins, similar to those found in HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Viruses get a bad rap, but they also perform many important functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. (onhealth.com)
  • Like the smallpox virus, the monkeypox virus can be transmitted to humans. (blogspot.com)
  • According to Wikipedia, Monkey pox virus is usually transmitted to humans from rodents, pets, and primates through contact with the animal's blood or through a bite. (blogspot.com)
  • polymerase
  • Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering is the method of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative sense ssRNA viruses need RNA polymerase to form a positive sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus uses its own RNA replicase, also known as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), to form positive RNA template strands through complementary base pairing. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are responsible for the highest frequencies of HCC occurrence in endemic areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa and far eastern Asia. (hindawi.com)
  • The recommended treatment regimen for hepatitis C virus infection, for example, includes sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (Epclusa) and ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (Harrvoni). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statins may improve this combination's efficacy in treating hepatitis C. Ribavirin is the only known treatment for a variety of viral hemorrhagic fevers, including Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection, although data regarding these infections are scarce and the drug might be effective only in early stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Slower virucidal kinetics was observed with other enveloped viruses, where 240 min exposure to coated slides lead to 97 % (dengue), 100 % (herpes simplex) and 77 % (influenza) reduction in virus titers. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, only marginal reduction in viral titer after 240 min of exposure was noticed for non-enveloped coxsackie B3 virus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition to these infections, alcohol consumption and exposure to dietary carcinogens, including aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines, are other widely recognized etiological agents of HCC [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients
  • The company presented the results of a study of GS-5806, an orally-active RSV fusion inhibitor, showing that it was able to limit RSV infection in adult patients who were given an intranasal dose of the virus. (pmlive.com)
  • reproductive
  • Viruses can affect many areas in the body, including the reproductive, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. (onhealth.com)
  • Only in the 1980s, when the full genetic sequences of viruses began to be unraveled, did researchers begin to learn how viruses worked in detail, and exactly what chemicals were needed to thwart their reproductive cycle. (wikipedia.org)