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  • adherence
  • Participants who are assigned to the case management and referral arm will be enrolled in an established case management and adherence program in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic (Project LINK). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • prevalence
  • She concluded that overall prevalence of drug resistance is 10% in Europe. (natap.org)
  • In fact, according to 2008 UNAIDS estimates, this southeast African nation possesses the 8th highest HIV prevalence in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with time, HIV prevalence within Mozambique began to propagate to such extraordinarily high levels that the government was forced to act in order to save as much of its poor and dying population as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first governmental response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic occurred in 1988 with the establishment of four sentinel surveys in Maputo, Beira, Chimoio, and Tete to keep track of HIV prevalence within the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Mozambique is a country particularly hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surge toward the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in women and children has additionally aided in Mozambique's aim to fulfill its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, since the end of the civil war in 1992, rural areas of Mozambique continue to face repercussions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, prominently due to the inability of the nation to quickly rehabilitate as a result of inadequate funds allocated towards addressing both educational and healthcare system infrastructural repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although HIV/AIDS spans across all demographic categories, and personal risk perception is generally underestimated amongst all Mozambican individuals, women and children are the groups most at-risk for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's more, women and children are more likely than men to experience a general lack of awareness of the cause, transmission, and ways of prevention of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • With 1,600,000 Mozambicans (11.5 percent of the population) living with HIV, 990,000 of which are women and children, Mozambique's government realizes that there is much work to be done on the path towards the eradication of this infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, the widely-held belief that illnesses and disease are results of witchcraft and, as such, should be treated by traditional healers instead of local healthcare facilities may lead to the inadequate receipt of services to diminish the risk of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Experiments show that a drug called sirolimus, which is used to prevent the immune system from rejecting transplanted organs, can inhibit cancer cell growth by blocking the mTOR protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chronic
  • ART initiated in early HIV infection is associated with improved resolution of CD8 T-cell elevation compared with long-term ART initiated in chronic infection. (paperity.org)
  • protease
  • Several factors could contribute: age, male sex, low body mass index (BMI), HIV infection per se, vitamin D deficiency, using tenofovir/a protease inhibitor (time on and/or current use). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • individuals
  • Over 50 % of healthy individuals and 90 % of individuals living with HIV are seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • When comparing any studies on the rate of drug resistance and transmission in newly infected individuals, it is important to consider that their may be significant differences between the studies in the patient population studies and in the geographic areas studied. (natap.org)
  • studies
  • In these studies it appears as if the increasing trends we saw in the transmission of drug resistance may be leveling off but in discussion with some of the researchers they feel we may see increases in near future years. (natap.org)
  • Transmission
  • In addition, the mutations may remain longer in genital secretions which may promote transmission of drug-resistant virus. (natap.org)
  • levels
  • 1. Drugs, such as rifampin and rifabutin, which induce hepatic enzymes are likely to result in decreased levels of saquinavir and, therefore, should be avoided where possible. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • time
  • Immediately following this fight, in 1977, a 15-year civil war broke out, an event that concluded in 1992, around the same time that HIV first swept through the southern regions of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006, opt-out HIV diagnostic tests were offered to pregnant women for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • year
  • Little concluded that transmitted drug resistant mutations in all ARV classes persist for more than a year after HIV-infection. (natap.org)
  • By the year 2001, HIV had infected more than one million people, 53,000 of which were children under 18 years of age and 570,000 of which were women. (wikipedia.org)
  • case
  • Mozambique's first case of HIV was reported in 1986 in the Cabo Delgado province. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Several campaigns and organizations have been initiated since 1986 in order to combat the HIV epidemic in various ways and by reaching various sectors of Mozambican society. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ), which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. (factbites.com)
  • HIV+ patients with CD4 counts over 200 on ARV drugs were given clinical assessment and testing for evidence of opportunistic infections (AIDS) at each visit for blood testing: (Beginning, 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, & 9 months (end). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objectives In rural pregnant Indian women, multiple missed antenatal screening opportunities due to inadequate public health facility-based screening result in undiagnosed HIV and sexually transmitted bloodborne infections (STBBIs) and conditions (anaemia). (bmj.com)
  • Before the nationwide introduction of ART, only cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and drugs to diminish the effects of opportunistic infections were administered to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated coinfections, such as malaria, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can also propagate the spread of HIV within a population through the weakening of the host's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), a retrovirus of the lentivirus family that was unknown until the early 1980's, but since that time has been spread around the world to infect millions of persons. (factbites.com)
  • HIV ( human immunodeficiency virus ) is the virus that causes AIDS . (factbites.com)
  • Infected with the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ). (factbites.com)
  • The HIV-1-positive partner was randomly assigned to either of the two arms: "immediate" (early) therapy with ART initiated upon enrollment plus HIV primary care, or "delayed" therapy with HIV primary care but ART initiated when the index case would have two consecutive measurements of a CD4+ cell count within or below the range of 200-250 cells/mm(3), or develop an AIDS-defining illness. (nih.gov)
  • In the vast majority of those infected with HIV virus who are untreated, there is deterioration in immune health over a period of months or years inevitably leading to full-blown AIDS and demise. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Circuit parties were started in the mid-1980s as part of the gay community's attempt to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS and to gain funds to combat the disease. (thebody.com)
  • Mozambique is a country particularly hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to reduce the prevalence of HIV/AIDS within the country, Mozambique has partnered with numerous global organizations to provide its citizens with augmented access to antiretroviral therapy and prevention techniques, such as condom use. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surge toward the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in women and children has additionally aided in Mozambique's aim to fulfill its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first governmental response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic occurred in 1988 with the establishment of four sentinel surveys in Maputo, Beira, Chimoio, and Tete to keep track of HIV prevalence within the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, since the end of the civil war in 1992, rural areas of Mozambique continue to face repercussions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, prominently due to the inability of the nation to quickly rehabilitate as a result of inadequate funds allocated towards addressing both educational and healthcare system infrastructural repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • What's more, women and children are more likely than men to experience a general lack of awareness of the cause, transmission, and ways of prevention of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapy
  • Despite that the observed event rates were lower than expected, which might have compromised the study power, an early release of the trial results in May 2011 showed an overwhelming 96% risk reduction for the immediate therapy in the prevention of genetically linked HIV-1 incident transmissions. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: The present study is documental and analitical descriptive and it was conducted at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás, trough data collection of 222 records of individuals in drug therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Community sample, with HIV, in drug therapy in the Clinical Hospital of UFG. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 2004, antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications became publicly available throughout the nation, after having been limited to pilot programs for some years, with the help of international funding. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person, by sharing needles and/or syringes (primarily for drug injection) with someone who is infected, or, less commonly (and now very rarely in countries where blood is screened for HIV antibodies ), through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors. (factbites.com)
  • Appropriate HIV-1 diagnostic testing for infants and children younger than 18 months differs from that for older children, adolescents, and adults because of passively transferred maternal HIV-1 antibodies, which may be detectable in the child's bloodstream until 18 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Africa
  • Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV in Africa: cry the beloved paradigm. (factbites.com)
  • Immediately following this fight, in 1977, a 15-year civil war broke out, an event that concluded in 1992, around the same time that HIV first swept through the southern regions of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • HIV could additionally spread through the use of unclean needles and syringes for injections and treatment within Mozambican healthcare settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • HIV transmission occurs when a person is exposed to body fluids infected with the virus , such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. (factbites.com)
  • Therapeutic options to prevent vertical transmission of HIV remain limited. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Exclusive formula-feeding is also recommended in the developed world (where clean water sources & adequate hygiene is reliably available) to prevent HIV transmission through breastmilk, however, this is not yet a feasible option in many developing world settings due to economic, infrastructure, social and infant-health reasons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This paper will suggest that the idea of a link between circuit party attendance and HIV transmission is not entirely unfounded, even if it remains speculative, based on research on the drug-sex link and research that more directly applies to circuit parties. (thebody.com)
  • 8 As many as 25 percent of party patrons self-identify as HIV positive 1 in a context where use of certain drugs (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [ecstasy or MDMA], crystal methamphetamine) is statistically associated with risky sexual practices, such as UAI, sex with serodiscordant or serounknown partners, multiple partners, and UAI with multiple partners, which then exacerbates the risk of HIV transmission. (thebody.com)
  • diagnostic
  • Virologic assays, including HIV-1 DNA or RNA assays, represent the gold standard for diagnostic testing of infants and children younger than 18 months. (aappublications.org)
  • For HIV-1-exposed infants (identified by positive maternal test results or positive antibody results for the infant shortly after birth), it has been recommended that diagnostic testing with HIV-1 DNA or RNA assays be performed within the first 14 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 3 to 6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • symptoms
  • Many people infected with HIV have no symptoms and there is no way of knowing with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected unless he or she has not engaged in risky behavior, or has been repeatedly tested for the virus . (factbites.com)
  • The HIV virus may cause flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure, although there may not be any symptoms at all. (factbites.com)
  • study
  • A total of 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative were enrolled in four continents, nine countries and thirteen study sites. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma HIV RNA of 10,000 or more copies/ml within 28 days of study entry. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • disease
  • With 1,600,000 Mozambicans (11.5 percent of the population) living with HIV, 990,000 of which are women and children, Mozambique's government realizes that there is much work to be done on the path towards the eradication of this infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • 1 MTCT of HIV-1 can occur in utero, at the time of labor and delivery, and postnatally through breastfeeding. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 This drug culture manufactures "a setting where substance use is significantly more likely to occur. (thebody.com)
  • genetic
  • Raltegravir targets integrase, an HIV enzyme that integrates the viral genetic material into human chromosomes, a critical step in the pathogenesis of HIV. (drugbank.ca)
  • Available
  • Naltrexone hydrochloride is a generic, FDA-approved since 1998 drug, an opioid antagonist that has clinically shown immune enhancing/modulating qualities in very low dosage and may offer an alternative to ARV drugs that is effective, non-toxic, easily available, inexpensive, with simple once-daily at bedtime administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • positive
  • Another is that a notable proportion of men attending the parties are HIV-positive, and, while there, they engage in higher rates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) than their HIV-negative counterparts, and are also likely to have a greater number of different sex partners. (thebody.com)
  • case
  • In case of inability to wean by 13 months, however, drug will be continued until the mother has achieved a complete wean. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mozambique's first case of HIV was reported in 1986 in the Cabo Delgado province. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • Circuit parties are weekend-long dance events where sexual activity and poly-drug use are generally prevalent. (thebody.com)
  • virus
  • HIV is frequently spread among injection drug users - by the sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with minute quantities of blood from someone infected with the virus . (factbites.com)
  • HIV also can be spread to babies through the breast milk of mothers infected with the virus . (factbites.com)
  • risk
  • 10-13 One possible explanation is that the parties cater to a high-risk demographic category -- affluent, young, urban gay men who use club drugs heavily. (thebody.com)
  • children
  • By the year 2001, HIV had infected more than one million people, 53,000 of which were children under 18 years of age and 570,000 of which were women. (wikipedia.org)
  • highest
  • In fact, according to 2008 UNAIDS estimates, this southeast African nation possesses the 8th highest HIV prevalence in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • It received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 12 October 2007, the first of a new class of HIV drugs, the integrase inhibitors, to receive such approval. (drugbank.ca)
  • Administration of ampicillin, generally given because of a mistaken diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis, will result in a maculopapular rash 90% of the time (however, this does not represent or predict an allergy to the penicillin drug class). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • sites
  • 4-6 Although it is unconfirmed, circuit parties may have ironically become potential sites for HIV serotransmission, 1 , 2 , 7-9 and have started to arouse public health concerns in the media. (thebody.com)
  • culture
  • We begin with the observation that there is a "substantial drug culture" that "permeates the circuit party environment, a drug culture that is distinct from broader communities of gay and bisexual men. (thebody.com)