• hCAP18
  • Higher plasma levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein ( hCAP18 ), which are up-regulated by vitamin D , appear to significantly reduce the risk of death from infection in dialysis patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • LL-37 is a 37-aa cationic peptide generated by extracellular cleavage of the C-terminal end of the 18-kDa hCAP18 protein by serine proteases of the kallikrein family in keratinocytes ( 12 , 13 ) and proteinase 3 in neutrophils ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Following stimulation by proinflammatory signals, hCAP18 is released into the extracellular environment and cleaved by proteinase 3 in neutrophils and kallikrein in keratinocytes (green dots) and the N-terminal 37 aa form the α helical LL-37 peptide that then dimerizes and trimerizes in solution. (jimmunol.org)
  • chickens
  • Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immune
  • An assessment of the relative contribution of individual antimicrobial proteins or peptides to innate immune responses is quite challenging. (asm.org)
  • Together, these results demonstrate the importance of neutrophils and the secretion of antimicrobial peptides during the early immune response mediated by LTB 4 against a viral pathogen. (jimmunol.org)
  • This peptide has piqued the interest of the research community because, in addition to its antimicrobial properties, it carries numerous immune system-modulating properties that may contribute to autoimmune disease development ( Table I ). (jimmunol.org)
  • gene expression
  • In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide ( CAMP ) gene expression. (peerj.com)
  • Andersen GN, Hagglund M, Nagaeva O, Frangsmyr L, Petrovska R, Mincheva-Nilsson L et al (2005) Quantitative measurement of the levels of melanocortin receptor subtype 1, 2, 3 and 5 and pro-opio-melanocortin peptide gene expression in subsets of human peripheral blood leucocytes. (springer.com)
  • proteolytic
  • In mammals, besides the mucosal epithelial cells lining the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, cathelicidins are most abundantly expressed in myeloid progenitor cells and stored in neutrophil granules as pro-peptides, which are converted into active forms by proteolytic cleavage upon degranulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LL-37 is able to form aggregates in solution and lipid bilayers and thus, unlike other antimicrobial peptides, is protected from proteolytic degradation ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • helical
  • The secondary structures of these molecules follow 4 themes, including i) α-helical, ii) β-stranded due to the presence of 2 or more disulfide bonds, iii) β-hairpin or loop due to the presence of a single disulfide bond and/or cyclization of the peptide chain, and iv) extended. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Subsequent work from his laboratory used molecular techniques to produce a knock out mouse that has shown how cathelicidin antimicrobials protect against infection in several organs including the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal models indicate that host defence peptides are crucial for both prevention and clearance of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Indeed, FPR2 prefers a very different set of ligands and has some very different functions than FPR1 while FPR3 does not bind FMLP or many other N-formyl peptides which bind to FPR1 or FPR2. (wikipedia.org)