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  • 5.25
  • Effective concentration range of sodium hypochlorite is from 2.6%- 5.25% [ 8 , 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • US government regulations allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water). (wikipedia.org)
  • One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of 1.3% and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, whereas 40 minutes at a concentration of 5.25% was effective in E. faecalis removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • NaOCl
  • Further study on the antibacterial effect of combination treatment of AgCNTs with oxidizing antimicrobial agents (NaOCl or H 2 O 2 ) to E. coli cells indicated a partial synergistic or a synergistic effect using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index test or isololograms. (omicsonline.org)
  • To evaluate antimicrobial ability of neem leaf extract, 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) against Candida albicans . (scielo.br)
  • He prepared it by the reaction of sodium hypochlorite with picric acid: HOC6H2(NO2)3 + 11 NaOCl → 3 Cl3CNO2 + 3 Na2CO3 + 3 NaOH + 2 NaCl Because of the precursor used, Stenhouse named the compound chloropicrin, although the two compounds are structurally dissimilar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, chloropicrin is manufactured by the reaction of nitromethane with sodium hypochlorite: H3CNO2 + 3 NaOCl → Cl3CNO2 + 3 NaOH or by the reaction of chloroform with nitric acid CHCl3 + HNO3 = CCl3NO2 + H2O Chloropicrin's chemical formula is CCl3NO2 and its molecular weight is 164.38 grams/mole. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, sodium hypochlorite has not be prepared drier than the pentahydrate (NaOCl·(H2O)5). (wikipedia.org)
  • bleach
  • Modern bleaches resulted from the work of 18th century scientists including Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who discovered chlorine, French scientists Claude Berthollet, who recognized that chlorine could be used to bleach fabrics and who first made sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Javel, or Javel water, named after a quarter in Paris where it was produced) and Antoine Germain Labarraque, who discovered the disinfecting ability of hypochlorites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium perborate as a laundry bleach had been used in Europe since the early twentieth century, but did not become popular in North America until the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleach, particularly sodium hypochlorite, has been shown to react with a microbe's heat shock proteins, stimulating their role as intra-cellular chaperone and causing the bacteria to form into clumps (much like an egg that has been boiled) that will eventually die off. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the best-known hypochlorites is NaClO, the active ingredient in bleach. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Toxic cyanide is oxidized to cyanate (OCN−) that is not toxic, idealized as follows: CN− + OCl− → OCN− + Cl− Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a biocide in industrial applications to control slime and bacteria formation in water systems used at power plants, pulp and paper mills, etc., in solutions typically of 10-15% by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, aztreonam, cephalosporins, clindamycin, the semisynthetic penicillins nafcillin and oxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Silver nanoparticle -modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites (AgCNTs) were synthesized by photochemical reduction method, their antimicrobial effect on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, using E. coli and Bacillus anthracis as model bacteria, respectively, were investigated. (omicsonline.org)
  • Neutrophils of the human immune system produce small amounts of hypochlorite inside phagosomes, which digest bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same study found that at low (micromolar) sodium hypochlorite levels, E. coli and Vibrio cholerae activate a defense mechanism that helps protect the bacteria, though the implications of this defense mechanism have not been fully investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biocompatible with periradicular tissues Non cytotoxic to cells, but antimicrobial to bacteria Non-resorbable Minimal leakage around the margins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The synergistic or enhanced effect of the combination of AgCNTs with other antimicrobial relied on the combination of different action mechanisms in which AgCNTs played a role to damage cell membrane which allowed easier access for other small antimicrobial molecules to penetrate into cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • activity
  • Dong X, Koo Y, Tang Y, Yun Y, Yang L (2015) Superior Antibacterial Activity of Photochemical Synthesized Ag-CNT Composites and their Synergistic Effects in Combination with other Antimicrobial Agents. (omicsonline.org)
  • practice
  • This article reviews the potential complications that occur with sodium hypochlorite in clinical practice, discusses the measures that can be taken to minimize the risks and provides details to appropriate management in rare cases of suspected tissue damage. (omicsonline.org)