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  • drug resistance
  • Given the prevalence of H. pullorum in Indian chicken, as described in the study, the half billion Indians who eat chicken, and the fact that chicken consumption is growing at a huge 12 percent per year, the potential for spreading multi-drug resistance is "alarming," the researchers wrote. (eurekalert.org)
  • Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The resistance of P. penneri to cefuroxime and the marked inhibitory activity of cefoxitin against this species also distinguishes P. penneri from the other Proteus. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Further, there is a likelihood that species that have not acquired certain resistance genes will do so in the future, since resistance genes are often on mobile elements (e.g., plasmids). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In contrast, the resistance to non-b-lactams is due to the presence of transposons and other genes. (scribd.com)
  • Each contained five or six well characterized antimicrobial resistance genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The observed distribution of resistance plasmids and β-lactamase genes in several clones indicates a high degree of horizontal transfer. (cdc.gov)
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giuseppe Brotzu
  • The aerobic mold which yielded cephalosporin was found in the sea near a sewage outfall in Su Siccu, by Cagliari harbour in Sardinia, by the Italian pharmacologist Giuseppe Brotzu in July 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first chemical compounds of the cephalosporin group were isolated from Cephalosporium acremonium, a cephalosporin-producing fungus first discovered by Giuseppe Brotzu in 1948 from a sewage outfall off the Sardinian coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural compound cephalosporin C. Chemical compounds containing this core are relatively stable to acid hydrolysis and tolerance to β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • misuse
  • Better Health Channel - Australian Government "The use and misuse of antimicrobials in human medicine and animal husbandry over the past 70 years has led to a relentless rise in the number and types of microorganisms resistant to these medicines - leading to death, increased suffering and disability, and higher healthcare costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • gentamicin
  • A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the cytolysin in combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (≥ 1% of patients) associated with the cephalosporin therapy include: diarrhea, nausea, rash, electrolyte disturbances, and pain and inflammation at injection site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common adverse effects of cefalexin, like other oral cephalosporins, are gastrointestinal (stomach area) disturbances and hypersensitivity reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decrease
  • PBP2a has an elevated rate constant for dissociation and decreased acylation rate constant and these together significantly decrease the acylation of PBP2a, producing b-lactam resistance . (scribd.com)
  • drugs
  • The dissemination of ESBL producers of the CTX-M type is problematic because co-resistance to other major classes of antimicrobial drugs is frequent ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, resistance rates are increasing and there are other limitations in the use of these drugs. (scribd.com)
  • chloramphenicol
  • Other chief characteristics of this species that enable its differentiation from other Proteus species include failure to acidify esculin, failure to produce hydrogen sulfide on triple sugar iron agar, and resistance to chloramphenicol. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure to antimicrobial
  • To date, exposure to antimicrobial agents (in particular ≥2 anti-infective agents), previous hospitalization, underlying complex medical conditions (including the presence of a gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube), and diapered status have been cited as risk factors for the development of CDI in children. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects (such as Chronic granulomatous disease), exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancer chemotherapy), exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles, malaria or HIV disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • The article offers information on the assessment from European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) regarding the role of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the spread of bacterial strains that are resistant to treatments. (ebscohost.com)
  • One of the most commonly known examples of both antimicrobial resistance and the relationship to the classification of a drug of last resort is the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (sometimes also referred to as multiple-drug resistant S. aureus due to resistance to non-penicillin antibiotics that some strains of S. aureus have shown to exhibit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of potential severe or fatal consequences of resistant strains, initial treatment often includes concomitant administration of multiple antimicrobial agents that are not known to show cross-resistance, so as to reduce the possibility of a resistant strain remaining inadequately treated by a single agent during the evaluation of drug response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, resistance to even vancomycin has been shown in some strains of S. aureus (sometimes referred to as vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin intermediate-resistance S. aureus (VISA)) often coinciding with methicillin/penicillin resistance, prompting the inclusion of newer antibiotics (such as linezolid) that have shown efficacy in highly drug-resistant strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also strains of enterococci that have developed resistance to vancomycin referred to as Vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, since the plasmids that carry ESBL genes also commonly encode resistance determinants for many other antibiotics, ESBL strains are often resistant to many non-beta-lactam antibiotics as well, leaving very few options for the treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third-generation cephalosporins have been used to treat gonorrhoea since 2007, but resistant strains have emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • surveillance
  • It mentions the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption (ESVAC), a programme initiated by the European Medicines Agency to provide information. (ebscohost.com)
  • More funding, public health efforts, and surveillance are needed to ensure responsible use of antimicrobials in food animals and humans, Maria Helena Semedo, deputy director-general with the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), said yesterday. (umn.edu)
  • We need surveillance on antimicrobial use and the spread of AMR - not only through hospitals, but throughout the food chain, including horticulture and the environment for more comprehensive risk assessments. (umn.edu)
  • drugs
  • The development of antimicrobial drugs represents one of the most important advances in therapeutics. (annexpublishers.co)
  • From that point on, each time an antimicrobial is prescribed there is a warning that the patient is allergic and so penicillin and all the associated drugs including cephalosporins may be avoided. (medfunfacts.com)
  • The article focuses on the third annual report of the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which summarizes 2011 sales and distribution data of antimicrobial drugs approved for use in food-producing animals. (ebscohost.com)
  • Avycaz is a prescription-only medication, which was fast-tracked by the FDA due to the shortage of drugs that effectively circumvent the resistance problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to antibiotics, antivirals, and other agents indicated for treatment of infectious pathological disease, drugs of last resort are commonly withheld from administration until after the trial and failure of more commonly used treatment options to prevent the development of drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics have saved millions of lives since their first appearance of penicillin in 1940s, even though more people are dying from infectious disease that were curable but for which we no longer have the right treatment due to Antimicrobial resistance, which is a global problem, is particularly pressing in developing countries, where infectious disease burden is very high [ 1 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • the long-term effects of antimicrobial selection, dosage, and duration of treatment on resistance development should be a part of every antimicrobial treatment decision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to these antibiotics has been developing, which has made treatment of the disease more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases presenting with suspected S. aureus, it is suggested by many public health institutions (including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States) to treat first with empirical therapies for S. aureus, with an emphasis on evaluating the response to initial treatment and laboratory diagnostic techniques to isolate cases of drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a specific resistance profile has been isolated via clinical laboratory findings, treatment is often modified as indicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • difficile
  • 7. Avoid broad spectrum antibiotics (e.g. co-amoxiclav, quinolones and cephalosporins) when first line antibiotics remain effective, as they increase the risk of Clostridium difficile , MRSA and resistant UTIs. (pdfpills.com)
  • narrow-spectrum
  • Both narrow spectrum beta-lactamases (e.g. penicillinases) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are common for resistance plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • The activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against the important hospital pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is variable, due to the potential presence of other resistance mechanisms in addition to β-lactamase production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of certain other bacterial pathogens, it offers little or no advantage over ceftazidime monotherapy, again due to the widespread expression of resistance mechanisms other than β-lactamase production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of resistance mechanisms include different Qnr proteins, aminoglycose acetyltransferase aac(6')-Ib-cr that is able to hydrolyze ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, as well as efflux transporters OqxAB and QepA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to penicillin has developed through two mechanisms: chromasomally mediated resistance (CMRNG) and penicillinase-mediated resistance (PPNG). (wikipedia.org)
  • The spread of the penicillinase resistance was much faster compared to the chromosomal-mediated resistance mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Objectives: To assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing and the factors affecting utilization of the established clinical microbiology service (CMS). (ox.ac.uk)
  • vancomycin
  • Vancomycin resistance can be determined for enterococcal colonies available in pure culture by inoculating a suspension of the organism onto a commercially available brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) plate containing 6 µg/ml vancomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommends performing a vancomycin MIC test and also motility and pigment production tests to distinguish species with acquired resistance (vanA and vanB) from those with vanC intrinsic resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acquired vancomycin resistance is distinguished from the natural vancomycin resistance of certain enterococcal species including E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus. (wikipedia.org)
  • methicillin
  • β-lactam antibiotics are a broad spectrum group which includes some penams - penicillin derivatives such as methicillin and oxacillin, and cephems such as the cephalosporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Science and Technology Against Microbial Pathogens: Research, Development and Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Antimicrobial Research (ICAR2010), Valladolid, Spain 3 - 5 November 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • enterococci
  • For example, a 2006 study of nosocomial VRE revealed a rapid spread of resistance among enterococci along with an emerging shift in VRE distribution in the Middle East region, such as Iran. (wikipedia.org)
  • shift
  • Visual detection of this process is essentially impossible with most cephalosporins because the shift of ultraviolet absorption from the intact versus hydrolyzed product occurs outside of the visible spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a fixed-dose combination drug containing an antibiotic-3rd generation cephalosporin ceftazidime and a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. (wikipedia.org)
  • inappropriate
  • Others in 1968 estimated that 50% of antimicrobial use was either unnecessary or inappropriate This figure is likely the lower end of the estimate, and continues to be referenced as of 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • appropriate
  • Conclusions: Antimicrobial prescribing in this hospital was largely appropriate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A culturally appropriate human interface linking the laboratory and physicians is essential in providing effective microbiology services and ensuring appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in resource-limited settings. (ox.ac.uk)
  • public health
  • Prudent use of antimicrobials in public health and agriculture is essential to achieve this," Semedo said, according to an FAO news story. (umn.edu)
  • Within the context of commercial and over-the-counter use of antimicrobials, legally mandated AMS has begun with FDA rules that triclosan be phased out of consumer-grade soaps due to lack of good evidence that such use improves public health. (wikipedia.org)