• penicillins
  • The commonly quoted figure of 10% of patients with allergic hypersensitivity to penicillins and/or carbapenems also having cross-reactivity with cephalosporins originated from a 1975 study looking at the original cephalosporins, and subsequent "safety first" policy meant this was widely quoted and assumed to apply to all members of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent papers have shown that a major feature in determining frequency of immunological reactions is the similarity of the side chains (e.g., first generation cephalosporins are similar to penicillins), and this is the reason the β-lactams are associated with different frequencies of serious reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis). (wikipedia.org)
  • E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, aztreonam, cephalosporins, clindamycin, the semisynthetic penicillins nafcillin and oxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eli Lilly developed a method for producing 7-ACA based on cleaving the α-aminoadipoyl side chain of cephalosporin C. Further work by Robert Morin led to semisynthesis of 3-deacetoxy-7-ACA (7-ADCA) from penicillins which is convenient because penicillins can be fermented with more ease than cephalosporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal husbandry
  • The use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry is discussed and the interface between humans and different animal populations is closely examined. (intechopen.com)
  • Better Health Channel - Australian Government "The use and misuse of antimicrobials in human medicine and animal husbandry over the past 70 years has led to a relentless rise in the number and types of microorganisms resistant to these medicines - leading to death, increased suffering and disability, and higher healthcare costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Epidemiologic data of a study of a multistate outbreak of food-borne salmonellosis due to resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport carrying a common ampicillin and tetracycline resistance plasmid, strongly associated hamburger meat originating from a single farm in South Dakota. (asmscience.org)
  • semisynthetic
  • AVYCAZ is an antibacterial combination product consisting of the semisynthetic cephalosporin ceftazidime pentahydrate and the beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam sodium for intravenous administration. (rxlist.com)
  • overuse
  • Decreasing the overuse of antimicrobials is expected to serve the following goals: improve patient outcomes, especially patient safety decrease adverse drug reactions such as hypersensitivity reactions or kidney or heart damage (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The resistance of P. penneri to cefuroxime and the marked inhibitory activity of cefoxitin against this species also distinguishes P. penneri from the other Proteus. (wikipedia.org)
  • extended-spectrum
  • To date, almost all reports of infection or colonization with ESBL- and plasmidic cephamycinase-producing E. coli (i.e., extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli [ESCREC]) have involved hospitalized patients or nursing home residents ( 3 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • plasmid
  • Similarly, an outbreak study reported by a group used antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiling to trace chloramphenicol-resistant serovar Newport from the incriminated hamburger meat back through the abattoir and to the dairy farm from which the meat was derived. (asmscience.org)
  • A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the cytolysin in combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillinase-mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is mediated by the plasmid borne TEM-1 type beta-lactamase which falls under the third general mechanism for beta-lactam resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This acquired resistance can be either plasmid-mediated or chromosomal, i.e., through mutation, and results in cross-resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (an MLS-resistant phenotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial infections
  • Our findings support the urgent need to regulate antimicrobial use in the community as well as in health care settings so that existing antimicrobials may be preserved to combat serious bacterial infections," Mave and colleagues concluded. (healio.com)
  • The prospective study by Mave and colleagues highlights the burden of antimicrobial resistance in community-onset acute bacterial infections in adults and children older than 6 months admitted for acute febrile illness to two hospitals in Pune, India between July 2013 and December 2015. (healio.com)
  • Giuseppe Brotzu
  • The aerobic mold which yielded cephalosporin was found in the sea near a sewage outfall in Su Siccu, by Cagliari harbour in Sardinia, by the Italian pharmacologist Giuseppe Brotzu in July 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first chemical compounds of the cephalosporin group were isolated from Cephalosporium acremonium, a cephalosporin-producing fungus first discovered by Giuseppe Brotzu in 1948 from a sewage outfall off the Sardinian coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural compound cephalosporin C. Chemical compounds containing this core are relatively stable to acid hydrolysis and tolerance to β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (≥ 1% of patients) associated with the cephalosporin therapy include: diarrhea, nausea, rash, electrolyte disturbances, and pain and inflammation at injection site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common adverse effects of cefalexin, like other oral cephalosporins, are gastrointestinal (stomach area) disturbances and hypersensitivity reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Other causes include: Antibiotic use in livestock feed at low doses for growth promotion is an accepted practice in many industrialized countries and is known to lead to increased levels of resistance. (wikipedia.org)