• penicillins
  • The commonly quoted figure of 10% of patients with allergic hypersensitivity to penicillins and/or carbapenems also having cross-reactivity with cephalosporins originated from a 1975 study looking at the original cephalosporins, and subsequent "safety first" policy meant this was widely quoted and assumed to apply to all members of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent papers have shown that a major feature in determining frequency of immunological reactions is the similarity of the side chains (e.g., first generation cephalosporins are similar to penicillins), and this is the reason the β-lactams are associated with different frequencies of serious reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis). (wikipedia.org)
  • E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, aztreonam, cephalosporins, clindamycin, the semisynthetic penicillins nafcillin and oxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eli Lilly developed a method for producing 7-ACA based on cleaving the α-aminoadipoyl side chain of cephalosporin C. Further work by Robert Morin led to semisynthesis of 3-deacetoxy-7-ACA (7-ADCA) from penicillins which is convenient because penicillins can be fermented with more ease than cephalosporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug Resistance
  • Given the prevalence of H. pullorum in Indian chicken, as described in the study, the half billion Indians who eat chicken, and the fact that chicken consumption is growing at a huge 12 percent per year, the potential for spreading multi-drug resistance is "alarming," the researchers wrote. (eurekalert.org)
  • Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.). 22 (5): 412-431. (wikipedia.org)
  • overuse
  • Decreasing the overuse of antimicrobials is expected to serve the following goals: improve patient outcomes, especially patient safety decrease adverse drug reactions such as hypersensitivity reactions or kidney or heart damage (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial
  • Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering regional microbial sensitivities is also important when choosing any antimicrobial agent for the treatment of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • extended-spectrum
  • To date, almost all reports of infection or colonization with ESBL- and plasmidic cephamycinase-producing E. coli (i.e., extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli [ESCREC]) have involved hospitalized patients or nursing home residents ( 3 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • bacterial infections
  • Our findings support the urgent need to regulate antimicrobial use in the community as well as in health care settings so that existing antimicrobials may be preserved to combat serious bacterial infections," Mave and colleagues concluded. (healio.com)
  • The prospective study by Mave and colleagues highlights the burden of antimicrobial resistance in community-onset acute bacterial infections in adults and children older than 6 months admitted for acute febrile illness to two hospitals in Pune, India between July 2013 and December 2015. (healio.com)
  • Giuseppe Brotzu
  • The aerobic mold which yielded cephalosporin was found in the sea near a sewage outfall in Su Siccu, by Cagliari harbour in Sardinia, by the Italian pharmacologist Giuseppe Brotzu in July 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first chemical compounds of the cephalosporin group were isolated from Cephalosporium acremonium, a cephalosporin-producing fungus first discovered by Giuseppe Brotzu in 1948 from a sewage outfall off the Sardinian coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • The core itself can also be referred to as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid which can be derived by hydrolysis from the natural compound cephalosporin C. Chemical compounds containing this core are relatively stable to acid hydrolysis and tolerance to β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Members of this group are becoming highly resistant to antimicrobials, and some members are professional pathogens capable of infecting both healthy and compromised hosts. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Multidrug resistance is now the norm among these pathogens. (jci.org)
  • The origins of antimicrobial resistance in the wildlife is important to human health because of the increasing importance of zoonotic diseases as well as the need for predicting emerging resistant pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opportunistic pathogens Opportunistic pathogens can cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance (immunodeficiency) or if they have unusual access to the inside of the body (for example, via trauma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host. (wikipedia.org)
  • misuse
  • Better Health Channel - Australian Government "The use and misuse of antimicrobials in human medicine and animal husbandry over the past 70 years has led to a relentless rise in the number and types of microorganisms resistant to these medicines - leading to death, increased suffering and disability, and higher healthcare costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • gentamicin
  • A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the cytolysin in combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (≥ 1% of patients) associated with the cephalosporin therapy include: diarrhea, nausea, rash, electrolyte disturbances, and pain and inflammation at injection site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common adverse effects of cefalexin, like other oral cephalosporins, are gastrointestinal (stomach area) disturbances and hypersensitivity reactions. (wikipedia.org)