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  • cardiac
  • β-blockers were developed having a relative selectivity for cardiac β1-receptors (for example metoprolol and atenolol), partial adrenergic agonist activity (pindolol), concomitant α-adrenergic blocking activity (for example labetalol and carvedilol) and additional direct vasodilator activity (nebivolol). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1976
  • The withdrawal of Eraldin gave ICI the nudge to launch another β-blocker, atenolol, which was launched in 1976 under the trade name Tenormin. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • captopril enalapril fosinopril lisinopril moexipril perindopril quinapril ramipril trandolapril benazepril A systematic review of 63 trials with over 35,000 participants indicated ACE inhibitors significantly reduced doubling of serum creatinine levels compared to other drugs (ARBs, α blockers, β blockers, etc.), and the authors suggested this as a first line of defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Off-label uses of atenolol, as with other cardioselective β-blockers, include symptomatic treatment of psychological issues such as anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioavailability of the components of the Polycap (aspirin, ramipril, simvastatin, atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide) when formulated as a single capsule was compared to identical capsules with each of its components administered separately in a five arm, randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover trial with at least 2 week washout period in a total of 195 healthy humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides detailed mapping of drug effects on metabolism and the pathways that are implicated in mechanism of variation of response to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the goal of pharmacometabolomics is to more closely predict or assess the response of an individual to a pharmaceutical compound, permitting continued treatment with the right drug or dosage depending on the variations in their metabolism and ability to respond to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • overdose
  • Normal amounts of food and drink, such as one whole grapefruit or a small glass (200 mL (6.8 US fl oz)) of grapefruit juice, can cause drug overdose toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In the late 1960s, twin studies supported the inference of genetic involvement in drug metabolism, with identical twins sharing remarkable similarities to drug response compared to fraternal twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several known genes which are largely responsible for variances in drug metabolism and response. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes account for the metabolism of approximately 80-90% of currently available prescription drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary purpose for drug metabolism is to detoxify, inactivate, solubilize and eliminate these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • verification needed] As a result, the amount of the drug in its original form that reaches systemic circulation is reduced due to this first-pass metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It refers to the direct measurement of metabolites in an individual's bodily fluids, in order to predict or evaluate the metabolism of pharmaceutical compounds, and to better understand the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • pharmacogenetics
  • Although both terms relate to drug response based on genetic influences, pharmacogenetics focuses on single drug-gene interactions, while pharmacogenomics encompasses a more genome-wide association approach, incorporating genomics and epigenetics while dealing with the effects of multiple genes on drug response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacometabolomic analyses of drug response are often coupled or followed up with pharmacogenetics studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Cytochrome P450s VKORC1 TPMT The most prevalent drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) are the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals inhibit key drug metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes may have interactions with citrus chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs are metabolized by drug-specific metabolizing enzymes in the epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolizing enzymes transform these drugs into metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Through the utilization of pharmacogenomics, it is hoped that pharmaceutical drug treatments can deviate from what is dubbed as the "one-dose-fits-all" approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • blockers
  • Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraindication : Allergies or hypersensitivity to alpha-1 blockers or any of the active ingredient, that includes angiodema induced by the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • This potential threat led to ongoing refinements in the pharmacologic structure of β-blockers and subsequent advances in drug delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • treat
  • The first drug that was used was non-selective alpha blocker, named phenoxybenzamine and was used to treat BPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • By being excluded from the CNS, drugs may act on the rest of the body without producing side-effects related to their effects on the brain or spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • Dr. Black focused on developing a drug that would relieve the pain of angina pectoris, which results from oxygen deprivation in the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • It soon became one of the best-selling heart drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite
  • And despite containing multiple drugs, the pill has a fairly small size which can facilitate swallowing. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • In order to provide pharmacogenomic recommendations for a given drug, two possible types of input can be used: genotyping or exome or whole genome sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • CYP3A4 is a metabolizing enzyme for almost 50% of drugs, and is found in the liver and small intestinal epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • variety
  • Over the last 40 years variety of drugs has been developed from non-selective alpha-1 blocker to selective alpha-1 blocker. (wikipedia.org)
  • taken
  • When drugs are taken orally, they enter the gut lumen to be absorbed in the small intestine and sometimes, in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) and OATP (organic anion transporting polypeptides), either increasing or decreasing the bioavailability of a number of drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • A study called The Indian Polycap Study (TIPS) was sponsored by Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited, (where the drug development program was coordinated by JP Parswani, President, and Dr. Arun Maseeh, Vice-President Medical Affairs), and led by Dr. Salim Yusuf of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, and Dr. Prem Pais of St. John's Medical College in Bangalore, India. (wikipedia.org)