• significantly
  • captopril enalapril fosinopril lisinopril moexipril perindopril quinapril ramipril trandolapril benazepril A systematic review of 63 trials with over 35,000 participants indicated ACE inhibitors significantly reduced doubling of serum creatinine levels compared to other drugs (ARBs, α blockers, β blockers, etc.), and the authors suggested this as a first line of defense. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms : relationship to blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our aim was to determine whether specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RAAS genes were related to the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of antihypertensive treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • These polymorphisms were related to the antihypertensive response after 12 weeks treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Presence of the angiotensinogen (AGT) -6A allele or the AGT 235T allele were both associated with the most pronounced systolic BP response to atenolol treatment (P =.001 when -6 AA+AG was compared with GG and P =.008 for presence of the 235T variant compared with 235 MM). CONCLUSIONS: We found that SNPs in the angiotensinogen gene were associated with the BP lowering response to atenolol. (diva-portal.org)
  • Despite this limitation, these results illustrate the potential of using SNP genotyping as a pharmacogenetic tool in antihypertensive treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Treatment should begin with the intravenous administration of 5 mg atenolol over 5 minutes followed by another 5 mg intravenous injection 10 minutes later. (osel.info)
  • Bioavailability of the components of the Polycap (aspirin, ramipril, simvastatin, atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide) when formulated as a single capsule was compared to identical capsules with each of its components administered separately in a five arm, randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, crossover trial with at least 2 week washout period in a total of 195 healthy humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides detailed mapping of drug effects on metabolism and the pathways that are implicated in mechanism of variation of response to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the goal of pharmacometabolomics is to more closely predict or assess the response of an individual to a pharmaceutical compound, permitting continued treatment with the right drug or dosage depending on the variations in their metabolism and ability to respond to treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • In 1948, Raymond P. Ahlquist published a seminal paper concluding his findings, that there were two distinct receptors for catecholamine drugs, and they caused different responses in the heart muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • In standard animal or human pharmacological tests, beta-adrenoreceptor blocking activity of atenolol has been demonstrated by: (1) reduction in resting and exercise heart rate and cardiac output, (2) reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest and on exercise, (3) inhibition of isoproterenol induced tachycardia, and (4) reduction in reflex orthostatic tachycardia. (drugs.com)
  • β-blockers were developed having a relative selectivity for cardiac β1-receptors (for example metoprolol and atenolol), partial adrenergic agonist activity (pindolol), concomitant α-adrenergic blocking activity (for example labetalol and carvedilol) and additional direct vasodilator activity (nebivolol). (wikipedia.org)
  • overdose
  • Normal amounts of food and drink, such as one whole grapefruit or a small glass (200 mL (6.8 US fl oz)) of grapefruit juice, can cause drug overdose toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In the late 1960s, twin studies supported the inference of genetic involvement in drug metabolism, with identical twins sharing remarkable similarities to drug response compared to fraternal twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several known genes which are largely responsible for variances in drug metabolism and response. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes account for the metabolism of approximately 80-90% of currently available prescription drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary purpose for drug metabolism is to detoxify, inactivate, solubilize and eliminate these drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • verification needed] As a result, the amount of the drug in its original form that reaches systemic circulation is reduced due to this first-pass metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It refers to the direct measurement of metabolites in an individual's bodily fluids, in order to predict or evaluate the metabolism of pharmaceutical compounds, and to better understand the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of enzymes can have two different effects, depending on whether the drug is either metabolized by the enzyme to an inactive metabolite, or activated by the enzyme to an active metabolite. (wikipedia.org)
  • blockers
  • Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contraindication : Allergies or hypersensitivity to alpha-1 blockers or any of the active ingredient, that includes angiodema induced by the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β-blockers are an immensely important class of drugs due to their high prevalence of use. (wikipedia.org)
  • tablet
  • The antihypertensive effects of these agents are additive, and studies have shown that there is no interference with bioavailability when these agents are given together in the single combination tablet. (drugs.com)
  • hydrophilic
  • Atenolol (free base) is a relatively polar hydrophilic compound with a water solubility of 26.5 mg/mL at 37° C. It is freely soluble in 1N HCl (300 mg/mL at 25°C) and less soluble in chloroform (3 mg/mL at 25°C). (drugs.com)
  • several
  • If you do consume orange juice, wait several hours after taking your atenolol or celiprolol before drinking orange juice and do not take your atenolol or celiprolol with orange juice. (osel.info)
  • selective
  • Peripherally selective drugs have their primary mechanism of action outside of the central nervous system (CNS), usually because they are excluded from the CNS by the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last 40 years variety of drugs has been developed from non-selective alpha-1 blocker to selective alpha-1 blocker. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first drug that was used was non-selective alpha blocker, named phenoxybenzamine and was used to treat BPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • If the active drug is metabolized by the inhibited enzyme, then the fruit will stop the drug being metabolized, leaving elevated concentrations of the medication in the body, which can cause adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low drug concentrations can also be caused when the fruit suppresses drug absorption from the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta
  • Following oral doses of 50 mg or 100 mg, both beta-blocking and antihypertensive effects persist for at least 24 hours. (drugs.com)
  • I've just been prescribed a beta blocker (atenolol - 25mg per day) for etopic heart beats and infrequent AF. (mtbr.com)
  • studies
  • Pharmacometabolomic analyses of drug response are often coupled or followed up with pharmacogenetics studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • side
  • All drugs have side effects and contraindications to use. (mtbr.com)
  • Some atenolol side effects may not need any medical attention. (osel.info)
  • By being excluded from the CNS, drugs may act on the rest of the body without producing side-effects related to their effects on the brain or spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • orally
  • thereafter, plasma levels decay with a half-life similar to that of orally administered drug. (drugs.com)
  • When drugs are taken orally, they enter the gut lumen to be absorbed in the small intestine and sometimes, in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)