• infection
  • Our findings suggest that GrB-secreting B cells support the early antiviral immune response against viruses with endosomal entry pathways, thereby counteracting overwhelming viral replication at the beginning of an infection until virus-specific T cells from draining lymph nodes arrive at the site of infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • The two cases reported here provide, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first description of the pathology and viral antigen distribution of lethal respiratory disease in domestic cats after natural pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection, probably transmitted from humans. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Engrafted mice were infected with DENV type 2 by different routes and at multiple time points post infection, we detected DENV antigen and RNA in the sera, bone marrow, spleen and liver of infected engrafted mice. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of viral antigen in target tissues of mice 3-7 days after in vivo infection.Spleen and bone marrow cells were isolated from mice infected by the s.c. or i.p. route (n = 17) with DENV or mock infected (n = 5) mice 3-7 days post infection. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether viral antigen was expressed following in vivo infection, we assessed the distribution of DENV in multiple organs including the spleen and bone marrow by multiparametric flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • We utilized the DENV-2-specific mAb 3H5 directed against the envelope protein as well as the mAb 7E11 directed against the nonstructural protein NS1 of DENV-2, to detect DENV antigen in NOD-scid IL2rγ mice 3-7 days after in vivo infection. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Increased microglial activation following Japanese Encephalitis infection has been found to influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is initiated when a viral particle contacts a cell with specific types of receptor molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • During symptomatic infection, infected cells transcribe lytic viral genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • She based her research on discovering if small portions of gene-stopping DNA (called antisense oligonucleotides) could be created to bind up the viral RNA in retroviruses like HIV so that the virus could not make more copies of itself to continue the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • It is the antigen targeted by anti-VCA antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use Immunoaffinity to purify anti-CD4 antibodies from patient serum and assess the influence of those antibodies on virus uptake into target cells;and 2) Continue screening of additional patient serum to assess anti-CD4,anti-SU, and anti-Gag humoral antibody responses as a function of rate/extent of disease progression, as measured by relative CD4+ and CD8+ T cell levels and viral load. (grantome.com)
  • After 2-3 weeks, antibodies effectively neutralise viral particles, promote clearance of virus and prevent seeding of target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • A radioimmunoassay specific for a murine leukemia virus structural protein, the gs antigen, detects an antigenic reactivity in normal murine cells in culture and natural tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The assay was shown to measure an antigen that is highly related to the virion protein as shown by absorption tests, immunoadsorbent chromatography, and by analysis of linearized dose-response curves. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein-Barr virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we use one such pathogen, the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), to examine the kinetics of these processes in the virally-infected cell, comparing newly synthesised polypeptides versus the mature protein pool as viral antigen sources for MHC I- and MHC II-restricted presentation. (harvard.edu)
  • For both antigens, when synthesis was induced, CD8 epitope display rose quickly to near maximum within 24 h, well before steady state levels of mature protein had been reached, whereas CD4 epitope presentation was delayed by 36-48 h and rose only slowly thereafter. (harvard.edu)
  • When antigen expression was suppressed, despite the persistence of mature protein, CD8 epitope display fell rapidly at rates similar to that seen for the MHC I/epitope half-life in peptide pulse-chase experiments. (harvard.edu)
  • We infer that, in virally-infected MHC I/II-positive cells, newly-synthesised polypeptides are the dominant source of antigen feeding the MHC I pathway, whereas the MHC II pathway is fed by the mature protein pool. (harvard.edu)
  • 10. The fusion protein of claim 1, wherein the Ag comprises virus peptides from different antigens separated by different peptide linkers. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The outer envelope is formed by envelope protein and is the protective antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transporter associated with Antigen Processing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). (wikipedia.org)
  • In cp viruses the NS2/3 protein is either cleaved to NS2 and NS3 or there is a duplication of viral RNA containing an additional NS3 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • These findings combined with the finding of viral-specific RNA indicate that portions of the viral genome are being expressed with a much greater frequency than previously appreciated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral pathogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • However, both non-progressors and rapid progressors exhibit substantial immune responses to HIV, with humoral antibody responses particularly directed at the major neutralization target, the viral envelope. (grantome.com)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • vaccine
  • From 1986 to 2014 he worked continuously as a viral vaccine expert and senior public health adviser for international health policy agencies such as the World Health Organization, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • By this stage Esparza had attained hands-on command of many aspects of viral research techniques (i.e., virus-isolation, culture, serotyping, structure, genetic engineering and vaccine development) as well as project-management expertise while heading studies of a variety of human viral pathologies including enchephalitis, herpes, and rotaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Mammalian Orthoreoviruses The only orthoreovirus to not produce syncytia, mammalian orthoreoviruses have the capability of infecting all mammals, but do not cause disease, except in young populations enabling them to be studied frequently as a model for viral replication and pathogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • However, epitope homology of a viral and self determinant is not in itself strong evidence for mimicry as a pathogenic mechanism. (edu.au)
  • Expression
  • EBV-transformed B cell lines were established in which the expression of two cognate EBV antigens, EBNA1 and EBNA3B, could be induced and then completely suppressed by doxycycline-regulation. (harvard.edu)
  • diseases
  • Our data may also explain the elevated serum GrB levels found in the early phase of various viral diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Animal models provide evaluation of the viral trigger, and development and therapy for autoimmune diseases. (edu.au)
  • In 1986 Esparza was then recruited as a medical officer by the Division of Communicable Diseases of the World Health Organization, a position which implied worldwide supervising responsibilities of research projects involving various vector-borne viral diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Genetic Immunity works to create and commercialize immunotherapeutic biologics to treat chronic viral infections, allergies, and cancers to prolong the life of the patient and improve their quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue
  • The lack of a suitable animal model to study viral and immunological mechanisms of human dengue disease has been a deterrent to dengue research. (nih.gov)
  • encephalitis
  • During his undergraduate teenage years, Esparza teamed up with some of his teachers in viral research studies designed to characterize a large zoonotic outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis affecting people and riding beasts in the nearby Guajira region and its surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuously
  • Persistently infected animals are the most important source of the virus, continuously excreting a viral load one thousand times that shed by acutely infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • load
  • The primary objective is to demonstrate the efficacy of combination therapy (Peg-IFN and adefovir or Peg-IFN and tenofovir) for inducing loss of HBsAg compared to no-treatment in HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients with low viral load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Randomized Prospective Open-label Trial for Comparing Combination Therapy Peg-Interferon Alfa-2a/Adefovir Dipivoxil and Peg-Interferon Alfa-2a/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Versus no Treatment in HBeAg Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Low Viral Load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 20,000 IU/mL) viral load. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mice
  • Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves from the bloodstream into the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Prof. Dr. Dolores J. Schendel, CEO and CSO of Medigene AG and co-author of the publication , adds: 'Although Medigene currently has no immediate plans for clinical application of TCRs targeting viral antigens, the proof of concept results of this study further extend technologies for efficient identification of TCRs of diverse specificity, including those for important viral pathogens. (pressetext.com)
  • production
  • The UTR contains PKS3 pseudoknot structure which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral requirement for subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) production. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Arnold W, Nielsen JO, Hardts F, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH (1977) Localization of e-antigen in nuclei of hepatocytes in HBsAg-positive liver disease. (springer.com)
  • The disease prognosis for HIV positive individuals is markedly improved if viral loads are kept at a minimum. (grantome.com)
  • Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rabies is a viral disease that exists in Haiti and throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)