• solid tumors
  • Oncolytics Biotech Inc. is a Canadian company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, that is developing an intravenously delivered immuno-oncolytic virus called REOLYSIN® for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • We then examined whether human CD8 + T cells sensitized with autologous CD4 + PHA blasts transduced by mRNA for the cognate antigens could react with these selected peptides in an HLA-A2402-restricted manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • With the availability of sensitive methods, naturally occurring T cells directed against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be frequently detected in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The possible role of TAA-specific T cells in immunosurveillance and tumor escape and the implications for immunological treatment strategies are discussed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Naturally occurring T cells against TAAs are a common phenomenon in tumor patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HPV-positive tumor cells present antigens of the viral protein in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I that can be recognized by CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, "tagged" with these unique viral tumor antigens, cervical cancer cells may be recognized specifically by CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunization of cancer patients with vaccines containing full-length tumor Ags aims to elicit specific Abs and both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Selection of the appropriate adjuvant to activate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate immune responses, is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiviral CD8+ T cell responses in neonatal mice: susceptibility to polyoma virus-induced tumors is associated with lack of cytotoxic function by viral antigen-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Using D(k) tetramers containing the dominant antipolyoma CD8(+) T cell epitope, middle T protein (MT)389-397, and intracellular interferon gamma staining, we enumerated MT389-specific CD8(+) T cells in infected neonates having opposite susceptibilities to polyoma virus-induced tumors. (nih.gov)
  • NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response: numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one approach, vaccines contain whole tumor cells, though these vaccines have been less effective in eliciting immune responses in spontaneous cancer models. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, since Hsp70 plays an important role in the presentation of antigens of destroyed cells including cancer cells, this protein may be used as an effective adjuvant in the development of antitumor vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme tumors are characterized by the presence of small areas of necrotizing tissue that are surrounded by anaplastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1 molecules possess a surface binding site that interacts with sialic acids attached to glycans, including some gangliosides, on the surfaces of cells to initiate the process of viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in the presence of dying cells, PTX3 restricts the cross presentation of antigens derived from dying cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • until recently, they were the only two members of the polyomavirus family known to express the middle tumor antigen protein, which is uniquely efficient at inducing neoplastic transformation in infected cells, resulting in transformation in in vitro cell culture and in the formation of tumors in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the virus is injected into juvenile hamsters from naive populations, it induces leukemias and lymphomas which are free of virus particles but whose cells contain extra-chromosomal viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC tetramers are used to identify and label specific T-cells by epitope specific binding, allowing the antigen specific immune response to be analyzed in both animal model and in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC tetramers were originally developed using MHC class I molecules for the recognition of cytotoxic T cells, but over the last decade they have allowed for the recognition of CD4 T cells by a wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC pentamers have been used in the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry, and are cited in over 750 peer reviewed publications , including several in the journals Nature and Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC pentamers can also be used in tissue staining, and in magnetic isolation of antigen-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the protein is not found in mature virions, there is some evidence that it can be secreted from infected cells, even before viral exit, and taken up by neighboring uninfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The BK, JC, and SV40 agnoproteins have all been experimentally demonstrated to be phosphorylated in vivo, which appears to improve both protein stability and viral propagation, but no other post-translational modifications have been detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • Activating mutations of the Ras protein and upstream elements of the Ras protein may play a role in more than two thirds of all human cancers, including most metastatic disease, which suggests that Reolysin may be an effective therapeutic for many Ras-activated tumor types and potentially for some cell proliferative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The ability of the two candidate vaccines to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses, respectively, was studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • infection
  • 10. The method of claim 1 , wherein the subject has a viral infection. (google.fr)
  • Although splenic virus titers were equivalent at early stages of infection in neonatal mice of each strain, 8-d-old CBA/J mice possessed 10-fold higher levels of infectious virus in their spleens, with significant viral titers detected at least through day 23 after infection (Fig. 7). (nih.gov)
  • Even a single viral particle entering the nucleus can be sufficient for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, middle tumor antigen has also recently been reported in at least one virus of unrelated lineage, the trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus, which is a normally asymptomatic infection in humans that sometimes causes trichodysplasia spinulosa in immunocompromised individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • melanoma
  • Interim results from a phase III trial of talimogene laherparepvec in melanoma showed a significant tumour response compared to administration of GM-CSF alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • These TAAs have facilitated the analysis of T cell responses to tumors and are promising targets for immunotherapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that NY-ESO-1 is highly immunogenic, inducing spontaneous immune responses in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor but not in healthy individuals ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • sequences
  • Comparison of the sequences of different viral agnoproteins suggests sequence conservation toward the N-terminus with greater variability toward the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunogenicity
  • Because of its frequent expression in tumors and high immunogenicity, NY-ESO-1 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used in a series of clinical vaccine trials. (jimmunol.org)
  • expression
  • Cancer-testis Ag NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a wide range of different tumor types, but its expression in normal adult tissues is limited to the testis ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Expression of the tumor antigen in a viral vector may facilitate appropriate antigen presentation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Four subtypes of glioblastoma have been identified: Classical : Ninety-seven percent of tumors in the 'classical' subtype carry extra copies of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and most have higher than normal expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas the gene TP53 (p53), which is often mutated in glioblastoma, is rarely mutated in this subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of a microRNA from a region overlapping one of the LT exons has also been identified and is thought to be involved in downregulating expression of the tumor antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • 14. The composition of claim 13, wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of a cancer antigen, a microbial antigen, and an allergen. (google.fr)
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer is staged according to the tumour, node, metastasis system. (hkmj.org)
  • It is the most common cancer that begins within the brain and the second most common brain tumor, after meningioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extent of disease is described in the standard cancer staging system, using the AJCC TNM system, based on the T stage (size and extent of tumour), N stage (extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes) and M stage (whether there is spread of the disease outside the region or not), and combined into an overall stage from I-IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of HPV in the tumour is associated with a better response to treatment and a better outcome, independent of the treatment methods used and a nearly 60% reduced risk of dying from the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • Full-length tumor Ags intrinsically contain all possible CD4 + and CD8 + T cell epitopes for any type of HLA allele and thus they should potentially activate both T cell subsets. (jimmunol.org)
  • tissue
  • This approach was used in the drug talimogene laherparepvec , a version of herpes simplex virus engineered to selectively replicate in tumor tissue and to express the immune stimulatory protein GM-CSF . (wikipedia.org)
  • MPyV is also capable of infecting and causing tumors in other rodent species, including guinea pigs, hamsters, and rats, though the diversity of tissue types giving rise to tumors is reduced in these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Viruses lacking a viral envelope often have complex mechanisms for entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been suggested that agnoprotein functions as a viroporin - that is, a viral protein that alters membrane permeability to facilitate the virus particles' exit from the cell. (wikipedia.org)