• induce
  • Fey, E. G., and Penman, S., 1984, Tumor promoters induce a specific morphological signature in the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament scaffold of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell colonies, Proc. (springer.com)
  • solid tumors
  • Oncolytics Biotech Inc. is a Canadian company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, that is developing an intravenously delivered immuno-oncolytic virus called REOLYSIN® for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytics Biotech Inc.), is a proprietary isolate of the unmodified human reovirus (reovirus) being developed as a first-in-class systemically administered immuno-oncology viral agent for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Comparison of the sequences of different viral agnoproteins suggests sequence conservation toward the N-terminus with greater variability toward the C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • With the availability of sensitive methods, naturally occurring T cells directed against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be frequently detected in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The possible role of TAA-specific T cells in immunosurveillance and tumor escape and the implications for immunological treatment strategies are discussed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Naturally occurring T cells against TAAs are a common phenomenon in tumor patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some investigators have performed in vitro restimulation of lymphocytes to increase the frequency of antigen-specific T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, "tagged" with these unique viral tumor antigens, cervical cancer cells may be recognized specifically by CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selection of the appropriate adjuvant to activate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate immune responses, is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization of cancer patients with vaccines containing full-length tumor Ags aims to elicit specific Abs and both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response: numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one approach, vaccines contain whole tumor cells, though these vaccines have been less effective in eliciting immune responses in spontaneous cancer models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1 molecules possess a surface binding site that interacts with sialic acids attached to glycans, including some gangliosides, on the surfaces of cells to initiate the process of viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme tumors are characterized by the presence of small areas of necrotizing tissue that are surrounded by anaplastic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, in the presence of dying cells, PTX3 restricts the cross presentation of antigens derived from dying cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the virus is injected into juvenile hamsters from naive populations, it induces leukemias and lymphomas which are free of virus particles but whose cells contain extra-chromosomal viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC tetramers are used to identify and label specific T-cells by epitope specific binding, allowing the antigen specific immune response to be analyzed in both animal model and in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC tetramers were originally developed using MHC class I molecules for the recognition of cytotoxic T cells, but over the last decade they have allowed for the recognition of CD4 T cells by a wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC pentamers have been used in the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry, and are cited in over 750 peer reviewed publications , including several in the journals Nature and Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC pentamers can also be used in tissue staining, and in magnetic isolation of antigen-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • and Adaptive immune response - antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reovirus replicates in and eventually kills Ras-activated tumour cells, and as cell death occurs, progeny virus particles are then free to infect surrounding cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The ability of the two candidate vaccines to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses, respectively, was studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • responses
  • In contrast, other TAAs, including most antigens of the MAGE family, do not usually elicit spontaneous T cell responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These TAAs have facilitated the analysis of T cell responses to tumors and are promising targets for immunotherapeutic strategies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that NY-ESO-1 is highly immunogenic, inducing spontaneous immune responses in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor but not in healthy individuals ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • melanoma
  • Interim results from a phase III trial of talimogene laherparepvec in melanoma showed a significant tumour response compared to administration of GM-CSF alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Even a single viral particle entering the nucleus can be sufficient for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, middle tumor antigen has also recently been reported in at least one virus of unrelated lineage, the trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus, which is a normally asymptomatic infection in humans that sometimes causes trichodysplasia spinulosa in immunocompromised individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Hecker, E., 1978, Structure-activity relationships in diterpene esters irritant and cocarcinogenic to mouse skin, in: Carcinogenesis, Vol. 2: Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Cocarcinogenesis (T. J. Slaga, A. Sivak, and R. K. Boutwell, eds. (springer.com)
  • Viruses lacking a viral envelope often have complex mechanisms for entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands related with tumour growth such as PCNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunogenicity
  • Because of its frequent expression in tumors and high immunogenicity, NY-ESO-1 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy and has been used in a series of clinical vaccine trials. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cancer
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer is staged according to the tumour, node, metastasis system. (hkmj.org)
  • Cancer-testis Ag NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a wide range of different tumor types, but its expression in normal adult tissues is limited to the testis ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It is the most common cancer that begins within the brain and the second most common brain tumor, after meningioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Expression of the tumor antigen in a viral vector may facilitate appropriate antigen presentation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Four subtypes of glioblastoma have been identified: Classical : Ninety-seven percent of tumors in the 'classical' subtype carry extra copies of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and most have higher than normal expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas the gene TP53 (p53), which is often mutated in glioblastoma, is rarely mutated in this subtype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of a microRNA from a region overlapping one of the LT exons has also been identified and is thought to be involved in downregulating expression of the tumor antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • MPyV is also capable of infecting and causing tumors in other rodent species, including guinea pigs, hamsters, and rats, though the diversity of tissue types giving rise to tumors is reduced in these species. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Full-length tumor Ags intrinsically contain all possible CD4 + and CD8 + T cell epitopes for any type of HLA allele and thus they should potentially activate both T cell subsets. (jimmunol.org)