• Proteins
  • Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • The sandfly is referred to as the disease vector, simply meaning that the infectious agent (the protozoan) is carried by the sandfly and passed on to other animals or humans in whom the protozoan will set up residence and cause disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • Protection against invasive amebiasis by a single monoclonal antibody directed against a lipophosphoglycan antigen localized on the surface of Entamoeba histolytica. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of the antigen binding to antibody EH5 in E. histolytica trophozoites by indirect immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the cellular localization of the antigen recognized by the EH5 antibody in the amebas by independent means, immunolocalization experiments on the light and electron microscopic levels were performed. (nih.gov)
  • In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply-transfused hemophiliac whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative
  • Other areas that harbor the causative protozoa include China , many countries throughout Africa, Mexico, Central and South America , Turkey , and Greece . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The basic principle behind the practice of immunization is that the body's own immune system is stimulated to produce a humoral or cellular response against a specific disease-causing organism by exposing the system to an antigen of the causative agent without actually bringing on the full symptoms of the disease. (google.ca)
  • Immunity
  • The capacity of splenic DC but not MPhi to synthesize de novo high levels of IL-12 within hours of exposure to microbial products in vivo, as well as the ability of the same stimuli to induce migration of DC to the T cell areas, argues that DC function simultaneously as both antigen-presenting cells and IL-12 producing accessory cells in the initiation of cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Grand Challenge #5: Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective immunity The priority areas for this challenge involve HIV and malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components and arrangement of the different sugars determines the nature of the somatic or O antigen determinants, which are essential means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Cohn's experiments," reported the Times in his obituary, "threw light on the functions of T-cells, made in the bone marrow, and macrophages, large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Once the protozoan is within the human host, the human's immune system is activated to try to combat the invader. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Specialized immune cells called macrophages work to swallow up the protozoa. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At this point, the course of the disease caused by the protozoa is dependent on the specific type of protozoa, and on the type of reaction the protozoa elicits from the immune system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Another problem involved with vaccine preparation is providing an amount of antigen sufficient, or for a long enough period of exposure, to elicit the desired immune response. (google.ca)
  • The Neisseria species mentioned variate their pili (protein polymers made up of subunits called pilin which play a critical role in bacterial adhesion, they are antigens which stimulate a vigorous host immune response) and the Streptococci variate their M-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variety generated of the surface lipoprotein antigen allows the bacterium to evade the host humoral immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral immunotherapy uses viruses to introduce specific antigens to the patient's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapy
  • IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to the degranulation and the release of mediators from the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of surface antigens is found in other apicomplexans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The control of disease progression and parasitic burden in mice vaccinated with LACK DNA was associated with enhancement of antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. (nih.gov)
  • There are several types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, and they cause different patterns of disease progression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • First, it must be ensured that the stimulatory antigen is no longer capable of causing the disease with which it is associated, or at most only causes subclinical symptoms. (google.ca)
  • That antigen could be from any species of virus/bactera or even human disease antigens, for example cancer antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The present invention relates to vaccine compositions which comprise at least one antigen chemically linked to a water-insoluble support combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (google.ca)
  • This can be difficult when using certain types of very expensive antigens, which are not only costly to produce in large amounts, but are also rapidly eliminated from the body when provided as a vaccine in the traditional manner. (google.ca)
  • specific
  • Some of the names are reflective of the locale in which the specific protozoa is most commonly found, or in which it was first discovered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • blood
  • The types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis are carried by the blood-sucking sandfly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage them from the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • S antigen is particularly suitable for such studies, but difficulties in the amplification of this gene have precluded its use. (ox.ac.uk)