• Proteins
  • Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the macrophage (MPhi) is a major source of the initial IL-12 produced upon microbial stimulation and that this response promotes the differentiation of protective T helper cell 1 (Th1) CD4+ lymphocytes from precursors that are primed on antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DC). (nih.gov)
  • After phagocytosis, macrophages and dendritic cells can also participate in antigen presentation, a process in which a phagocyte moves parts of the ingested material back to its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Goal 2: Create New Vaccines Grand Challenge #4: Devise Reliable Tests in Model Systems to Evaluate Live-attenuated Vaccines The priority areas for this challenge are viruses refractory to vaccine development, pathogenic bacteria, and complex pathogens such as protozoa and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional vaccines, in which attenuated or killed virus/bacteria is used to generate an immune response, viral immunotherapy uses genetically engineered viruses to present a specific antigen to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • The capacity of splenic DC but not MPhi to synthesize de novo high levels of IL-12 within hours of exposure to microbial products in vivo, as well as the ability of the same stimuli to induce migration of DC to the T cell areas, argues that DC function simultaneously as both antigen-presenting cells and IL-12 producing accessory cells in the initiation of cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Grand Challenge #5: Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective immunity The priority areas for this challenge involve HIV and malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasites
  • Antigenic variation is employed by a number of different protozoan parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most accurate diagnosis is by qPcr DNA antigen assay, not generally available by primary care physicians in the USA: most labs offer research only service It was assumed that early human ancestors generally had parasites, but until recently there was no evidence to support this claim. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Dr. Cohn's experiments," reported the Times in his obituary, "threw light on the functions of T-cells, made in the bone marrow, and macrophages, large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapy
  • IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Localization of the antigen binding to antibody EH5 in E. histolytica trophozoites by indirect immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to the degranulation and the release of mediators from the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Protection against invasive amebiasis by a single monoclonal antibody directed against a lipophosphoglycan antigen localized on the surface of Entamoeba histolytica. (nih.gov)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of surface antigens is found in other apicomplexans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic
  • The control of disease progression and parasitic burden in mice vaccinated with LACK DNA was associated with enhancement of antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. (nih.gov)
  • As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage them from the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Some of the names are reflective of the locale in which the specific protozoa is most commonly found, or in which it was first discovered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • bound
  • Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. (nih.gov)
  • blood
  • The types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis are carried by the blood-sucking sandfly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • To determine the cellular localization of the antigen recognized by the EH5 antibody in the amebas by independent means, immunolocalization experiments on the light and electron microscopic levels were performed. (nih.gov)
  • Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • There are several types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, and they cause different patterns of disease progression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • Other areas that harbor the causative protozoa include China , many countries throughout Africa, Mexico, Central and South America , Turkey , and Greece . (encyclopedia.com)