• dendritic cells
  • Previous in vitro studies have suggested that the macrophage (MPhi) is a major source of the initial IL-12 produced upon microbial stimulation and that this response promotes the differentiation of protective T helper cell 1 (Th1) CD4+ lymphocytes from precursors that are primed on antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DC). (nih.gov)
  • After phagocytosis, macrophages and dendritic cells can also participate in antigen presentation, a process in which a phagocyte moves parts of the ingested material back to its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody
  • Protection against invasive amebiasis by a single monoclonal antibody directed against a lipophosphoglycan antigen localized on the surface of Entamoeba histolytica. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody EH5 strongly agglutinated amebas in a similar way to concanavalin A (Con A), and Con A bound to immunoaffinity-purified EH5 antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of the antigen binding to antibody EH5 in E. histolytica trophozoites by indirect immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the cellular localization of the antigen recognized by the EH5 antibody in the amebas by independent means, immunolocalization experiments on the light and electron microscopic levels were performed. (nih.gov)
  • In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply-transfused hemophiliac whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leishmania
  • Vaccination with DNA encoding the immunodominant LACK parasite antigen confers protective immunity to mice infected with Leishmania major. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether DNA immunization could elicit protective immunity to Leishmania major in susceptible BALB/c mice, cDNA for the cloned Leishmania antigen LACK was inserted into a euykaryotic expression vector downstream to the cytomegalovirus promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Although the exact chemical structure of the EH5 antigen is not yet known, the ability of the antigen to be metabolically radiolabeled with [32P]phosphate or [3H]glucose, its sensitivity to digestion by mild acid and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, and its specific extraction from E. histolytica trophozoites by a method used to prepare lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania showed that it could be classified as an amebal lipophosphoglycan. (nih.gov)
  • A model nonapeptide is cleaved at -Ala-Tyr-Leu-Lys-Lys- This membrane-bound glycoprotein is present in the promastigote of various species of Leishmania protozoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative agent
  • The basic principle behind the practice of immunization is that the body's own immune system is stimulated to produce a humoral or cellular response against a specific disease-causing organism by exposing the system to an antigen of the causative agent without actually bringing on the full symptoms of the disease. (google.ca)
  • Immunity
  • The capacity of splenic DC but not MPhi to synthesize de novo high levels of IL-12 within hours of exposure to microbial products in vivo, as well as the ability of the same stimuli to induce migration of DC to the T cell areas, argues that DC function simultaneously as both antigen-presenting cells and IL-12 producing accessory cells in the initiation of cell-mediated immunity to intracellular pathogens. (nih.gov)
  • Grand Challenge #5: Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective immunity The priority areas for this challenge involve HIV and malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components and arrangement of the different sugars determines the nature of the somatic or O antigen determinants, which are essential means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Cohn's experiments," reported the Times in his obituary, "threw light on the functions of T-cells, made in the bone marrow, and macrophages, large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic protozoan
  • As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage them from the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protozoan, is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, and is a sexually transmitted infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • Our results demonstrate the importance and, for the first time, the protective capacity of glycan antigens on the surface of the amebas. (nih.gov)
  • pathogens
  • Thus, DNA immunization may offer an attractive alternative vaccination strategy against intracellular pathogens, as compared with conventional vaccination with antigens combined with adjuvants. (nih.gov)
  • amplification
  • S antigen is particularly suitable for such studies, but difficulties in the amplification of this gene have precluded its use. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe a simple method for the amplification of S antigen and show why previous attempts may have been unsuccessful. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Preparations
  • IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to the degranulation and the release of mediators from the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The present invention relates to vaccine compositions which comprise at least one antigen chemically linked to a water-insoluble support combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (google.ca)
  • This can be difficult when using certain types of very expensive antigens, which are not only costly to produce in large amounts, but are also rapidly eliminated from the body when provided as a vaccine in the traditional manner. (google.ca)
  • surface
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of surface antigens is found in other apicomplexans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The control of disease progression and parasitic burden in mice vaccinated with LACK DNA was associated with enhancement of antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. (nih.gov)
  • specific
  • Some of the names are reflective of the locale in which the specific protozoa is most commonly found, or in which it was first discovered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • blood
  • The types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis are carried by the blood-sucking sandfly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • There are several types of protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, and they cause different patterns of disease progression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • First, it must be ensured that the stimulatory antigen is no longer capable of causing the disease with which it is associated, or at most only causes subclinical symptoms. (google.ca)
  • several
  • Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). (wikipedia.org)