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  • assays
  • Anti-streptavidin IgG antibody interference in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) IgG antibody assays is a rare but important cause of false-positive anti-CCP results. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chemiluminescence Assays (CIA) , including a subcategory using bioluminescence (biologically derived chemiluminescence agents), use the generation of light from oxidative chemical reactions as an indicator of the quantity of unbound luminescently labeled antigen. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Interesting methods have been developed that include the use of antibodies, lectins to capture glycoproteins, immobilized metal ions to capture phosphorylated peptides and suicide enzyme substrates to capture specific enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • dyes
  • Quantum dots are popular alternatives to organic dyes as fluorescent labels for biological imaging and sensing due to their small size, tuneable emission, and photostability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The visible agglutination of the S. aureus particles indicates the antigen-antibody reaction. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • This reduces the time necessary for visualization of the antigen-antibody reaction from 18-24 hours in Immunodiffusion (ID) to less than one hour and also substantially increases the sensitivity of the analysis. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Direct Agglutination (DA) is a general term for techniques which use agglutination (macroscopic clumping) of particulate reagents as an indicator of the presence of an antigen-antibody reaction. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • It is suggested that the essential process in bronchiolitis is a widespread type 1 allergic reaction dependent on a second encounter with R.S. virus antigen, whereas in R.S. virus pneumonia the mucosal necrosis and alveolar and interstitial inflammation are the result of direct virus damage to the lungs. (bmj.com)
  • By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, a gene library of single-domain antibodies containing several million clones is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction (see immunoperoxidase staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell staining is a very versatile technique and, if the antigen is highly localized, can detect as few as a thousand antigen molecules in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • They then determined partial sequences of the amino acids that made up the protein of the nanobodies with a technique known as mass spectrometry. (healthcanal.com)
  • Since Perrin's contribution, the technique has grown from determining binding isotherms under heavily controlled parameters, to the study of antigen-antibody, small molecule-protein, and hormone-receptor binding interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a molecular weight of only 12-15 kDa, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150-160 kDa) which are composed of two heavy protein chains and two light chains, and even smaller than Fab fragments (~50 kDa, one light chain and half a heavy chain) and single-chain variable fragments (~25 kDa, two variable domains, one from a light and one from a heavy chain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies specific for the protein of interest are used to probe the plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variation of the technique (rISH-PLA) has been used to study the association of protein and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of sequencing techniques in 1977 by Gilbert and Sanger (working separately) enabled researchers to directly read the genetic codes that provide instructions for protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are made by injecting animals with the protein of interest, or a peptide fragment and, after a secondary immune response is stimulated, isolating antibodies from whole serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common laboratory technique that is used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells (cultured cells, cell suspensions) by use of a specific antibody, which binds to it, thereby allowing visualization and examination under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • All in all, their procedure generated 25 types of nanobodies capable of precisely targeting GFP and six for mCherry, a far more diverse set of high affinity nanobodies than is typically possible with conventional techniques. (healthcanal.com)
  • These peptides have similar affinity to antigens as whole antibodies, but are more heat-resistant and stable towards detergents and high concentrations of urea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such naïve libraries usually contain only antibodies with low affinity to the desired antigen, making it necessary to apply affinity maturation by random mutagenesis as an additional step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduction of sample complexity is achieved through selective enrichment using affinity chromatography techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • A single-domain antibody is a peptide chain of about 110 amino acids long, comprising one variable domain (VH) of a heavy-chain antibody, or of a common IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes available for antibody binding, including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is a procedure in which oppositely charged antigen and antibody are propelled toward each other by an electrical field. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • The direct attachment of the messenger to the antibody reduces the number of steps in the procedure, saving time and reducing non-specific background signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well, they are easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. (aappublications.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an. (studymode.com)
  • Conclusion Explain why antibodies allow scientists to target and identify specific disease agents. (studymode.com)
  • The antibodies are specific to the antigen they destroy. (studymode.com)
  • The differentiation of specific antibody isotope is not possible. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this technique, it is possible to locate gene expression to specific cell types in specific regions and observe how changes in this distribution occur throughout the development and correlate with the behavioral manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique can be used to quickly determine if a subject has a specific viral or bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is similar, comprising gene libraries from immunized or naïve donors and display techniques for identification of the most specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagents
  • Use of one of these reagents after exposure to the necessary enzyme (e.g., horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an antibody reagent) produces a positive immunoreaction product. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In some circumstances, cell staining may also be used to determine the approximate concentration of an antigen, especially by an image analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemically
  • Next, they picked out the tightest binding GFP and mCherry antibodies from blood samples from the same llamas, and chemically cut these into smaller pieces, keeping only the antigen-binding section to create nanobodies. (healthcanal.com)
  • buffers
  • Optimisation of fixation methods and times, pre-treatment with blocking agents, incubating antibodies with high salt, and optimising post-antibody wash buffers and wash times are all important for obtaining high quality immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • A single-domain antibody can be obtained by immunization of dromedaries, camels, llamas, alpacas or sharks with the desired antigen and subsequent isolation of the mRNA coding for heavy-chain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • The fluorescent lifetime is the amount of time between the absorption moment and the fluorescent emission moment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species have been shown to be active in the intestine after oral application, but their low absorption from the gut impedes the development of systemically active orally administered single-domain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)

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  • reagents
  • Due to these developments, a considerable market for instrumentation, analysis software, as well as the reagents used in acquisition such as fluorescently labeled antibodies has developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (abgent.com)
  • Ligand binding assays (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, whose procedure or method relies on the binding of ligand molecules to receptors, antibodies or other macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a direct result of these monumental findings, researchers have continued the advancement of ligand binding assays in many facets in the fields of biology, chemistry, and the like. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homogeneous assays rely on direct coupling of the lanthanide label with an organic acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • For formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, antigen-retrieval is often necessary, and involves pre-treating the sections with heat or protease. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The very high specificity and the very high selectivity of certain biological reactions, especially antigen/antibody reactions, DNA or RNA hybridization reactions, interprotein or avidin/streptavidin/biotin type reactions, as well as reactions of ligands and their receptors, have been known for a long time. (google.com)
  • Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) is a protein array designed as a micro- or nano-scaled dot-blot platform that allows measurement of protein expression levels in a large number of biological samples simultaneously in a quantitative manner when high-quality antibodies are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantum dots are popular alternatives to organic dyes as fluorescent labels for biological imaging and sensing due to their small size, tuneable emission, and photostability. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • With this reason, integration-free and/or transgene-free human iPSCs have been developed using several methods, such as adenovirus, the piggyBac system, minicircle vector, episomal vectors, direct protein delivery and synthesized mRNA. (jove.com)
  • The technique is particularly useful in performing immunoassays for protein analytes, such as a glycosylated protein, in aqueous test samples. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to methods for binding a protein with an antibody reagent such as is accomplished in the performance of immunoassays. (google.com)
  • Other protein microarrays include forward protein microarrays (PMAs) and antibody microarrays (AMAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 1 shows a forward (using antibody as a bait in here) and reverse phase protein microarray at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of sequencing techniques in 1977 by Gilbert and Sanger (working separately) enabled researchers to directly read the genetic codes that provide instructions for protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic or animal-derived antibodies are created that react with a specific target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescently
  • Commercial DFA testing kits are available, which contain fluorescently labelled antibodies, designed to specifically target unique antigens present in the bacteria or virus, but not present in mammals (Eukaryotes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase chain re
  • First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, a gene library of single-domain antibodies containing several million clones is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • isotype
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a class of in vitro biochemical test used for rapid detection of antibody or antigen in sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • The change in polarization is proportional to the amount of antigen in sample, and is measured by a fluorescence polarization analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The competitive homogenous characteristic allowed for the fluorescence polarization immunoassay to be automated much easier than other immunoassay techniques such as radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunoassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • FPIA quantifies the change in fluorescence polarization of reaction mixtures of fluorescent-labelled tracer, sample antigen, and defined antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free tracer in solution has a lower fluorescence polarization than antibody-bound tracer with slower Brownian motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tracer and the specific antigen will compete to bind to the antibody and if the antigen is low in concentration, more tracer will be bound to the antibody resulting in a higher fluorescence polarization and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • These clones were prepared by synthesizing cDNA from an mRNA mix containing mRNA coding for the desired HLA antigen, inserting the cDNA into a vector, transforming a bacterial host and isolating transformant clones that contain the desired DNA segment by probing with an oligonucleotide probe that is specific for the desired DNA sequence. (google.com)
  • A single-domain antibody can be obtained by immunization of dromedaries, camels, llamas, alpacas or sharks with the desired antigen and subsequent isolation of the mRNA coding for heavy-chain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction (see immunoperoxidase staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Historically, ligand binding assay techniques were used extensively to quantify hormone or hormone receptor concentrations in plasma or in tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunolabeling is a biochemical process that enables the detection and localization of an antigen to a particular site within a cell, tissue, or organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of the tags to the target via the antibodies provides for the identification and visualization of the antigen of interest in its native location in the tissue, such as the cell membrane, cytoplasm, or nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the tissue type and the method of antigen detection, endogenous biotin or enzymes may need to be blocked or quenched, respectively, prior to antibody staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quality control should as a minimum include a tissue known to express the antigen as a positive control and negative controls of tissue known not to express the antigen, as well as the test tissue probed in the same way with omission of the primary antibody (or better, absorption of the primary antibody). (wikipedia.org)
  • Western Blot
  • Thus, the antibodies used in RPMA must be carefully validated for specificity and performance against cell lysates by western blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name western blot is a play on the eponymously-named Southern blot, a technique for DNA detection developed earlier by Edwin Southern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "western blot" was given to the technique by W. Neal Burnette, although the method itself originated in the laboratory of Harry Towbin at the Friedrich Miescher Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Further applications of the western blot technique include its use by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The western blot technique was used during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in the anti-doping campaign for that event. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research utilizing the western blot technique showed an improved detection of EPO in blood and urine based on novel Velum SAR precast horizontal gels optimized for routine analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • employs
  • With fifteen years of experience, our experienced team employs the latest in instrumentation and specialized synthetic techniques to deliver high quality products on time at a great price. (abgent.com)
  • calibrated assay
  • Multiplexing is achieved by probing multiple arrays spotted with the same lysate with different antibodies simultaneously and can be implemented as a quantitative calibrated assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • The fluorescent lifetime is the amount of time between the absorption moment and the fluorescent emission moment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species have been shown to be active in the intestine after oral application, but their low absorption from the gut impedes the development of systemically active orally administered single-domain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection method
  • Depending on the research question or the type and aim of the study, RPMA can be designed by selecting the content of the array, the number of samples, sample placement within micro-plates, array layout, type of microarrayer, correct detection antibody, signal detection method, inclusion of control and quality control of the samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Genetic engineering as the direct transfer of DNA from one organism to another was first accomplished by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regions where the genes are randomly recombined together is the hyper variable region used to recognise different antigens on a clonal basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)