• assays
  • Anti-streptavidin IgG antibody interference in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) IgG antibody assays is a rare but important cause of false-positive anti-CCP results. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chemiluminescence Assays (CIA) , including a subcategory using bioluminescence (biologically derived chemiluminescence agents), use the generation of light from oxidative chemical reactions as an indicator of the quantity of unbound luminescently labeled antigen. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)

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  • enzymes
  • Interesting methods have been developed that include the use of antibodies, lectins to capture glycoproteins, immobilized metal ions to capture phosphorylated peptides and suicide enzyme substrates to capture specific enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • dyes
  • Quantum dots are popular alternatives to organic dyes as fluorescent labels for biological imaging and sensing due to their small size, tuneable emission, and photostability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • They then determined partial sequences of the amino acids that made up the protein of the nanobodies with a technique known as mass spectrometry. (healthcanal.com)
  • Since Perrin's contribution, the technique has grown from determining binding isotherms under heavily controlled parameters, to the study of antigen-antibody, small molecule-protein, and hormone-receptor binding interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a molecular weight of only 12-15 kDa, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150-160 kDa) which are composed of two heavy protein chains and two light chains, and even smaller than Fab fragments (~50 kDa, one light chain and half a heavy chain) and single-chain variable fragments (~25 kDa, two variable domains, one from a light and one from a heavy chain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies specific for the protein of interest are used to probe the plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variation of the technique (rISH-PLA) has been used to study the association of protein and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of sequencing techniques in 1977 by Gilbert and Sanger (working separately) enabled researchers to directly read the genetic codes that provide instructions for protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common laboratory technique that is used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells (cultured cells, cell suspensions) by use of a specific antibody, which binds to it, thereby allowing visualization and examination under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • visualization
  • This reduces the time necessary for visualization of the antigen-antibody reaction from 18-24 hours in Immunodiffusion (ID) to less than one hour and also substantially increases the sensitivity of the analysis. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • reagents
  • Direct Agglutination (DA) is a general term for techniques which use agglutination (macroscopic clumping) of particulate reagents as an indicator of the presence of an antigen-antibody reaction. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Use of one of these reagents after exposure to the necessary enzyme (e.g., horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an antibody reagent) produces a positive immunoreaction product. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • This is also a direct assay and is not dependent on the use of fluorescence polarization (Kapuscinski, J. and Skoczyles, B., Analytical Biochem. (google.com.au)
  • reaction
  • The visible agglutination of the S. aureus particles indicates the antigen-antibody reaction. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • It is suggested that the essential process in bronchiolitis is a widespread type 1 allergic reaction dependent on a second encounter with R.S. virus antigen, whereas in R.S. virus pneumonia the mucosal necrosis and alveolar and interstitial inflammation are the result of direct virus damage to the lungs. (bmj.com)
  • FPIA quantifies the change in fluorescence polarization of reaction mixtures of fluorescent-labelled tracer, sample antigen, and defined antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, a gene library of single-domain antibodies containing several million clones is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The primary antibody recognizes the target molecule (antigen) and binds to a specific region called the epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a fluorescent molecule is stationary and exposed to plane-polarized light, it will become excited and consequently emit radiation back to the polarized-plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the excited fluorescent molecule is in motion (rotational or translational) during the fluorescent lifetime, it will emit light in a different direction than the excitation plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a fluorescent-labelled molecule (tracer) binds to another molecule the rotational motion will change, resulting in an altered intensity of plane-polarized light, which results in altered fluorescence polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • A single-domain antibody is a peptide chain of about 110 amino acids long, comprising one variable domain (VH) of a heavy-chain antibody, or of a common IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes available for antibody binding, including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is a procedure in which oppositely charged antigen and antibody are propelled toward each other by an electrical field. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • All in all, their procedure generated 25 types of nanobodies capable of precisely targeting GFP and six for mCherry, a far more diverse set of high affinity nanobodies than is typically possible with conventional techniques. (healthcanal.com)
  • The direct attachment of the messenger to the antibody reduces the number of steps in the procedure, saving time and reducing non-specific background signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well, they are easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Free tracer in solution has a lower fluorescence polarization than antibody-bound tracer with slower Brownian motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagent
  • Nuclei are stained with NucBlue® Fixed Cell ReadyProbes™ Reagent (blue), actin cytoskeleton is stained with ActinGreen™ 488 ReadyProbes™ Reagent (green), and mitochondria are labeled with mouse anti-ATP synthase subunit IF1 monoclonal antibody and detected with ReadyProbes™ Alexa Fluor® 594 goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (red). (thermofisher.com)
  • sensitivity
  • It is particularly difficult to obtain an accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals, as the sensitivity to tests varies significantly according to the stage of the infection, immune system and correct testing techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • SOFIA's sensitivity is measured at the attogram level (10−18 g), making it about one billion times more sensitive than conventional diagnostic techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Primarily, it permits the use of very small samples at low concentration to be optimally interrogated using the laser-induced fluorescence technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemically
  • Next, they picked out the tightest binding GFP and mCherry antibodies from blood samples from the same llamas, and chemically cut these into smaller pieces, keeping only the antigen-binding section to create nanobodies. (healthcanal.com)
  • immunoassay
  • Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) is the general term for an expanding technical arsenal of testing which allows a full range of quantitative analyses for both antigen and antibodies. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • The competitive homogenous characteristic allowed for the fluorescence polarization immunoassay to be automated much easier than other immunoassay techniques such as radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunoassays. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffers
  • Optimisation of fixation methods and times, pre-treatment with blocking agents, incubating antibodies with high salt, and optimising post-antibody wash buffers and wash times are all important for obtaining high quality immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers, led by graduate student Peter Fridy and postdoc Yinyin Li, started by making antibody sequence databases from RNA isolated out of antibody-producing cells in the llamas' bone marrow. (healthcanal.com)
  • In cases where an immunopositive signal is found, ICC also allows researchers to determine which sub-cellular compartments are expressing the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • A single-domain antibody can be obtained by immunization of dromedaries, camels, llamas, alpacas or sharks with the desired antigen and subsequent isolation of the mRNA coding for heavy-chain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • absorption
  • The fluorescent lifetime is the amount of time between the absorption moment and the fluorescent emission moment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species have been shown to be active in the intestine after oral application, but their low absorption from the gut impedes the development of systemically active orally administered single-domain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)