• assays
  • Anti-streptavidin IgG antibody interference in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) IgG antibody assays is a rare but important cause of false-positive anti-CCP results. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chemiluminescence Assays (CIA) , including a subcategory using bioluminescence (biologically derived chemiluminescence agents), use the generation of light from oxidative chemical reactions as an indicator of the quantity of unbound luminescently labeled antigen. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. (hindawi.com)
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)

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  • monoclonal antibody
  • urinary n-telopeptide (uNTX) response to anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202 in patients with bone metastases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To explore the effect of anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202 on markers of tumor cell proliferation, monocytes/macrophage trafficking, and osteoclast maturation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Patients receive anti-CCR2 monoclonal antibody MLN1202 IV over 1 hour on days 1, 15, and 29 in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This partially randomized phase I/II trial studies the side effects and the best dose of anti-endoglin monoclonal antibody TRC105 when given together with bevacizumab and to see how well t. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This randomized pilot phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of anti-SEMA4D monoclonal antibody VX15/2503 when given together with nivolumab or ipilimumab in treating patient. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A Mucin1 C-terminal Subunit-directed Monoclonal Antibody Targets Overexpressed Mucin1 in Breast Cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This 24-week, Phase IIb, double-blind study (NCT01715896) evaluated mavrilimumab (anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSFR]-α monoclonal antibody) and golimumab (anti-tumor necr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tabulation of counted data in conjunction with size analysis enables determination of relative percentages of each specific cellular subset for which monoclonal antibody conjugates are utilized, even when the size of the cell is identical to other subset species. (specialtylabs.com)
  • serum
  • Patient serum diffuses from one well through the gel and reacts with a known specific antigen (or antibody) which diffuses through the gel from a second well. (specialtylabs.com)
  • In addition, clinical data have demonstrated that circulating melanoma cells are a potential source of the HMW-MAA/CSPG4 antigen found in the serum of melanoma patients [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are made by injecting animals with the protein of interest, or a peptide fragment and, after a secondary immune response is stimulated, isolating antibodies from whole serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Interesting methods have been developed that include the use of antibodies, lectins to capture glycoproteins, immobilized metal ions to capture phosphorylated peptides and suicide enzyme substrates to capture specific enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • visualization
  • This reduces the time necessary for visualization of the antigen-antibody reaction from 18-24 hours in Immunodiffusion (ID) to less than one hour and also substantially increases the sensitivity of the analysis. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells (cultured cells, cell suspensions) by use of a specific antibody, which binds to it, thereby allowing visualization and examination under a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplification
  • As a simplified version of natural rolling circle replication, an isothermal DNA amplification technique, Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staining
  • With the invention of the microscope and a technique of staining developed by Camillo Golgi, it was possible to study individual neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1885 there was a German medical researcher called Franz Nissl who developed another staining technique now known by Nissl staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique is slightly different from Golgi staining since it stains the cell body and the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1887, a Spanish scientist called Santiago Ramon y Cajal learned the staining technique with Golgi and started his famous work of neuroanatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, immunostaining now encompasses a broad range of techniques used in histology, cell biology, and molecular biology that use antibody-based staining methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction (see immunoperoxidase staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • These steps may make the difference between the target antigens staining or not staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some circumstances, cell staining may also be used to determine the approximate concentration of an antigen, especially by an image analyzer. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • They then determined partial sequences of the amino acids that made up the protein of the nanobodies with a technique known as mass spectrometry. (healthcanal.com)
  • Since Perrin's contribution, the technique has grown from determining binding isotherms under heavily controlled parameters, to the study of antigen-antibody, small molecule-protein, and hormone-receptor binding interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a molecular weight of only 12-15 kDa, single-domain antibodies are much smaller than common antibodies (150-160 kDa) which are composed of two heavy protein chains and two light chains, and even smaller than Fab fragments (~50 kDa, one light chain and half a heavy chain) and single-chain variable fragments (~25 kDa, two variable domains, one from a light and one from a heavy chain). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies specific for the protein of interest are used to probe the plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variation of the technique (rISH-PLA) has been used to study the association of protein and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of sequencing techniques in 1977 by Gilbert and Sanger (working separately) enabled researchers to directly read the genetic codes that provide instructions for protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common laboratory technique that is used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) is a procedure in which oppositely charged antigen and antibody are propelled toward each other by an electrical field. (hardydiagnostics.com)
  • All in all, their procedure generated 25 types of nanobodies capable of precisely targeting GFP and six for mCherry, a far more diverse set of high affinity nanobodies than is typically possible with conventional techniques. (healthcanal.com)
  • The direct attachment of the messenger to the antibody reduces the number of steps in the procedure, saving time and reducing non-specific background signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well, they are easily isolated using the same phage panning procedure used for traditional antibodies, allowing them to be cultured in vitro in large concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • It is suggested that the essential process in bronchiolitis is a widespread type 1 allergic reaction dependent on a second encounter with R.S. virus antigen, whereas in R.S. virus pneumonia the mucosal necrosis and alveolar and interstitial inflammation are the result of direct virus damage to the lungs. (bmj.com)
  • By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, a gene library of single-domain antibodies containing several million clones is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • c) determining the extent of binding of the compound to the nucleic acid from the difference in the fluorescent polarization of the mixture containing the compound and the intercalator and the mixture containing compound, the intercalator and the nucleic acid. (google.com.au)
  • species
  • With this technique he made an extensive study of several areas of the brain and in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species have been shown to be active in the intestine after oral application, but their low absorption from the gut impedes the development of systemically active orally administered single-domain antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • A single-domain antibody is a peptide chain of about 110 amino acids long, comprising one variable domain (VH) of a heavy-chain antibody, or of a common IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrieval
  • Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes available for antibody binding, including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • It is particularly difficult to obtain an accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals, as the sensitivity to tests varies significantly according to the stage of the infection, immune system and correct testing techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting the animal and then taking a specific sample of immune tissue, isolating a parent cell, and using the resulting immortalized line to create antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA), is a membrane-bound tumor antigen that can be recognized by antibodies [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • reagents
  • Use of one of these reagents after exposure to the necessary enzyme (e.g., horseradish peroxidase conjugated to an antibody reagent) produces a positive immunoreaction product. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • SOFIA's sensitivity is measured at the attogram level (10−18 g), making it about one billion times more sensitive than conventional diagnostic techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemically
  • Next, they picked out the tightest binding GFP and mCherry antibodies from blood samples from the same llamas, and chemically cut these into smaller pieces, keeping only the antigen-binding section to create nanobodies. (healthcanal.com)
  • methods
  • Optimisation of fixation methods and times, pre-treatment with blocking agents, incubating antibodies with high salt, and optimising post-antibody wash buffers and wash times are all important for obtaining high quality immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)