• intracellular
  • The short cytoplasmic tail of the TCR lacks the ability to signal, requiring intracellular signaling to be initiated by the CD3 protein complex. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The CD3 protein is composed of three pairs of dimers (εγ, εδ, ζζ) that are responsible for intracellular signaling, initiated by the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAMs) shown as red rectangular domains (ten in total). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The intracellular tails of the CD3 molecules contain a single conserved motif known as an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif or ITAM for short, which is essential for the signaling capacity of the TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lck phosphorylates the intracellular portions of the CD3 complex (called ITAMs), creating a docking site for ZAP-70. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • CD3 ε, CD3 γ and CD3 δ are highly homologous and are believed to be derived from a single ancestral gene, mapping to human chromosome 11 band q23, through gene duplication (Clevers et al. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • transmembrane
  • Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Containing aspartate residues, the transmembrane region of the CD3 chains is negatively charged, a characteristic that allows these chains to associate with the positively charged TCR chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tandem SH2-domains of ZAP-70 are engaged by the doubly phosphorylated ITAMs of CD3-zeta, which positions ZAP-70 to phosphorylate the transmembrane protein linker of activated T cells (LAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • CD28
  • In summary, in vivo depletion of peripheral CD3(+)CD4(+)CD28(-) T-cells by ATG-F in transplant recipients was paralleled in vitro by ATG-F induced apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with polyclonal antilymphocyte globulins induces depletion of circulating CD3+CD4+CD28− T-cells in transplant recipients.Prevalences of peripheral circulating CD3+CD4+CD28− T-cells in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, 5 allograft recipients before and 6 hours after the application of ATG-F and 11 control patients before and 6 hours after organ transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • In this small pilot study the prevalence of peripheral circulating CD3+CD4+CD28− T-cells was tested before and 6 hours after organ transplantation with and without application of ATG-F. Results of a blinded laboratory investigator showed that ATG-F treatment resulted in a total decrement of peripheral T-cells. (nih.gov)
  • TCRs
  • instead TCRs bind enzymatically cleaved fragments of larger polypeptides associated with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC), which is synonymous with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system in humans (Rudd 1990, Gao et al. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Ligation of TCRs by antigen-MHC complexes on APCs triggers T cell activation ( 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • receptors
  • These mutants lack detectable surface CD2 as determined by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation analysis, and specific radiolabeled antibody binding assay, but nevertheless, expressed normal numbers of CD3-Ti receptors. (rupress.org)
  • induces
  • Our first demonstration that crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen induces proliferation of normal human CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, in addition to revealing a novel activation mechanism utilizable by the two major subsets of T cells, suggest that the CD2 antigen might be targeted for the regulation of antigen-specific T cell immunity (e.g., organ transplantation). (rupress.org)
  • binds
  • The most important member of the CD3 family is CD3-zeta, to which ZAP-70 binds (hence the abbreviation). (wikipedia.org)
  • ITAM
  • Phosphorylation of the ITAM on CD3 renders the CD3 chain capable of binding an enzyme called ZAP70 (zeta associated protein), a kinase that is important in the signaling cascade of the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Conclusions Our artificial antigen-presenting cells might represent an efficient tool to rapidly obtain a sufficient number of functional T cells for adoptive immunotherapy in patients with cancer. (haematologica.org)
  • polyclonal
  • Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8 + T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. (haematologica.org)
  • We also assessed the expression of CD40L on polyclonal NK effectors derived from peripheral blood of normal donors, by double staining with anti-CD40L mAb TRAP-1 and anti-CD3 or anti-CD56 mAb. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • These immune cells present antigens to helper T cells with CD4 stabilizing the MHC/TCR interaction, which ultimately results in an antibody mediated immune response. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. (haematologica.org)
  • The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8 + T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. (haematologica.org)
  • Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. (haematologica.org)
  • A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. (rupress.org)
  • CD3 is initially expressed in the cytoplasm of pro-thymocytes, the stem cells from which T-cells arise in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antigen is found bound to the membranes of all mature T-cells, and in virtually no other cell type, although it does appear to be present in small amounts in Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This high specificity, combined with the presence of CD3 at all stages of T-cell development, makes it a useful immunohistochemical marker for T-cells in tissue sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD5 is a good immunohistochemical marker for T-cells, although not as sensitive as CD3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independently, rat hybridoma cells targeting the other antigen are produced. (wikipedia.org)