• rituximab
  • Despite the clinical success of CD20-specific antibody rituximab, malignancies of B-cell origin continue to present a major clinical challenge, in part due to an inability of the antibody to activate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in some patients, and development of resistance in others. (springer.com)
  • A paper discussing mechanisms of action as well as resistance to rituximab cites use of the CD20 antibody (2). (novusbio.com)
  • More detailed rituximab resistance studies from Henry et al employed the CD20 antibody to analyze alternative CD20 transcripts that encode a newly identified DeltaCD20 protein that may play an important role in resistance (3). (novusbio.com)
  • Additional anti-CD20 antibody therapeutics under development (phase II or III clinical trials in 2008) include : Obinutuzumab for systemic lupus erythematosus, Rituximab for myalgic encephalomyelitis Ocaratuzumab for follicular lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis, Ocrelizumab for multiple sclerosis (rheumatoid arthritis discontinued in 2010), TRU-015 (by Trubion), (discontinued in 2010) IMMU-106 (veltuzumab). (wikipedia.org)
  • In pre-clinical studies, ocaratuzumab was shown to have 13 to 20 fold greater affinity for CD20 and 6 fold more potent ADCC as compared to rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • It has been shown that inhibition of BCR signalling by ibrutinib affects the expression of CD20 and the efficacy of anti-CD20 antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obese mice administered anti-B cell CD-20 antibodies, however, did not become less responsive to insulin and as a result did not develop diabetes mellitus or the metabolic syndrome, the posited mechanism being that anti-CD20 antibodies rendered the T cell antibodies dysfunctional and therefore powerless to cause insulin desensitivity by a B cell antibody-modulated autoimmune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearranging of genes makes the cells capable of generating antibodies with a higher or lower affinity to the specified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contribute to immunity by making antibodies that bind with and thereby initiate the process of neutralizing specific antigens that usually are found on the surface of invading pathogens and foreign substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that bind to a target antigen on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once bound to a cancer antigen, antibodies can induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, activate the complement system, or prevent a receptor from interacting with its ligand, all of which can lead to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process favors, by selection for the ability to bind antigen with higher affinity, the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement of a T cell) can happen anywhere in the body and results in short-lived cells that secrete IgM antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since B cell maturation also involves somatic hypermutation (a process completed before differentiation into a plasma cell), these antibodies frequently have a very high affinity for their antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • b The presence of ErbB2-specific control protein scFv(FRP5) (lane 1) and CD20-specific scFv(Leu-16) (lane 2) in periplasmic extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis with FLAG-tag specific Mab M2. (springer.com)
  • A Czech group examined the role of the adaptor protein Lck-interacting molecule (LIME) in CD4 and CD8 signaling through CD20 antibody immunoblotting (4). (novusbio.com)
  • The protein has no known natural ligand and its function is to enable optimal B-cell immune response, specifically against T-independent antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only approved cellular cancer therapy based on dendritic cells is sipuleucel-T. One method of inducing dendritic cells to present tumor antigens is by vaccination with autologous tumor lysates or short peptides (small parts of protein that correspond to the protein antigens on cancer cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dendritic cells are activated in the presence of tumor antigens, which may be a single tumor-specific peptide/protein or a tumor cell lysate (a solution of broken down tumor cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment consists of removal of antigen-presenting cells from blood by leukapheresis and growing them with the fusion protein PA2024 made from GM-CSF and prostate-specific prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and reinfused. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluster
  • GCB DLBCL shows amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN but these events have not been found in ABC DLBCL B-cells form in the bone marrow and undergo gene rearrangement in order to develop B-cell receptors (BCRs) that bind to a specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examination of plasma cell immunophenotype by measuring certain of their cell surface antigens, particularly Cluster of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • Importantly, in contrast to parental NK-92, CD20-specific NK cells efficiently lysed CD20 expressing but otherwise NK-resistant established and primary lymphoma and leukemia cells, demonstrating that this strategy can overcome NK-cell resistance and might be suitable for the development of effective cell-based therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. (springer.com)
  • Supplementary Fig. S1 Recombinant scFv(Leu-16) binds to CD20 expressing lymphoma cells. (springer.com)
  • c Binding of recombinant scFv molecules to CD20 expressing but ErbB2-negative Raji lymphoma cells (upper panel), and ErbB2 expressing but CD20-negative SKBR3 breast carcinoma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry with Myc-tag specific Mab 9E10 and FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. (springer.com)
  • Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) is an indolent CD20(+) form of lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because the Reed-Sternberg cell (RSC) variants (popcorn cells) that characterize this form of the disease invariably express B lymphocyte markers such as CD20 (thus making NLPHL an unusual form of B cell lymphoma), and that (unlike classic HL) NLPHL may progress to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphomas
  • Because CD20 remains present on the cells of most B-cell neoplasms, and is absent on otherwise similar appearing T-cell neoplasms, it can be very useful in diagnosing conditions such as B-cell lymphomas and leukaemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • NK-92-scFv(Leu-16)-ζ cells were incubated with 100 μM of the serine protease inhibitor DCI (3,4-dichloroisocoumarin) (Roche, Mannheim, Germany) in X-VIVO 10 medium for 1 h at 37°C, before their cytotoxic activity towards CD20 expressing NIH3T3-CD20 cells was analyzed in a 3 h MTT cytotoxicity assay as described in the methods section (E/T ratio of 10:1). (springer.com)
  • It is suspected that it acts as a calcium channel in the cell membrane.It has been shown that CD20 plays a role in the microenvironmental interactions of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry can be used to determine the presence of CD20 on cells in histological tissue sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD20 positive cells are also sometimes found in cases of Hodgkins disease, myeloma, and thymoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once activated by an antigen, B-cells proliferate and further differentiate into plasma cells and memory B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the pathways that they can follow is through the germinal center environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large fraction of germinal center B-cells acquire somatic mutations that prohibit antigen binding and these undergo apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They divide rapidly and are still capable of internalizing antigens and presenting them to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike classic RSC, the non-classic popcorn-shaped RS cells of NLPHL are CD15 and CD30 negative while positive for the B cell marker CD20. (wikipedia.org)
  • CVID5
  • CVID5 is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. (abcam.com)
  • fragment
  • Libraries of antibody Fab (fragment, antigen binding) regions were generated with codon substituted variations of the antibody complementarity determining regions (CDRs) inserted into human antibody light and heavy chain germline frameworks (data on file at Mentrik Biotec). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • It was recognized in line with the illustration showing B-cell antigens CD20 and also CD5. (dailystrength.org)
  • Immunophenotyping helps distinguish B-PLL from similar diseases, one of its key identifiers is the absence in expression of the surface antigens CD10, CD11c, CD25, CD103 and cyclin D1 - an important regulator of cell-cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which are taken up by the B cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis and processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The expression of CD20 is regulated by the chemokine signalling through the CXCR4/SDF1 axis, and this can be impaired by drugs interfering with microenvironmental interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • However, the presence or absence of CD20 in such tumours is not relevant to prognosis, with the progression of the disease being much the same in either case. (wikipedia.org)