• antibody
  • An antigen having the ability to react with more than one specific antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • LAG-3 may be a better checkpoint inhibitor target than CTLA-4 or PD-1 since antibodies to these two checkpoints only activate effector T cells, and do not inhibit Treg activity, whereas an antagonist LAG-3 antibody can both activate T effector cells (by downregulating the LAG-3 inhibiting signal into pre-activated LAG-3+ cells) and inhibit induced (i.e. antigen-specific) Treg suppressive activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On B cells, anti-immunoglobulin antibody mimicking exogenous antigen causes CD19 to bind to sIg and internalize with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In negative selection the antibody used is against surface antigen(s) which are known to be present on cells that are not of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to an antibody against an antigen of interest are not always available, but there is a way to circumvent it. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • An initial characterization of the LAG-3 protein was reported in 1992 showing that it was a ligand for MHC class II antigens while a 1995 paper showed that it bound MHC Class II better than CD4. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex which initiates a cascade of phosphorylation eventually leading to activation of transcription factors like NFAT, NF-κB, and AP-1 which affect the expression of certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Cell populations are usually defined using a '+' or a '−' symbol to indicate whether a certain cell fraction expresses or lacks a CD molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell populations can also be defined as hi, mid or low(alternatively bright, mid or dim), indicating an overall variability in CD expression, particularly when compared to other cells being studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • While using one CD molecule to define populations is uncommon (though a few examples exist), combining markers has allowed for cell types with very specific definitions within the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often remains true in neoplastic cells from these populations, so that the presence of CD1 antigens can be used in diagnostic immunohistochemistry to identify some thymomas and malignancies arising from T cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3). (wikipedia.org)
  • CD31
  • Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • It is a C-type lectin with mannose binding specificity, and it has been proposed that mannose binding by this protein leads to internalization of antigen into Birbeck granules and providing access to a nonclassical antigen-processing pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped that studying cows will yield insights into the group 1 CD1 antigen-presenting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex (MAC), thus protecting cells from complement-mediated lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pro-thymocytes differentiate into common thymocytes, and then into medullary thymocytes, and it is at this latter stage that CD3 antigen begins to migrate to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The antigen is found bound to the membranes of all mature T-cells, and in virtually no other cell type, although it does appear to be present in small amounts in Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes the cells expressing this antigen to attach to the magnetic nanoparticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this step, the cells attached to the nanoparticles (expressing the antigen) stay on the column, while other cells (not expressing the antigen) flow through. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this method, the cells can be separated positively or negatively with respect to the particular antigen(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • In positive selection the cells expressing the antigen(s) of interest, which attached to the magnetic column, are washed out to a separate vessel, after removing the column from the magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • After administration of the cells/magnetic nanoparticles solution onto the column the cells expressing these antigens bind to the column and the fraction that goes through is collected, as it contains almost no cells with these undesired antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow Cytometry
  • These anti-CD aptamers could be used in cell biology and biomedicine, from simple cell phenotyping by flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy to diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS to cancer and immune therapies. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Markers
  • Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it is of less use in distinguishing these tumours from others than more specific markers such as chromogranin and NSE. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The antigen remains present in almost all T-cell lymphomas and leukaemias, and can therefore be used to distinguish them from superficially similar B-cell and myeloid neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • The natural antigens of group 2 CD1 are not well characterized, but a synthetic glycolipid, alpha-galactosylceramide, originally isolated from a compound found in a marine sponge, has strong biologic activity. (wikipedia.org)