• pathogen
  • Because of its role in the innate immune system classical complement has been implicated in a number of pathogen related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement system is a group of more than 23 proteins that interacts with each other to opsonize the pathogen and induces a series of inflammatory responses that helps to generate immune response against that pathogen. (periobasics.com)
  • The CP and LP are mainly initiated by immune complexes or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), respectively, whereas AP is spontaneously activated by hydrolysis of C3. (frontiersin.org)
  • When the carbohydrate-recognising heads of MBL bind to specifically arranged mannose residues on the surface of a pathogen, MASP-1 and MASP-2 are activated to cleave complement components C4 and C2 into C4a, C4b, C2a, and C2b. (meddic.jp)
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • Many autoimmune diseases are caused by the uncontrolled or excessive immune response against self-antigens (e.g. rheumatic fever, asthma, glomerulonephritis, many dermatological disorders which may manifest as desquamative gingivitis, multiple sclerosis and etc. (periobasics.com)
  • bind
  • The globular regions of C1q recognize and bind to the Fc region of antibody isotypes IgG or IgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with C3a and C5b67, C5a also is a chemoattractant an activator of white blood cells -- it induces monocytes and neutrophils to bind capillaries' vascular endothelium, extravasate out of the capillaries and migrate to tissue where complement has been activated. (studentreader.com)
  • The F(c) must be immobilized as part of an antigen-antibody complex -- an antibody enough is not alone to bind C1q and activate C1q's two protease components (C1r and C1s). (studentreader.com)
  • system
  • The complement system that is a collection of proteins produced in the liver and circulate the whole body attacking pathogenic microbes. (start-seeking.ru)
  • The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver , and normally circulating as inactive precursors ( pro-proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ehrlich introduced the term "complement" as part of his larger theory of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian immune system is an incredibly complex and intricate system that can recognize non-self and provide protection from a wide variety of pathogens. (talkdesign.org)
  • An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional. (talkdesign.org)
  • An irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would be a powerful challenge to Darwinian evolution. (talkdesign.org)
  • The complement system is a part of the immune system, consists of a series of proteins that interact with one another in a highly regulated manner, in order to eliminate pathogens. (microbeonline.com)
  • In several models of autoimmune diseases, the overactivation of the complement system (CS) is the cause of disease exacerbation. (scielo.br)
  • rheumatoid arthritis, complement system proteins, complement activation. (scielo.br)
  • The principal participants in this system are 11 proteins designated C1 through C9, B, and D . Term complement means to augment the effect of other complements of immune system. (periobasics.com)
  • In the following sections we will try to understand the functioning of complement system, its regulation and disorders related to its function and regulation. (periobasics.com)
  • For example, the severity of a dysfunctional complement system can lead to fatal diseases and infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • protease
  • Multimers of MBL form a complex with MASP1 ( M annose-binding lectin- A ssociated S erine P rotease), MASP2 and MASP3, that are protease zymogens. (meddic.jp)
  • autoantibodies
  • The presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and citrullinated peptide antibody in the serum, provides an autoimmune character to the disease. (scielo.br)
  • CD59
  • 12 , 13 Both DAF and, another complement regulator, CD59, appear to be concentrated at neuromuscular junctions and both can be upregulated by muscle cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • serum
  • Surprisingly, the lytic ability was restored to the heated serum by adding fresh serum that contained no antibodies against the bacterium and that was unable to kill the bacterium by itself. (microbeonline.com)
  • More than 20 types of complements are present in serum found circulating normally in human body in inactive forms (called as zymogens or proenzymes) . (microbeonline.com)
  • C1 in serum is represented by a macromolecular complex (also called C1qr2s2). (pathwaymaps.com)