• cleavage
  • In most cases, the smaller fragment resulting from cleavage of a Complement component is designated 'a' and the larger fragment designated 'b' (e.g. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • C2a is the larger cleavage fragment) . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • As a protease it has very restricted specificity, cleaving only C3b or C4b in the presence of a cofactor such as Complement factor H ( Factor H ). Cleavage of C3b by Factor I yields iC3b , a major opsonin . (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Investigations into the role of complement in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have identified common effector mechanisms that depend on the production of C5a and C5b-9 through the cleavage of C3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Less clear however is the mechanism of complement activation that leads to the cleavage of C3 in ischemic tissues and to what extent the potential trigger mechanisms are organ dependent - an important question which informs the development of therapies that are more selective in their ability to limit the injury, yet preserve the other functions of complement where possible. (frontiersin.org)
  • self-antigens
  • During the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) autoantibodies to IgG-Fc, citrullinated proteins, collagen type II (CII), glucose 6 phosphoisomerase (G6PI) and some other self-antigens appear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many autoimmune diseases are caused by the uncontrolled or excessive immune response against self-antigens (e.g. rheumatic fever, asthma, glomerulonephritis, many dermatological disorders which may manifest as desquamative gingivitis, multiple sclerosis and etc. (periobasics.com)
  • molecules
  • The components, or parts of a biochemical system are molecular in nature, like proteins or complexes of molecules. (talkdesign.org)
  • The differentiation of Th1 and Th2 T cell subsets is determined by a number of factors, including the antigen itself, antigen dose, route of administration, nature of the antigen-presenting cell and co-stimulatory molecules. (periobasics.com)
  • Complement system can be activated by immune complexes and immunologic molecules like endotoxins. (periobasics.com)
  • B cells can contribute to the disease pathogenesis as antigen presenting cells, through costimulatory functions (surface molecules and secreted cytokines), by supporting neolymphogenesis, as well as through its secretory products, immunoglobulins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogen
  • Because of its role in the innate immune system classical complement has been implicated in a number of pathogen related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement system is a group of more than 23 proteins that interacts with each other to opsonize the pathogen and induces a series of inflammatory responses that helps to generate immune response against that pathogen. (periobasics.com)
  • The CP and LP are mainly initiated by immune complexes or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), respectively, whereas AP is spontaneously activated by hydrolysis of C3. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • C3a is an effector of the complement system with a range of functions including T cell activation and survival, angiogenesis stimulation, chemotaxis, mast cell degranulation, and macrophage activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Surprisingly, the lytic ability was restored to the heated serum by adding fresh serum that contained no antibodies against the bacterium and that was unable to kill the bacterium by itself. (microbeonline.com)
  • He concluded that the serum must contain another heat-sensitive component that assists the lytic function of antibodies and named the component alexin . (microbeonline.com)
  • In 1899, Paul Ehrlich renamed the heat sensitive component complement defining it as "the activity of blood serum that completes the action of antibody. (microbeonline.com)
  • More than 20 types of complements are present in serum found circulating normally in human body in inactive forms (called as zymogens or proenzymes) . (microbeonline.com)
  • The presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and citrullinated peptide antibody in the serum, provides an autoimmune character to the disease. (scielo.br)
  • C1 in serum is represented by a macromolecular complex (also called C1qr2s2). (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Disease mechanisms and gene regions studied using the two antibody-induced arthritis mouse models (collagen antibody-induced arthritis and serum transfer-induced arthritis) are compared and discussed for their relevance in RA pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • system
  • The complement system that is a collection of proteins produced in the liver and circulate the whole body attacking pathogenic microbes. (start-seeking.ru)
  • The complement system consists of a number of small proteins found in the blood, in general synthesized by the liver , and normally circulating as inactive precursors ( pro-proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ehrlich introduced the term "complement" as part of his larger theory of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the proteins and glycoproteins that constitute the complement system are synthesized by hepatocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional. (talkdesign.org)
  • An irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would be a powerful challenge to Darwinian evolution. (talkdesign.org)
  • In several models of autoimmune diseases, the overactivation of the complement system (CS) is the cause of disease exacerbation. (scielo.br)
  • rheumatoid arthritis, complement system proteins, complement activation. (scielo.br)
  • The principal participants in this system are 11 proteins designated C1 through C9, B, and D . Term complement means to augment the effect of other complements of immune system. (periobasics.com)
  • In the following sections we will try to understand the functioning of complement system, its regulation and disorders related to its function and regulation. (periobasics.com)
  • For example, the severity of a dysfunctional complement system can lead to fatal diseases and infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • component
  • In 1899, Paul Ehrlich renamed the heat-sensitive component "complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial stage of activation involves Complement component s C1 , C2 , C3 and C4 , which are present in plasma in functionally inactive forms. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • C3a has a regulatory process and a structure homologous to complement component C5a, with which it shares 36% of its sequence identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • classical
  • Immunotherapies have been developed to detect and destroy cells infected by the HIV virus via classical complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical complement activation has also been shown to combat Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapies that utilize classical complement activation have been shown to be effective in targeting and killing cancer cells and destroying tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • C1-inhibitor plays the role of inactivating C1r and C1s to prevent further downstream classical complement activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • While the anaphylatoxin C3a interacts with its C3a receptor (C3aR) to recruit leukocytes, C3b contributes to further downstream complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C2a interacts with Schistosoma haematobium TOR (via N-terminal extracellular domain). (genecards.org)