• immunity
  • Antibodies passing from the mother to the fetus via the placenta or breat milk to the infant is an example of what type of immunity? (sporcle.com)
  • To illuminate the complex role of neutrophils in infection, inflammation, and immunity, this special issue has gathered original and review articles that will help us expand our knowledge on neutrophil biology. (hindawi.com)
  • Neutralizing heterotypic (cross-reactive) IgG antibodies are responsible for this cross-protective immunity, which typically persists for a period of several months to a few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunology
  • Radial immunodiffusion (RID) or Mancini method, Mancini immunodiffusion or single radial immunodiffusion assay, is an immunodiffusion technique used in immunology to determine the quantity or concentration of an antigen in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • An important area of focus is the impact on antibody binding of amino acid substitutions in the epitope-could mutation lead to escape? (frontiersin.org)
  • fragment
  • 1. An isolated DNA fragment coding for a non-A non-B hepatitis-specific antigen polyopeptide, said DNA fragment having a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of nucleotides shown in SEQ ID NOS. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • membrane
  • Association of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) reduced oxidase complex at the phagosomal membrane for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and delivery of proteolytic enzymes into the phagosome initiate pathogen killing and removal. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the C5 convertase initiates the terminal phase of the complement system, leading to the assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane attack complex creates a pore on the target cell's membrane, inducing cell lysis and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent interactions between C5b and other terminal components C6, C7, C8, and C9 form the membrane attack complex or the C5b-9 complex which forms pores on the target cell membranes to lysing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end result of this complement activation or complement fixation cascade is stimulation of phagocytes to clear foreign and damaged material, inflammation to attract additional phagocytes, and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • equivalence
  • Expansion of the circle reaches an end point and stops when free antigen is depleted and when antigen and antibody reach equivalence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a graph that compares the quantities or concentrations of antigen in the original samples with the areas or the squares of the diameters of the precipitin circles on linear scales will usually be a straight line when all circles have reached their end points (equivalence method). (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly higher in infected than in uninfected horses (P=0.0001 and 0.002, for anti-25 and anti-20 kDa responses, respectively). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In cases of larval cyathostominosis, antigen-specific IgG(T) levels were significantly higher than in uninfected ponies (P=0.002 and 0.0035, for anti-25 and anti-20 kDa responses, respectively). (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies are incredibly specific for SLE, with studies quoting nearly 100%, and are therefore used in the diagnosis of SLE. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, this controversy was resolved when it became understood that complement can act in combination with specific antibodies, or on its own in a non-specific way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement activity is not antigen sensitive, but can be triggered by specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutrophils
  • Several microbicidal functions of neutrophils involve the activation of the NADPH oxidase complex for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to mediate pathogen killing. (hindawi.com)
  • Immune complexes are thought to cause blood vessel damage, attracting neutrophils into the skin and synovium in BADAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antibodies possibly stimulate migration of neutrophils into the affected joints and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • 2) Purification of the monoclonal antibodies (Ab) against FP produced in BALb/c mice, and isoldrion of Fab segment (Ab-Fab) by partial digestion with papain enzyme. (nii.ac.jp)
  • formation
  • When injected into target tissue encourages recruitment of C1q and activates downstream events, eventually leading to the formation of the C5b-9 complex which damages tumor cells, killing them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cap formation can be visualised by attaching a fluorophore, such as fluorescein, to the antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • 5) The amino acid sequence determination of antibody started in 1990 at the Institut Pasteur in Paris according to G. Winter's procedure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We completely determined the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain in Ab-Fab in 1991, and found two consensus cysteine residues in comparison with the other antibody sequences. (nii.ac.jp)
  • For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to assess the impact of amino acid substitutions on antibody binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecules
  • The intestinal mucosa absorbs and digests nutrients, turning large complex molecules into small simple ones. (bookpubco.com)
  • Normally, only the small molecules are allowed to pass through the intestinal wall, while the large ones that can act as antigens, causing immune reactions, have a limited ability to pass through. (bookpubco.com)
  • therefore
  • Therefore, presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies are suggestive of SLE, however an absence of the antibodies does not rule out the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if areas or diameters of circles are measured while some, but not all, circles have stopped expanding, such a graph will be straight in the portion that contains the smaller quantities or concentrations of antigen and will be curved in the portion that contains the larger quantities or concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • We find that in some cases the impact of a substitution is local, while in others it causes a reorientation of the antibody with wide-ranging impact on residue-residue interactions: this explains, in part, why the change in chemical properties of a residue can be, on its own, a poor predictor of overall change in binding energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • inflammation
  • This process, called antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, can cause inflammation of surrounding tissues and damage to healthy cells. (wikipedia.org)