• locus
  • While type 1 diabetes shows an extended association on the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype, the association appears not to extend beyond the HLA-B locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This locus in part of the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (markers are A1, CW7, B8, BfS, C4AQ0, C4B1, DR3, DQ2) therefore one study concluded that C4AQ0 could explain the increased infectivity to HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • For A*02, the α chain is encoded by the HLA-A*02 gene and the β chain is encoded by the B2M locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • DQ8 increases the risk for rheumatoid arthritis and is linked to the primary risk locus for RA, HLA-DR4. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • However, as study sizes increased and D serotypes were described in more detail, the association of these loci moved from the MHC class I loci to the MHC class II loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haplotype can be written in an extended form covering the major histocompatibility loci as follows: HLA Cw*0702 : B*0702 : DRB1*1501 : DQA1*0102 : DQB1*0602 The older literature may describe this haplotype in two different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diversity of HLAs in the human population is one aspect of disease defense, and, as a result, the chance of two unrelated individuals with identical HLA molecules on all loci is extremely low. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLAs
  • In 2010 the World Health Organization Naming Committee for Factors of the HLA System revised the nomenclature for HLAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • DQ2.5
  • DQ2.5 isoform or heterodimer is shorthand for the cell surface receptor HLA-DQ α5β2. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA DR3-DQ2 encodes DQ2.5cis isoform of HLA-DQ, this isoform is described frequently as 'the DQ2 isoform', but in actuality there are two major DQ2 isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • For serotypic identification of the DQ2.5cis isoform requires the DR3 (or HLA-DR17 or HLA-DR18) and DQ2 serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides originating from EBV. (wikipedia.org)
  • This high affinity increases the probability of CD8+ t-cell recognition of EBV peptides held by HLA-A*02 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each HLA can bind many peptides, and each person has 3 HLA types and can have 4 isoforms of DP, 4 isoforms of DQ and 4 Isoforms of DR (2 of DRB1, and 2 of DRB3, DRB4, or DRB5) for a total of 12 isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • The global node for DQ8 is in Central America and northern South America where it reaches the highest frequency for any single DQ serotype, close to 90% phenotype frequency (77% haplotype frequency), and is at relatively high frequency in the indigenous North American population, and the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico and up the Mississippi Valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Some diseases found associated with A1 actually link to the extended A1-B8 haplotype, viral induced hepatitis and accelerated progression of HIV are examples. (wikipedia.org)
  • An association was seen between viral hepatitis and HLA-A1. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-A*02-C*16 and HLA-A*02-B*45 have been shown to contribute to significantly increased viral loads (greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • HLA-A*02 appears to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner that inhibits HIV replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4 positive T cells), which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • There is a report that in the Somali communities within the US 2/3 of A1 bearers have the A*0103 isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • allergic disease
  • Early in the study of HLA an association was found between HL A1,B8 in allergic disease, these are found to link to extended HLA A1-B8 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • In allergic disease A1,B8 were found to associate with allergic reactions in new-borns. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • A1 serotype positivity is roughly linked to a large number of inflammatory diseases and conditions believed to have immune system involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "HL-A1,8 phenotype" was found to be associated with severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (renal and central nervous system involvement) in Caucasian patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • This haplotype, HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2, is associated with diseases in which HLA-DQ2 has suspect involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • Despite the fact that the associations have been known almost as long as A1 and "A8" were known, the role of factors affecting disease are still not clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first standardized naming system was established in 1968 by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • While it is not clear what role A1 has in infectious disease, some linkage with infection rates in HIV remain associated within the A1 region of the haplotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • A1 with B8 showed an increase risk of measles infection, however, the significance was not consistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • A1-B8 associated with more rapid progression to seropositivity, and was strongly associated with a rapid decline in T4 cells and development of HIV-related symptoms within four years of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • HLA A*01:01-C*07:01-B*08:01) is a multigene haplotype that covers the MHC Class I region of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more general information on HLA serotypes, please see the article: History and naming of human leukocyte antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • HLA-A*02 has been linked with decreased risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin lymphoma(HL). (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • With rubella, A1-B8 was more frequently found in people infected as a result of maternal transefance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, there are indicators, albeit from a small study comparing HLA expression in fertile and infertile couples, that HLA-A*02 may induce increased maternal immune response to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, T cells help B cells make antibodies to the same foreign antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype has a known association with Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, approximately 70% of patients are homozygotes for DQ2 with at least one copy of DR3-DQ2. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DQ alpha chains are also known to form transhaplotype isomers with other HLA-DQ. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha
  • The other B7-DR2-DQ1 stems from the fact that DQ1 is an alpha chain serotype that is now covered by the beta chain type DQ5 and DQ6 (DQ1 pairs with DQ5 and DQ6 by cis-haplotype pairing). (wikipedia.org)