• immunity
  • Fundamental to this process is the recognition, processing, and presentation of antigenic agents that allows integration of the various branches of the innate and adaptive immune systems that cooperate to confer maximal protective immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most powerful antigen presenting cells are dendritic cells (DCs), which bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are capable of initiating a primary immune response by activating naïve T cells [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results presented here suggest that VacA may contribute to the persistence of H. pylori by interfering with protective immunity and that this toxin is a new useful tool in the study of the different pathways of antigen presentation. (rupress.org)
  • A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive immunity against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • APCs
  • The encapsulation of recombinant proteins in biocompatible and biodegradable nano- and microparticles is emerging as a promising approach to boost their immunogenicity by passively targeting them to antigen presenting cells (APCs) [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By mimicking pathogen dimensions, microparticles are more prone to be phagocyted by APCs than soluble antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Only APCs do express the class II of MHC molecules on the surface in large quantity, such as dendritic cells, B cells or macrophages, so expression of MHC-II molecules is more cell-specific than MHC-I. APCs usually internalise exogenous antigens by endocytosis, but also by pinocytosis, macroautophagy, endosomal microautophagy or chaperone-mediated autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we have considered the possibility that VacA inhibits antigen processing by interfering with late endocytic membrane trafficking by APCs. (rupress.org)
  • protein
  • Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8 + αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biopsies from patients affected by gastroduodenal ulcers almost invariably contain H. pylori strains harboring a pathogenicity island (( 4 )), characterized by the presence of the gene encoding for the 128-kD CagA protein, the major H. pylori antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Chemical inhibition of Usp14 diminished direct presentation of the model antigenic peptide, and the effect was especially pronounced when presentation was restricted to the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) form of the protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • The results showed that exogenous protein antigens were actively endocytosed by APC as detected by flow cytometry. (hindawi.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d, a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Functional assays for the induction of in vitro antigen-specific proliferation of immune catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) showed that membrane preparations from antigen-pulsed autologous APC were highly stimulatory. (hindawi.com)
  • cells
  • The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. (springer.com)
  • Fling SP, Arp B, Pious D. HLA-DMA and -DMB genes are both required for MHC class II/peptide complex formation in antigen-presenting cells. (springer.com)
  • Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells. (springer.com)
  • In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to present three different virus-derived epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) despite expressing the correct restricting HLA-B27 molecules on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists ("phosphoantigens") and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because T cells recognise only fragmented antigens displayed on cell surfaces, antigen processing must occur before the antigen fragment, now bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is transported to the surface of the cell, a process known as presentation, where it can be recognized by a T cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens generated endogenously within these cells are bound to MHC-I molecules and presented on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens from the extracellular space and sometimes also endogenous ones, are enclosed into endocytic vesicles and presented on the cell surface by MHC-II molecules to the helper T cells expressing CD4 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human CD4\(^+\) T cells process and present functional class II MHC-peptide complexes, but the endogenous peptide repertoire of these non-classical antigen presenting cells remains unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • Phosphoantigen surveillance by T cells has been observed in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and class II-restricted antigen presentation ( , 8 - , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cancer immunotherapy has focused on the identification of tumor-associated antigens that are expressed exclusively by cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Many of these antigens are not expressed on the surface of tumor cells, and therefore are not directly accessible to antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • The researchers have devolved an assay to monitor the effect of Methyldopa on the presentation of the DQ8 antigen through the isolation of specific cells found in the blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The influence of age and Rhodococcus equi infection on CD1 expression by equine antigen presenting cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1999). Tumour antigens are those expressed by tumor cells, and recognizable as being different from self cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ability of TAMs to present tumour-associated antigens is decreased as well as stimulation of the anti-tumour functions of T and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The related β-D-glucopyranosylceramide is accumulated in antigen-presenting cells after infection, where it serves to activate invariant NKTs (iNKTs), a special kind of NKT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis antigens are connected with some cells of the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among them there are the APC, antigen presenting cells (Langerhans, dentritic and cutaneous). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Genes in the MHC that may affect antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Transcription of genes involved in class I presentation is increased in KS and after infection of LECs, but MHC-I and ICAM-1 surface expression are down-regulated in KLECs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recognition
  • Natural killer (NK) cell recognition of phosphoantigens has also revealed that phosphorylation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Cw4-bound peptide antigens reduced inhibitory signals mediated via killer Ig receptors and led to enhanced NK cell cytolysis ( , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • complexes
  • To study the intrinsic link between the deregulated signaling cascade present in many cancers and the ability of antigen processing to alert CTLs to such molecular events, we have investigated the structural and biophysical properties and structures of 3 HLA A2 phosphopeptide complexes derived from cell division cycle (CDC) 25b, β-catenin, and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 and have compared them with the structures of their nonphosphorylated counterparts. (pnas.org)
  • peptide fragment
  • The magnitude of responses elicited with such membrane preparations was very similar to that of PBL cultures stimulated with native antigen-pulsed and fixed intact APC or prefixed intact APC incubated with a peptide fragment of the nominal antigen. (hindawi.com)
  • lymphocytes
  • they are responsible to capture, process, and present the antigens to T lymphocytes in local lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the activated lymphocytes arrive, they get in contact with the antigen, they proliferate and develop their effector functions in order to neutralize or eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is called antigen presentation and it leads to activation of T lymphocytes, which then mount a specific immune response against the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Coordinate defects in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II expression and antigen presentation in bare lymphocyte syndrome. (springer.com)
  • CD1E Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD1A genome location and CD1A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • adaptive
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • Furthermore, there was an apparent redistribution of antigen between these organelles and the plasma membrane during the course of antigen pulsing. (hindawi.com)
  • potent
  • These recombinant subunit antigens require potent adjuvants or immune modulators to enhance their immunogenicity as well as their capacity to trigger CTLs responses required to fend off life-threatening infections caused by intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)