• antigen
  • A minimal format antibody fragment is the single VH or VL domain carrying three hyper-variable complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which has proven sufficient for antigen recognition [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The antigen-binding sites of IgG are formed by association of the variable domains, VL-VH. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Moreover, bispecific/multispecific antibodies that target more than one antigen or epitope on a target cell or recruit effector cells (T cell, natural killer cell, or macrophage cell) toward target cells have shown great potential to maximize the benefits of antibody therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fab arms are responsible for antigen binding and have been extensively engineered for developing highly specific and synthetic antibodies against numerous targets ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • sdAbs
  • Previously, we had generated single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against Filoviruses that have all targeted highly conserved C-terminal regions of NP known to be repetitively exposed along the length of the RNCs of Marburgvirus (MARV) and Ebolavirus (EBOV). (frontiersin.org)
  • scFv
  • Figure 1 shows the configuration of whole IgG together with single-chain Fv (scFv), which consists of heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable regions (VH and VL) joined in a single polypeptide by a flexible linker to improve its assembly inside cells. (mdpi.com)
  • chimeric
  • Successful examples include rituximab, approved by the FDA since 1997, an anti-CD20 chimeric antibody that become an integral component of many treatment strategies for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [ 2 ], and OKT3, an anti-CD3 that is used to reduce graft rejection [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • immune
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, protein A plays a multifaceted role: By binding the Fc portion of antibodies, protein A renders them inaccessible to the opsonins, thus impairing phagocytosis of the bacteria via immune cell attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Additionally, the heterologous character of those proteins turn them often immunogenic to humans eliciting HAMA response (Human Anti-Mouse Antibodies), which restrict their therapeutic use [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The extracellular regions of these transmembrane proteins mediate intercellular binding, while their cytoplasmic domains are linked to the actin- (adherens junction) or intermediate filament- (desmosome) based cytoskeletons. (stanford.edu)
  • The resulting stabilized beta-catenin enters the nucleus and activates transcription of Wnt target genes through its interactions with Tcf-family transcription factors, proteins that contain a beta-catenin-binding domain and a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain. (stanford.edu)
  • Each domain is able to bind proteins from many mammalian species, most notably IgGs. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been shown via crystallographic refinement that the primary binding site for protein A is on the Fc region, between the CH2 and CH3 domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural (or native) protein A can be cultured in Staphylococcus aureus and contains the five homologous antibody binding regions described above and a C-terminal region for cell wall attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant versions of protein A also contain the five homologous antibody binding domains but may vary in other parts of the structure in order to facilitate coupling to porous substrates Engineered versions of the protein are also available, the first of which was rProtein A, B4, C-CYS. (wikipedia.org)
  • humanization
  • Antibody humanization bypasses this bottleneck, minimizing the HAMA response by replacing murine sequences with human framework homologous sequences [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • covalently
  • However, whole antibody (comprising two heavy and two light chains covalently linked by disulphide bonds) cannot remain stable in cells because reduction of the disulphide bonds would occur and a whole antibody is unlikely to form from de novo synthesis in the reducing environment. (mdpi.com)
  • occur
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • With the development of molecular cloning technology and the deep understanding of antibody engineering, there are diverse bispecific antibody formats from which to choose to pursue the optimal biological activity and clinical purpose. (mdpi.com)
  • An increasing number of monoclonal antibodies have obtained approval and entered clinical applications [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • receptor
  • WHO sets a goal to have universal vaccine by 2020, it seems we are close to get it done within five-year timeframe as indicated in a recent article in PNAS on "broadly neutralizing antibody" and stimulating cellular responses though Fc receptor interactions. (genscript.com)
  • different
  • Since the advent of phage display technology, dating back to 1985, antibody libraries displayed on filamentous phage surfaces have been used to identify specific binders for many different purposes, including the recognition of tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • The five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • dimers
  • 3. The binding agent of claim 1, wherein the a':a binding pair and the b:b' binding pair are selected from the group consisting of leucine zipper domain dimers and hybridizing nucleic acid sequences. (patents.com)
  • cells
  • The first demonstration that whole antibody could work in cells was made when an anti-RAS whole antibody was micro-injected into cells and reverted the RAS-mediated phenotype [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. (mdpi.com)
  • It was originally identified as a B-cell differentiation factor (BSF-2) that induced the final maturation of B-cells into antibody producing cells (Hirano et al. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • cell
  • Our recent technology development has provided a set of simple protocols that allow development of single antibody variable (V) region domains that can function inside the reducing environment of the cell. (mdpi.com)
  • ability
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications
  • Engineered versions are multimers (typically tetramers, pentamers or hexamers) of a single domain which has been modified to improve usability in industrial applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavy
  • A light chain contains one variable domain (VL) and one constant domain (CL), and a heavy chain has one variable domain (VH) and three constant domains (CHs). (scienceexchange.com)
  • As free sulfhydryls of Ab may be useful in a conjugation reaction with nanoparticle, the disulfide bond in the hinge region of IgG should be selectively reduced to obtain a functionally active partially cleaved heavy-light chain Ab fragment (75 kDa, Fig. 1c). (scienceexchange.com)