• sensitivity
  • Tests selected to screen donor blood and tissue must provide a high degree of confidence that HIV will be detected if present (that is, a high sensitivity is required). (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Viral load monitoring for HIV is the regular measurement of the viral load of individual HIV-positive people as part of their personal plan for treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral load monitoring is used by HIV-positive people to develop a plan for their personal treatment of HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • As established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV and a CD4 count below 200 or a CD4 percentage below 14% is considered to have AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Countries in Southern Africa are worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2 million annual deaths due to AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, which is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • While this virus is the underlying cause of AIDS, not all HIV-positive individuals have AIDS, as HIV can remain in a latent state for many years. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS is diagnosed separately from HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to the best known of the transfusion transmitted diseases, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another person who died of medically acquired HIV/AIDS was Damon Courtenay, who died in 1991 due to a bad batch of factor VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • They produce anitibodies that bind to only one epitope or site on an antigen . (healthtap.com)
  • 2F5 recognizes an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the antibody is such that it readily binds to a membrane-proximal epitope, unbothered by steric hindrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • When creating a vaccine, the isotype appears to matter: compared to IgG, the IgA isotype bound the epitope with higher affinity, blocked HIV transmission to target cells, and inhibited endocytosis of HIV-1 by dendritic cells, though it did have lower ADCC activity than IgG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the conformation of the linear epitope, 2F5-like responses to vaccine are complicated by the fact that antibody recognition of the epitope may also be dependent on interactions with other areas of the env region, accessibility, or interactions with membrane lipids on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Dis
  • The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), American College of Physicians (ACP), and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend that anyone between the ages of 13 and 64 (or 15 to 65 in the case of the USPSTF) and pregnant women be screened for HIV at least once. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Africa
  • HIV-1 is the most common type found in the United States, while HIV-2 has a higher prevalence in parts of Africa. (labtestsonline.org)
  • According to the UNAIDS 2009 report, some 60 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV, resulting in approximately 25 million deaths and 14 million orphaned children in southern Africa alone since the epidemic began decades ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the general risk criteria for viruses, blood donors are sometimes excluded if they have lived in certain parts of Africa where subtypes of HIV that are not reliably detected on some tests are found, specifically HIV group O. People who have been in prison for extended periods are also excluded for HIV risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • The sample with an unknown amount of antigen is immobilized on a solid support (usually a polystyrene microtiter plate) either non-specifically (via adsorption to the surface) or specifically (via capture by another antibody specific to the same antigen, in a "sandwich" ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonspecific
  • Nonspecific reactions, hypergammaglobulinemia, or the presence of antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar to HIV can produce false positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • In between the washes, only the ligand and its specific binding counterparts remain specifically bound or "immunosorbed" by antigen-antibody interactions to the solid phase, while the nonspecific or unbound components are washed away. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The thermodynamics and kinetics of molecular recognition in enzymes, antibodies, DNA hybridization, bio-conjugation/bio-immobilization and bioseparations are studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the increasing knowledge of biomolecules, the rate of finding new high-value molecules including but not limited to antibodies, enzymes, vaccines, and therapeutic peptides will continue to accelerate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2007, an international team of researchers announced in the journal Nature Biotechnology an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B, and AB blood into type O. This is done by using glycosidase enzymes from specific bacteria to strip the blood group antigens from red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicates
  • After the final wash step, the plate is developed by adding an enzymatic substrate to produce a visible signal, which indicates the quantity of antigen in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Cea (carcinoembryonic antigen ) can be found at elevated levels in the blood of patients with certain cancers such as colon , lung, breast. (healthtap.com)
  • The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landsteiner originally described the O blood type as type "C", and in parts of Europe it is rendered as "0" (zero), signifying the lack of A or B antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The removal of A and B antigens still does not address the problem of the Rh blood group antigen on the blood cells of Rh positive individuals, and so blood from Rh negative donors must be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another approach to the blood antigen problem is the manufacture of artificial blood, which could act as a substitute in emergencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting red blood cells do not usually express A or B antigen at the same level that would be expected on common group A1 or B red blood cells, which can help solve the problem of an apparently genetically impossible blood group. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • Due to the nature of the virus the drugs used to treat HIV are called antiretroviral medicines, and the course of treatment is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). (wikipedia.org)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the current recommended treatment for HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV may be reduced by the use of HIV medications known as antiretroviral therapy (ART). (wikipedia.org)
  • eradicate
  • As of 2015, Cuba has become the first country in the world to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In implementing these measures, the country was successfully able to eradicate HIV transmission during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these advances do not constitute a cure, since current treatment regimens cannot eradicate latent HIV from the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Between each step, the plate is typically washed with a mild detergent solution to remove any proteins or antibodies that are non-specifically bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • People with hashimoto's and graves' diseases may have + antibodies to the thyroid peroxidase. (healthtap.com)
  • Women with HIV are also more likely to be infected with other sexually transmitted diseases, placing them at higher risk for infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • You body made antibodies to the constituents of the virus . (healthtap.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the most common strain of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major goal recently in HIV-1 vaccinations is eliciting the broadly neutralizing antibodies before the virus is actually established, since the virus integrates itself into the host's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of HIV-1 (often HAART-resistant) develop if treatment is stopped, if compliance with treatment is inconsistent, or if the virus spontaneously develops resistance to an individual's regimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable controversy exists over the ethical obligations of health care providers to inform the sexual partners of individuals infected with HIV that they are at risk of contracting the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentially
  • The ELDKWAS sequence is conserved in 72% of HIV-1 isolates, which makes it a potentially good candidate for vaccination targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex with an uninfected virgin does not cure an HIV-infected person, and such contact will expose the uninfected individual to HIV, potentially further spreading the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • UNAIDS
  • The UNAIDS/WHO policy statement on HIV Testing states that conditions under which people undergo HIV testing must be anchored in a human rights approach that pays due respect to ethical principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • But positive for gliadin antibody iga? (healthtap.com)
  • What to do, positive ana, an anti tpo( thyroperoxidase antibody)? (healthtap.com)
  • Is a core positive antibody for hepetitis b is dangerous. (healthtap.com)
  • Surface antigen negetive with surface antibody positive. (healthtap.com)
  • There are approximately 1.4 million HIV positive women who become pregnant and contribute to more than 300,000 neonatal and fetal deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In couples where the male and female are both HIV positive, conception may occur normally without concern for disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • In couples where the woman is HIV negative and the man is HIV positive, sperm is collected from the male partner using a technique called sperm washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In couples where the woman is HIV positive and the man is HIV negative, artificial insemination is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • These problems mean that while HIV-positive people with low viremia are less likely to infect others, the chance of transmission always exists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, when an HIV positive result is communicated, the HTC provider can offer appropriate linkages for prevention, care, and treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Items that are confirmed positive will not have the HIV infected individual's name attached to the specimen. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnant women
  • In 2010, the WHO partnered with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to implement an initiative that would provide early prenatal care and HIV testing for all pregnant women in the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Additionally, there have been cases where an HIV-negative partner was infected with the disease despite using processed artificial insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • While most patients with HIV show an antibody response after six weeks, window periods vary and may occasionally be as long as three months. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Studies have shown that 99% of patients with hashimoto's thyroiditis have anti-microsomal antibodies, whereas only about 1/3rd had anti- thyroglobulin antibodies . (healthtap.com)
  • clarification needed] In the United States, one emerging standard of care is to screen all patients for HIV in all health care settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Rapid HIV tests are most often used, so results are available for the client between 15 and 30 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine
  • While not widely used for routine testing due to high cost and requirements in laboratory equipment, these direct testing techniques have confirmed the validity of the antibody tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfusion
  • As of 2001[update], the risk of transfusion-acquired HIV in the US was approximately one in 2.5 million for each transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • change
  • Also, if a person knows his or her HIV status, it may help change behaviors that can put him or her and others at risk. (labtestsonline.org)