• mimetics
  • Monobodies belong to the class of molecules collectively called antibody mimics (or antibody mimetics) and alternative scaffolds that aim to overcome shortcomings of natural antibody molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoCLAMPs are the first antibody mimetics described to be polyol-responsive, meaning they release their targets upon exposure to a non-chaotropic salt and a polyol, such as propylene glycol. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Science will only fulfill its promises when the benefits are equally shared by the really poor of the world - César Milstein, Un Fueguito The major part of Milstein's research career was devoted to studying the structure of antibodies and the mechanism by which antibody diversity is generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • To explain the biochemical basis of hyperthyroidism, Pastan showed that antibodies from the serum of patients with hyperthyroidism specifically activated thyroid gland adenylate cyclase, providing an immunological mechanism for hyperthyroidism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Thus, T cells mediate affinity-based selection in the GC by inducing selected cells to reside longer in the DZ where they undergo accelerated cell cycles. (rockefeller.edu)
  • phage
  • Our cutting edge technologies allow us to improve affinity of the selected antibodies in phage display. (proteogenix.science)
  • Antibody affinity maturation via random mutagenesis and phage display is an additional optional step after antibody selection by phage display screening service . (proteogenix.science)
  • To do so, random mutagenesis is performed on complementarity determining regions (CDRs).The random mutagenesis performed to synthetize a second library containing 10 8 variants starts from the 3 to 10 selected antibodies from the previous phage display screening. (proteogenix.science)
  • It is therefore relevant to first focus on the functionality and application before working on improving the affinity using our phage display platform. (proteogenix.science)
  • For more information or to get a quote for our phage display services with the use of Affinity Maturation, don't hesitate to contact us. (proteogenix.science)
  • Hello dear immunology friends, As I recently prepared phage antibodies to the membrane protein FAT (fatty acid translocase, also known as CD36)(Pelsers et al. (bio.net)
  • mutations
  • B cells with affinity-enhancing mutations capture more antigen through their BCRs for presentation as peptide-MHCII to CD4+ T cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
  • Some specific parts of the molecule have a higher degree of amino acid homology and methods where the antibodies are directed against specific epitopes can be used to measure samples from different animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • In collaboration with Claudio Cuello, Milstein helped lay the foundation for the use of monoclonal antibodies as probes for the investigation of the pathological pathways in neurological disorders as well as many other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • optimization
  • Proper validation with controls and optimization ensure the quality of the antibody, and establish confidence in your results. (abgent.com)
  • high
  • Generation of high-affinity antibody against T cell-dependent antigen in the Ganp gene-transgenic mouse. (genscript.com)
  • Achieving high-affinity binding is crucial for expanding detection limits, extending dissociation half-times, decreasing drug dosages and increasing drug efficacy. (originalviewpoint.com)
  • High affinity B cells are selectively expanded in the GC by iterative rounds of migration between a zone of hypermutation and proliferation (the dark zone, or DZ) and a zone of selection (the light zone, or LZ). (rockefeller.edu)
  • Because of its high affinity for the vitamin h-biotin, Streptavidin is commonly used in the fields of molecular biology and biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • If high purity is required, the lysate can be purified by first using Strep-Tactin and then perform a second run using antibodies against Strep-tag. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • As we know, antibodies are used extensively in diagnostics and as therapeutic agents. (originalviewpoint.com)
  • Besides GSK, Genmab also has licensing deals with Amgen, Roche and Lundbeck involving therapeutic monoclonal antibodies with multiple indications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously he was President, Research & Development and Chief Scientific Officer and he has over 20 years of experience in the therapeutic antibody field and served as Vice President and Scientific Director of Medarex Europe prior to Genmab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoglobulin
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • GANP ® mouse antibodies can be used to establish a highly-specific ELISA system that distinguishes similar substances. (genscript.com)
  • This video shows the procedure of sandwich ELISA assay for anti-PEG antibody pair. (abnova.com)
  • hypermutation
  • In the first part of this thesis, I demonstrate that affinity-based selection in the GC operates through regulation of proliferation and hypermutation. (rockefeller.edu)
  • diversity
  • Milstein's early work on antibodies focused on the nature of their diversity at the amino acid level as well as on the disulphide bonds by which they were held together. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recombinational process that produces clonal antibody paratope diversity is called V(D)J or VJ recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether these studies provided much of the framework that ultimately led to the use of antibodies targeted to the EGF receptor as a cancer therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abgent.com)
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
  • Amgen has also expanded its agreement to a new antibody program targeting additional disease targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • hybridoma
  • It was as part of this quest that in 1975 he, together with Georges Köhler (a postdoctoral fellow in his laboratory), developed the hybridoma technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies-a discovery recognised by the award of the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the hybridoma technology coupled to advances in nucleic acid sequencing then allowed Milstein to chart the changes that occurred in antibodies following antigen encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • It is specialized in providing custom biotechnology and pharmaceutical services that cover the full scope of biotechnology needs of early drug discovery and development for years, including affinity maturation of antibodies . (originalviewpoint.com)
  • Amgen has discontinued development of the IL15 antibody, AMG 714, in psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis based on disappointing results from recent clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major advantage of monobodies over conventional antibodies is that monobodies can readily be used as genetically encoded intracellular inhibitors, that is you can express a monobody inhibitor in a cell of choice by simply transfecting the cell with a monobody expression vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are essential in B cell antibody class switching, in the activation and growth of cytotoxic T cells, and in maximizing bactericidal activity of phagocytes such as macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s Eisen changed research interests from a focus on antibodies to a focus on T cells and cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta-sandwich
  • This domain has a structure similar to antibody variable domains, with seven beta sheets forming a beta-sandwich and three exposed loops on each side corresponding to the three complementarity determining regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • To distinguish between these possibilities, we immunized wild-type and Apobec3 -deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice with (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) hapten and evaluated the binding affinity of the resultant NP-specific Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • These studies revealed similar affinity maturation of NP-specific IgG1 Abs between wild-type and Apobec3 -deficient mice in the absence of FV infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)