• serum
  • This serum that led to the discovery was produced by immunizing rabbits with red blood cells from a rhesus macaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was recognized that the serum of the reported woman agglutinated with red blood cells of about 80% of the people although the then known blood groups, in particular ABO were matched. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1940, Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener made the connection to their earlier discovery, reporting a serum that also reacted with about 85% of different human red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other tests include electrophoresis for serum proteins, blood gas analysis , glucose tolerance tests , and measurement of iron levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Laboratory assessment is based on a positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT), a decrease in serum haptoglobin, and an increase in blood levels of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and indirect bilirubin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • All couples were investigated with chromosome analysis, hysterosalpinography, and hysteroscopy, luteal phase endometrial biopsy, and serum progesterone timed with ovulation documented by ultasonic monitoring of folliculogenesis, anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) and activated partial thromboplastin time. (inciid.org)
  • Bovine albumin was first used as a diluent of anti-Rh serum in 1945 and is widely used today. (scielo.br)
  • severe
  • In a study conducted in England, 87.1% of non-pedigree cats were type A, while only 54.6% of pedigree cats were type A. Type A and B cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies to the opposite blood type, although the reaction of Type B cats to Type A blood is more severe than vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when it is systemically released in the blood and in high levels (due to mass T-cell activation resulting from the SAg binding), it can cause severe and life-threatening symptoms, including shock and multiple organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death. (wikipedia.org)
  • More severe cases can include signs such as cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips and fingers), collapse, and circulatory instability because of decreased blood flow through the lungs and into the left side of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • amine group
  • Only proline differs from this basic structure as it contains an unusual ring to the N-end amine group, which forces the CO-NH amide moiety into a fixed conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine, and the carboxyl group of cysteine is attached by normal peptide linkage to a glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxyl group
  • All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable side chain are bonded. (wikipedia.org)
  • The end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus (the sequence of the protein is written from N-terminus to C-terminus, from left to right). (wikipedia.org)
  • bilirubin
  • Meanwhile, haemoglobin can also pass through the liver system and process into bilirubin, which accumulates under the skin, causing jaundice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary
  • Play media Symptoms of pulmonary embolism are typically sudden in onset and may include one or many of the following: dyspnea (shortness of breath), tachypnea (rapid breathing), chest pain of a "pleuritic" nature (worsened by breathing), cough and hemoptysis (coughing up blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In a 20-year period in a single institution, 34 patients with chronic, refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura were prospectively treated with ex vivo anti-D opsonized autologous red blood cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is concluded that the use of ex vivo anti-D opsonized red blood cells may represent another, substantially cheaper treatment of patients with chronic, refractory, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An individual either has, or does not have, the "Rh factor" on the surface of their red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of these DEA types, DEA 4 and DEA 6 appear on the red blood cells of ~98% of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anemia is a disease and a clinical syndrome that consist in lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen due to decrease quantity and functional capacity and structural disturbances of red blood cells or decrease hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit in the blood. (freebookcentre.net)
  • In an emergency, blood cells and antibodies carried in the blood are brought to a point of infection, or blood-clotting substances are carried to a break in a blood vessel. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is a medical emergency as it results from rapid destruction of the donor red blood cells by host antibodies (IgG, IgM). (wikipedia.org)
  • The donor cells also become coated with IgG and are subsequently removed by macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system (RES). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this process, the donor's red blood cells are destroyed by recipient's preformed antibodies through the activation of complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the donor's red blood cells break open and releases haemoglobin into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the donor's red blood cells are recognised and bound to IgG antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages then recognise these IgG antibodies and engulf these red blood cells, removing the red blood cells from the blood circulation into liver and spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • basicly because im rh- with anti bodies and he was rh+ my immune system attacked his blood and killed of his red cells making him severly juandiced and anemic (sp) then they said they thought his heart hadnt formed and that he was having breathing problems! (emmasdiary.co.uk)
  • Furthermore, Anti-CD3 and Anti-CD28 Antibodies (CD28-SuperMAB) have also shown to be highly potent superantigens (and can activate up to 100% of T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newborn
  • The importance of GBS disease for newborn infants in the United States was underscored in an NIH sponsored workshop on Group B Streptococcal Infection. (google.com)
  • donors
  • Dogs with only DEA 4 or DEA 6 can thus serve as blood donors for the majority of the canine population. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The ideal universal whole blood donor is a non-thoroughbred gelding that is Aa, Ca, and Qa negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Properdin then binds to complement C3 in the donor blood, facilitating the reaction through the alternate pathway cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAMMAGARD (immune globulin) S/D contains all of the IgG antibody activities which are present in the donor population. (rxlist.com)
  • The sulfhydryl group (SH) of cysteine serves as a proton donor and is responsible for its biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The miR-16 microRNA precursor family is a group of related small non-coding RNA genes that regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Breeding a mare to a stallion with a different blood type, usually Aa or Qa blood, risks neonatal isoerythrolysis if the foal inherits the blood type of the stallion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that human neonates who develop Group B Streptococcal Sepsis usually lack opsonic antibody to their infecting strain. (google.com)
  • PE usually results from a blood clot in the leg that travels to the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • prosthetic
  • Glutathione reductase functions as dimeric disulfide oxidoreductase and utilizes an FAD prosthetic group and NADPH to reduce one molar equivalent of GSSG to two molar equivalents of GSH: The glutathione reductase is conserved between all kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognize
  • In this hematology sequence, students learn to recognize and diagnose anemias, bleeding and clotting disorders, and abnormal white blood cell and lymphocyte disorders. (freebookcentre.net)
  • immune response
  • The eu-FEDS model further suggests that specific carbohydrate sequences (oligosaccharides) are covalently linked to these immunosuppressive glycoproteins and act as "functional groups" that suppress the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • Due to the specific properties of the prepared gel and electrophoresis buffer solution (which is basic and contains Tris-HCl and NaN3), most proteins of a biological system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignancies
  • The main subject areas will include blood cell morphology and function, the pathophysiology and genetics of hematological disorders and malignancies, blood testing and typing, and the processes governing hematopoiesis. (freebookcentre.net)
  • cell
  • The release of red blood cell debris and the activation of complement system causes uncontrolled clotting (disseminated intravascular coagulation) and circulatory shock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic premise of the eu-FEDS hypothesis is that both soluble and cell surface associated glycoproteins, present in the reproductive system and expressed on gametes, suppress any potential immune responses, and inhibit rejection of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appropriate
  • Despite aggressive supportive therapy and early institution of appropriate antimicrobial agents, the mortality rate for early-onset Group B Streptococcal Disease continues to be in the 25-75% range. (google.com)
  • If blood thinners are not appropriate, a vena cava filter may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • vessel
  • The development of thrombosis is classically due to a group of causes named Virchow's triad (alterations in blood flow, factors in the vessel wall and factors affecting the properties of the blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • In the USA in 2011 there were 48 episodes of acute hemolysis due to a mismatch in ABO blood type (1 in 495,207 blood components transfused) and 168 episodes of hemolysis due to other causes (1 in 124,525 blood components transfused). (wikipedia.org)
  • hemolysis
  • In the UK in 2014 there were 18 episodes of hemolysis due to other causes (1 in 147,972 blood components transfused). (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • More important than sequence homology, the 3D structure is very similar among different SAgs resulting in similar functional effects among different groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • The classic warning signs include: worsening constipation, blood in the stool, decrease in stool caliber (thickness), loss of appetite, loss of weight, and nausea or vomiting in someone over 50 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • A high reproducibility in gel pore size and a high-yield electroelution of proteins performed by this highly reliable technique strongly correlate with the polymerization time of the acrylamide gels representing an inherent stability constant of the separation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major transport into the blood stream is driven by an electrochemical gradient, specifically through the transport proteins RcGshT and RsGshT. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e−) to other molecules, such as reactive oxygen species to neutralize them, or to protein cysteines to maintain their reduced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs of a PE include low blood oxygen levels, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, and sometimes a mild fever. (wikipedia.org)