• anti-tumor
  • First, the company has enlisted the Western Reserve strain to maximize oncolytic potential, and second, the targeted sensitization of bystander cells by TEA-VVs specifically induces anti-tumor immunity without activating other innate immunity mechanisms that might enhance viral clearance. (nature.com)
  • In one of the clinical trial study, CD19-directed CAR T cells in patient with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia demonstrated highly significant anti-tumor response and 2 patients with long term complete remission (CR) . (medcraveonline.com)
  • Oncomatryx is developing a new generation of biological anti-tumor drugs, combining cytotoxic molecules and monoclonal antibodies specifically directed towards tumor associated stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, micro-ultrasound can be used to detect and quantify cardiotoxicity in response to anti-tumor therapy, since it is the only imaging modality that has instantaneous image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)

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  • malignant
  • Direct targeting of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) on malignant cells by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is regarded as a promising approach ( Simpson and Caballero, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Blocking of CTLA-4 inhibits the growth of malignant tumor cells. (rbmb.net)
  • Using state-of-the-art proteomic and gene profiling methods, our collaborators have identified unique sets of tumor-specific cell surface antigens that are not usually co-expressed on non-malignant cells. (grantome.com)
  • Furthermore, despite the development of anti-drug antibody responses after the first catumaxomab application cycle a repeated cycle of catumaxomab also leads to a treatment success in recurrent malignant ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, CEA is primarily expressed in cells of tumors (some malignant, some benign)[citation needed] but they are particularly associated with the adenocarcinomas, such as those arising in the colon, lung, breast, stomach, or pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The concept of cancer targeting, which exploits the abundance of specific molecular epitopes on cancer cells, has been proposed as a strategy to enhance the efficacy and specificity of cancer therapy and diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • Even though some of these platforms are in advanced clinical testing, the generic nature of their immunomodulating activity has raised concerns about reduced efficacy and a lack of tumor specificity. (nature.com)
  • X-ray computed tomography (CT) permits clinical imaging of pulmonary nodules as small as 1 to 2 mm but lacks the specificity to distinguish benign lesions from cancerous tumors (4, 5). (focusontoxpath.com)
  • This test, which is already being used in USA hospitals such as Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles, has 93.5% sensitivity and 94.2% specificity in detecting invasive breast tumors in biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma technology, which may lose the capacity to produce the desired antibody over time or the antibody may undergo unwanted changes, which effect its functionality, recombinant antibodies produced in phage display maintain high standard of specificity and low immunogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • Indeed, we have recently shown that CD81 contributes to tumor growth and metastasis. (stanford.edu)
  • Oncomatryx and its collaborators and advisors have proved that peritumoral stroma, which is constituted by mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix, plays a key role in tumor invasiveness and metastasis, at the same time being a physical barrier that prevents anti-cancer agents from reaching tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEA is elevated more in tumors with lymph node and distant metastasis than in organ-confined tumors and, thus, varies directly with tumor stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After administration of the drug the picomolar affinity TCR portion of the ImmTAC binds to the cancerous or virally infected cell through specific recognition of target HLA-peptide complexes on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Unlike treatment with traditional vaccinia virus (VV) therapeutics, which results in the survival of large numbers of uninfected 'bystander' cells (upper panel), IKT's T-cell-engager-armed VV (TEA-VV) enables the immune system to target uninfected cells (increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)) (lower panel). (nature.com)
  • BiTE-Antikörper: Durch Bispezifität T-Lymphozyten gegen Tumorzellen richten" [BiTE antibodies: Directing T lymphocytes against tumor cells by bispecifity]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer immunotherapy with ordinary monoclonal antibodies does not activate T-lymphocytes because the Fab regions are already used for binding the tumour cells, and this type of cell does not have Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • EGF binding to its receptor triggers a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein in the mammary tumor cell line SK-BR-3. (springer.com)
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • ScFvs have found applications as tools for in vivo loss-of-function studies and inactivation of specific protein domains, diagnostic imaging, tumor therapy and treatment for neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein A. Using two different species (mouse and rat) has the advantage that less mismatched antibodies are produced because rat light chains preferably pair with rat heavy chains, and mouse light chains with mouse heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synergy between an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and an antibody-cytokine fusion protein eradicates spontaneous tumor metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To produce stable, soluble, high affinity TCRs capable of being used as diagnostics and therapeutics the two TCR protein chains are stabilised through the introduction of a novel disulphide bond between the 2 constant domains and the affinity increased 1-5 million fold to low picomolar values through phage display affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody is a protein that is produced in B cells and used by the immune system of humans and other vertebrate animals to identify a specific foreign object like a bacterium or a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • After the injection of pFv/nu-transfected glioma cells, preestablished tumors were almost completely regressed when compared with mock, pCMV/nu, and pGFP/nu. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intracellular expression of antibodies provides a novel approach for the manipulation of biochemical processes in intact cells. (springer.com)
  • Genes encoding single-chain Fv domains (scFvs) directed to the extracellular portion of these receptors were derived from hybridoma cells producing the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. (mdpi.com)
  • Because of their aberrant expression on tumor cells and their accessibility from the extracellular space, these receptors are suitable targets for directed tumor therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Icell Kealex Therapeutics (IKT), an oncology biotech startup based at the JLABS in Houston, Texas, is developing a novel oncolytic virus platform con-sisting of vaccinia viruses (VVs) that attack tumor cells by means of two distinct but complementary mechanisms 1-3 . (nature.com)
  • Once secreted into the tumor microenvironment, these antibody frag-ments bind to uninfected 'bystander' tumor cells, turning them into targets for specific attack by the immune system. (nature.com)
  • In recent years, two of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy have been the use of oncolytic viruses to destroy tumors from within, and the development of cancer-specific immuno-stimulating strategies to engage the patient's own immune system to destroy tumor cells. (nature.com)
  • Oncolytic viruses-viruses capable of preferential replication within tumor cells-have been under development as cancer therapeutics for the bet-ter part of the past two decades. (nature.com)
  • The mechanism of action of VV is a combination of the direct destruction of cells via virus-induced cell lysis and of immunostimulation in the tumor environment. (nature.com)
  • Although cell lysis represents VV's main mechanism of action, its efficiency is vari-able, and large numbers of tumor cells-the so-called bystander cells-end up evading it. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to characterize the molecular and cell biology of the tumor cells in lymphoma. (stanford.edu)
  • Autoimmune disease can arise from single-gene mutations affecting PCD, and defective PCD has been observed in some tissues and cells from patients with rheumatic disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Apoptotic cells also display specific surface markers such as phosphatidylserine that are recognized by phagocytic cells and usually rapidly removed from the circulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Their effect is so strong that a small number of SPION particles can dephase a large number of surrounding spins, allowing even single cells to be detected (13, 14). (focusontoxpath.com)
  • The single-chain-based bispecific antibodies usually bridge tumor cells with immune cells and form an immunological synapse because of their relatively small size. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides retargeting effector cells to the site of cancer, new applications were established for bispecific antibodies. (mdpi.com)
  • We have designed activatable antibodies that recognize combinations of antigens found uniquely on cancer cells. (grantome.com)
  • Following dimerization on the cell surface, these """"""""demibodies"""""""" activate cytotoxins and result in specific killing of cancer cells. (grantome.com)
  • This observed antitumor activity was thought to occur as the tumor cells get caught in the crossfire of attack between the pathogen and the immune system. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The programmed cell death receptor (PD-1) is present on T cells while its ligand PD-L1 is expressed by variety of tumor cells to dampen the immune response. (medcraveonline.com)
  • This evasion of tumor cells from immunosurveillance is reported in 19% to 92% of tumor cells and often associated with poor prognosis . (medcraveonline.com)
  • Like other bispecific antibodies, and unlike ordinary monoclonal antibodies, BiTEs form a link between T cells and tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This action mimics physiological processes observed during T cell attacks against tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG-like antibodies can be immunogenic, which means the Fc region could cause detrimental downstream immune responses caused by cells that are activated by Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company bases its R&D on the recent discovery that tumor cells generate changes in the cells that surround them as well as in the extracellular matrix, facilitating invasion metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, its intact Fc-part can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like conventional monospecific antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The net effect is that this type of drug links T cells (via CD3) and monocytes/macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells to the tumor cells, leading to their destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • At an equivalent dose a trifunctional antibody is more potent (more than 1,000-fold) in eliminating tumor cells than conventional antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs evoke the removal of tumor cells by means of (i) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity, a process also described for conventional antibodies and more importantly by (ii) polyclonal cytotoxic T cell responses with emphasis on CD8 T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. autologous antibodies as well as CD4 and CD8 T cells directed against the tumor were detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • At first, mouse hybridoma cells whose monoclonal antibodies target one of the desired antigens are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] Antibodies to CEA are also commonly used in immunohistochemistry to identify cells expressing the glycoprotein in tissue samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smaller size and single domain make these antibodies easier to transform into bacterial cells for bulk production, making them ideal for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring TCRs are low affinity (0.18-387 micromolar range) 2-chain membrane receptors expressed on the surface of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are those that were produced in identical cells, often artificially, and so share the same target object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stage Three: The lymphoid system (which produces antibodies to attack infected and cancerous cells) becomes infected, with further distribution throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • The most widely used application of this approach is in cancer immunotherapy, where bsMabs are engineered to simultaneously bind a cytotoxic cell and a target like a tumour cell to be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bispecific antibodies also have a higher cytotoxic potential, and bind to antigens that are expressed relatively weakly. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant antibody
  • Once the construct is delivered to the laboratory, expression constructs are produced, then they are transferred to a cell culture in the process called transfection and once the cell culture produces the desired recombinant antibody, it is regularly collected, purified and analyzed or used for further experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For recombinant antibody production the stable cell lines such as CHO and HEK293 are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeric
  • Successful examples include rituximab, approved by the FDA since 1997, an anti-CD20 chimeric antibody that become an integral component of many treatment strategies for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [ 2 ], and OKT3, an anti-CD3 that is used to reduce graft rejection [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the human/mouse chimeric antibody basiliximab ends in -ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • mul-, for example, is never reduced to -mu- because no chimeric or humanized antibodies targeting the musculoskeletal system ever received an INN. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Human tumors of epithelial origin often overexpress members of the ErbB/EGFR 2 related family of receptor tyrosine kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These antibodies have the potential to be used for targeted therapy, where the blocking of CTLA4 receptor is needed. (rbmb.net)
  • Another avenue for novel anti-cancer therapies is re-engineering some of the currently used conventional antibodies like trastuzumab (targeting HER2/neu), cetuximab and panitumumab (both targeting the EGF receptor), using the BiTE approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the IGF receptor family and their ligands also seem to be involved in the carcinogenesis of mammary tumors of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • The company is entering phase 1 trials for solid tumors with its lead product and is looking to partner with companies interested in clinical codevelopment of its wide-ranging therapeutic pipeline. (nature.com)
  • With the development of molecular cloning technology and the deep understanding of antibody engineering, there are diverse bispecific antibody formats from which to choose to pursue the optimal biological activity and clinical purpose. (mdpi.com)
  • An increasing number of monoclonal antibodies have obtained approval and entered clinical applications [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For over twenty years, no such antibody was approved for clinical use, mainly because of manufacturing difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • After application, the patient's immune system usually produces anti-drug antibodies, which represent early indicators for a beneficial clinical outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first, and as of May 2011 the only approved one of these antibodies in clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • He investigated for the first time a novel delivery method of this antibody (patent) and he is currently leading two international clinical trials with this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • We have downregulated cell surface expression of individual erbB receptors via intracellular antibody expression prior to analyzing ligand induced signaling. (springer.com)
  • CD86 111 produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and CD86 111 expressed in bacteria was functionally active and displayed specific binding to B7 counter receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • cross-reactivity
  • Because even monoclonal antibodies to CEA tend to have some degree of cross-reactivity, occasionally giving false positive results, it is commonly employed in combination with other immunohistochemistry tests, such as those for BerEp4, WT1, and calretinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also limits the possibility of antibody cross-reactivity and possible mistakes throughout the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Ferrara N, Hillan KJ, Gerber HP, Novotny W (2004) Discovery and development of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody for treating cancer. (springer.com)
  • In the medical area , current research addresses the need for patient-specific vaccines to treat cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • Because the presence of lung metastases will alter cancer management, their early and specific identification could provide a timely and powerful tool for improving patient outcomes. (focusontoxpath.com)
  • Here, we introduce a fundamentally unique, minimally invasive, and specific approach to cancer detection in the lung by combining two MRI technologies-hyperpolarized (HP) 3 He and functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). (focusontoxpath.com)
  • The initial conception of this therapy stems from the work of Dr. Coley back in the 1890s who theorized that the infection of cancer patient with streptococcal infection leads to reduction in tumor size . (medcraveonline.com)
  • Another FDA approved drug called atezolizumab works by inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and has shown to drastically reduce the tumor size in patient suffering from advanced bladder cancer . (medcraveonline.com)
  • citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often has higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above approximately 2.5 µg/L). CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to monitor colorectal carcinoma treatment, to identify recurrences after surgical resection, for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-domain antibodies are being researched for multiple pharmaceutical applications and have potential for use in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Another method for manufacturing IgG-like bsMabs is called "knobs into holes," and relies on introducing a mutation for a large amino acid in the heavy chain from one mAb, and a mutation for a small amino acid in the other mAb's heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid this, parts of the antibody can be replaced with human amino acid sequences, or pure human antibodies can be engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Oncomatryx has developed molecular diagnostic tests to predict the invasiveness of breast tumors (DMTXbreastScan) and pancreas, colon, lung, and head and neck tumors (DMTXinvaScan). (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques such as high-frequency micro-ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are usually used for anatomical imaging, while optical imaging (fluorescence and bioluminescence), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are usually used for molecular visualizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast agents can be injected into the animal to perform real-time tumor perfusion and targeted molecular imaging and quantification of biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant DNA techniques create molecular clones by conferring on a specific sequence the ability to replicate by inserting it into a vector and introducing the vector into a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • Specifically, DMTXbreastScan helps to determine, at the moment of first diagnosis, if a breast tumor has the capacity to develop metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Approximately 0.5% of pet cats are persistently infected with FeLV, but many more pet cats (>35%) have specific IgG antibodies which indicate prior exposure and subsequent development of immunity instead of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection
  • This protocol is more complex and time-consuming than the primary (or direct) protocol above, but allows more flexibility because a variety of different secondary antibodies and detection techniques can be used for a given primary antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • humanization
  • Antibody humanization bypasses this bottleneck, minimizing the HAMA response by replacing murine sequences with human framework homologous sequences [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Creative Biolabs, Inc. is a life-science company which produces and supplies biotech products and services for early drug discovery and development, including various phage display libraries such as pre-made libraries, phage display services, antibody sequencing, and antibody humanization. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • 2008). "Conversion of cetuximab, panitumumab, trastuzumab and omalizumab into T-cell-engaging BiTE antibodies creates novel drug candidates of high potency" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapeutic
  • In 1999 he became a junior faculty member at Scripps, where he developed a tumor model to study immunotherapeutic approaches in a deadly malignancy in childhood called neuroblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • In work with Ebolavirus vaccines, a study has shown that a DVD-Ig antibody can be used to prevent viral escape from the endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular combinations of DNA vaccines with tumor specific delivery of immunocytokine lead to important step forward to optimize efficacy of DNA vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • light chains
  • This allows the target heavy chains (and their corresponding light chains) to fit together better, and makes bsMab production more reliable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single species (mouse/mouse or rat/rat) quadromas, by contrast, produce up to ten different kinds of antibody, most of which have mismatched heavy or light chains, or both. (wikipedia.org)