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  • Protein
  • 1985) Down-modulation of an oncogene protein product and reversion of the transformed phenotype by monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • 1990) Mutation of the human neu protein facilitates down-modulation by monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • EGF binding to its receptor triggers a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein in the mammary tumor cell line SK-BR-3. (springer.com)
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • The novel multispecies Fc-specific Pseudomonas exotoxin A fusion protein α-Fc-ETA' enables screening of antibodies for immunotoxin development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ScFvs have found applications as tools for in vivo loss-of-function studies and inactivation of specific protein domains, diagnostic imaging, tumor therapy and treatment for neurodegenerative and infectious diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • (c) T cells (1.0 × 10 6 ) described in ( a,b) were injected intravenously into NSG mice bearing green fluorescent protein/firefly-luciferase fusion protein (GFP/Luc) expressing CD19 + PSMA + PC3 human prostate tumors. (nih.gov)
  • To study the biochemical properties of the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteriophytochrome (DrBphP) protein, two anti-DrBphP mouse monoclonal antibodies (2B8 and 3H7) were generated. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These two antibodies with high reactivity for the short modified peptide sequences are valueble for developing new peptide tags for protein research. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is not actually a fragment of an antibody, but instead is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial development efforts focused mainly on humanizing the antibody protein to overcome problems of immunogenicity and on expanding of the target antigen repertoire. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein A. Using two different species (mouse and rat) has the advantage that less mismatched antibodies are produced because rat light chains preferably pair with rat heavy chains, and mouse light chains with mouse heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synergy between an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and an antibody-cytokine fusion protein eradicates spontaneous tumor metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To produce stable, soluble, high affinity TCRs capable of being used as diagnostics and therapeutics the two TCR protein chains are stabilised through the introduction of a novel disulphide bond between the 2 constant domains and the affinity increased 1-5 million fold to low picomolar values through phage display affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is thought that virus protein has to be present to induce lymphomas in cats, newer evidence shows that a high percentage of FeLV-Antigen negative lymphomas contain FeLV-DNA, indicating a "hit-and-run" mechanism of virus-induced tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody is a protein that is produced in B cells and used by the immune system of humans and other vertebrate animals to identify a specific foreign object like a bacterium or a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • scFv
  • As an alternative, scFv can be created directly from subcloned heavy and light chains derived from a hybridoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same heavy and light variable chains used for scFv construction can be used in the construction of Fab. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • The over-expression of collagenase IV in tumor tissues was found to be closely related to tumor metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Since hCo4 is the smallest among all the antibodies specific for collagenase IV and it is of human origin, it has a potential to be applied for tumor irnmunotherapy and for the study of the relationship between collagenase IV and tumor metastasis. (springer.com)
  • Oncomatryx and its collaborators and advisors have proved that peritumoral stroma, which is constituted by mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix, plays a key role in tumor invasiveness and metastasis, at the same time being a physical barrier that prevents anti-cancer agents from reaching tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEA is elevated more in tumors with lymph node and distant metastasis than in organ-confined tumors and, thus, varies directly with tumor stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Direct targeting of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) on malignant cells by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is regarded as a promising approach ( Simpson and Caballero, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, despite the development of anti-drug antibody responses after the first catumaxomab application cycle a repeated cycle of catumaxomab also leads to a treatment success in recurrent malignant ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, CEA is primarily expressed in cells of tumors (some malignant, some benign)[citation needed] but they are particularly associated with the adenocarcinomas, such as those arising in the colon, lung, breast, stomach, or pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The concept of cancer targeting, which exploits the abundance of specific molecular epitopes on cancer cells, has been proposed as a strategy to enhance the efficacy and specificity of cancer therapy and diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies have been used for antigen detection and therapeutics, and their specificity combined with low toxicity make them a promising pharmaceutical commodity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite advances in these areas, both TMAs and ADCs still carry limitations and we highlight the more important ones including cancer cell specificity, conjugation chemistry, tumor penetration, product heterogeneity and manufacturing issues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even though some of these platforms are in advanced clinical testing, the generic nature of their immunomodulating activity has raised concerns about reduced efficacy and a lack of tumor specificity. (nature.com)
  • This test, which is already being used in USA hospitals such as Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles, has 93.5% sensitivity and 94.2% specificity in detecting invasive breast tumors in biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the binding of the fluorophore to the antibody itself cannot interfere with the immunological specificity of the antibody or the binding capacity of its antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After administration of the drug the picomolar affinity TCR portion of the ImmTAC binds to the cancerous or virally infected cell through specific recognition of target HLA-peptide complexes on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Ferrara N, Hillan KJ, Gerber HP, Novotny W (2004) Discovery and development of bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF antibody for treating cancer. (springer.com)
  • Phage display represents a high-throughput technique for screening billions of random fusion antibodies against virtually any target on the surface or inside cancer cells, or even soluble markers found in patient serum. (mdpi.com)
  • Modulation of type-IV collagenase activity and invasion behavior of metastatic human melanoma (A20581 cells in vitro by monoclonal antibodies to type-IV collagenase, Int. J. Cancer , 1990, 46: 282. (springer.com)
  • Cloning, expression and characterization of a single-chain antibody PS-9 targeted to pancreatic cancer, Science in China , Ser. (springer.com)
  • TEM8/ANTXR1-specific CAR T cells as a targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • In parallel to naked TMAs, antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have been developed for targeted delivery of potent anti-cancer drugs with the aim of bypassing the morbidity common to conventional chemotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include selection of true cancer cell specific antigens, enhanced recruitment of bystander cell killing mechanisms, and development of more economic production technologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, two of the most promising approaches to cancer therapy have been the use of oncolytic viruses to destroy tumors from within, and the development of cancer-specific immuno-stimulating strategies to engage the patient's own immune system to destroy tumor cells. (nature.com)
  • Oncolytic viruses-viruses capable of preferential replication within tumor cells-have been under development as cancer therapeutics for the bet-ter part of the past two decades. (nature.com)
  • IKT has developed a deep pipeline of TEA-VVs that express T cell engagers specific to a number of cancer-specific targets. (nature.com)
  • In the medical area , current research addresses the need for patient-specific vaccines to treat cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • Therapies that target primary tumors fail to eradicate distant dissemination of cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • The most widely used application of this approach is in cancer immunotherapy, where bsMabs are engineered to simultaneously bind a cytotoxic cell and a target like a tumour cell to be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer immunotherapy with ordinary monoclonal antibodies does not activate T-lymphocytes because the Fab regions are already used for binding the tumour cells, and this type of cell does not have Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often has higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above approximately 2.5 µg/L). CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to monitor colorectal carcinoma treatment, to identify recurrences after surgical resection, for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-domain antibodies are being researched for multiple pharmaceutical applications and have potential for use in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is further implicated in breast cancer by increasing the metastatic potential of the original tumour by conferring the ability to promote vascularisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of the IGF-IR are expressed in the majority of primary and metastatic prostate cancer patient tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their "GeneChip" products contain thousands of individual DNA sensors for use in sensing defects, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes such as p53 (a tumor suppressor) and BRCA1 and BRCA2 (related to breast cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Unlike treatment with traditional vaccinia virus (VV) therapeutics, which results in the survival of large numbers of uninfected 'bystander' cells (upper panel), IKT's T-cell-engager-armed VV (TEA-VV) enables the immune system to target uninfected cells (increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)) (lower panel). (nature.com)
  • BiTE-Antikörper: Durch Bispezifität T-Lymphozyten gegen Tumorzellen richten" [BiTE antibodies: Directing T lymphocytes against tumor cells by bispecifity]. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • These efforts have been successful as evidenced by the fact that several antibodies and vaccine antigens produced by magnifection are currently in clinical development. (springer.com)
  • Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • For over twenty years, no such antibody was approved for clinical use, mainly because of manufacturing difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • After application, the patient's immune system usually produces anti-drug antibodies, which represent early indicators for a beneficial clinical outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first, and as of May 2011 the only approved one of these antibodies in clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • He investigated for the first time a novel delivery method of this antibody (patent) and he is currently leading two international clinical trials with this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-tumor immunity
  • First, the company has enlisted the Western Reserve strain to maximize oncolytic potential, and second, the targeted sensitization of bystander cells by TEA-VVs specifically induces anti-tumor immunity without activating other innate immunity mechanisms that might enhance viral clearance. (nature.com)
  • immunity
  • Approximately 0.5% of pet cats are persistently infected with FeLV, but many more pet cats (>35%) have specific IgG antibodies which indicate prior exposure and subsequent development of immunity instead of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeric antibody
  • Successful examples include rituximab, approved by the FDA since 1997, an anti-CD20 chimeric antibody that become an integral component of many treatment strategies for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [ 2 ], and OKT3, an anti-CD3 that is used to reduce graft rejection [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the human/mouse chimeric antibody basiliximab ends in -ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • After the injection of pFv/nu-transfected glioma cells, preestablished tumors were almost completely regressed when compared with mock, pCMV/nu, and pGFP/nu. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intracellular expression of antibodies provides a novel approach for the manipulation of biochemical processes in intact cells. (springer.com)
  • Genes encoding single-chain Fv domains (scFvs) directed to the extracellular portion of these receptors were derived from hybridoma cells producing the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Combinatorial antigen recognition with balanced signaling promotes selective tumor eradication by engineered T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Current T-cell engineering approaches redirect patient T cells to tumors by transducing them with antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that target a single antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present a strategy to render T cells specific for a tumor in the absence of a truly tumor-restricted antigen. (nih.gov)
  • (a,b) T cells were mock transduced or were transduced with retroviruses encoding a CD19-specific CAR (19z1) and/or a PSMA-specific CCR (P28BB). (nih.gov)
  • Because of their aberrant expression on tumor cells and their accessibility from the extracellular space, these receptors are suitable targets for directed tumor therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HER2 chimeric antigen receptor-modified virus-specific T cells for progressive glioblastoma: a phase I dose-escalation trial. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape. (georg-speyer-haus.de)
  • Icell Kealex Therapeutics (IKT), an oncology biotech startup based at the JLABS in Houston, Texas, is developing a novel oncolytic virus platform con-sisting of vaccinia viruses (VVs) that attack tumor cells by means of two distinct but complementary mechanisms 1-3 . (nature.com)
  • Once secreted into the tumor microenvironment, these antibody frag-ments bind to uninfected 'bystander' tumor cells, turning them into targets for specific attack by the immune system. (nature.com)
  • The mechanism of action of VV is a combination of the direct destruction of cells via virus-induced cell lysis and of immunostimulation in the tumor environment. (nature.com)
  • Although cell lysis represents VV's main mechanism of action, its efficiency is vari-able, and large numbers of tumor cells-the so-called bystander cells-end up evading it. (nature.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to characterize the molecular and cell biology of the tumor cells in lymphoma. (stanford.edu)
  • This action mimics physiological processes observed during T cell attacks against tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company bases its R&D on the recent discovery that tumor cells generate changes in the cells that surround them as well as in the extracellular matrix, facilitating invasion metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG-like antibodies can be immunogenic, which means the Fc region could cause detrimental downstream immune responses caused by cells that are activated by Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, its intact Fc-part can bind to an Fc receptor on accessory cells like conventional monospecific antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The net effect is that this type of drug links T cells (via CD3) and monocytes/macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells or other Fc receptor expressing cells to the tumor cells, leading to their destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. autologous antibodies as well as CD4 and CD8 T cells directed against the tumor were detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • At first, mouse hybridoma cells whose monoclonal antibodies target one of the desired antigens are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] Antibodies to CEA are also commonly used in immunohistochemistry to identify cells expressing the glycoprotein in tissue samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-neuroblastoma effect of ch14.18 antibody produced in CHO cells is mediated by NK-cells in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smaller size and single domain make these antibodies easier to transform into bacterial cells for bulk production, making them ideal for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring TCRs are low affinity (0.18-387 micromolar range) 2-chain membrane receptors expressed on the surface of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stage Three: The lymphoid system (which produces antibodies to attack infected and cancerous cells) becomes infected, with further distribution throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies are those that were produced in identical cells, often artificially, and so share the same target object. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • We have downregulated cell surface expression of individual erbB receptors via intracellular antibody expression prior to analyzing ligand induced signaling. (springer.com)
  • CD86 111 produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and CD86 111 expressed in bacteria was functionally active and displayed specific binding to B7 counter receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecular
  • Improved molecular and functional characterization of tumor antigens has influenced the design of targeting strategies and contributed to the analysis of normal tissue distribution and potential for host toxicity. (springer.com)
  • This antibody, referred to as hCo4, was mainly composed of variable regions from heavy and liiht chains, with its molecular weight of 27 ku. (springer.com)
  • Oncomatryx has developed molecular diagnostic tests to predict the invasiveness of breast tumors (DMTXbreastScan) and pancreas, colon, lung, and head and neck tumors (DMTXinvaScan). (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques such as high-frequency micro-ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are usually used for anatomical imaging, while optical imaging (fluorescence and bioluminescence), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are usually used for molecular visualizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast agents can be injected into the animal to perform real-time tumor perfusion and targeted molecular imaging and quantification of biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammary
  • Members of the IGF receptor family and their ligands also seem to be involved in the carcinogenesis of mammary tumors of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Examples of targets are tumors, organ systems like the circulatory system, or infectious agents like bacteria or viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • They can be expressed in vivo through viral vectors in instances where large infection rates and sustenance of high levels of the antibody is required. (mdpi.com)
  • novel
  • 2008). "Conversion of cetuximab, panitumumab, trastuzumab and omalizumab into T-cell-engaging BiTE antibodies creates novel drug candidates of high potency" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • The autocrine activity of tumor necrosis factor-α seems likely to sustain NF-κB activation in human gliomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Once activated by tumor necrosis factor-α, NF-κB initiates a cascade of signaling events that trigger phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of IκB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, EspH selectively inhibits the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced Erk signaling pathway. (stanford.edu)
  • peptides
  • We present here fine epitope mapping of these two antibodies by using truncation and substitution of original epitope sequences in order to identify minimized epitope peptides. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • We further characterized these peptides in order to investigate their reactivity after single deletion and single substitution of the original peptides. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These overviews set the background to highlighting several limitations in the use of antibodies as drug carriers, which leads us to consider alternatives to antibodies, focusing on peptides, and to show how PDCs can overcome some of the limitations of ADCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes
  • ALL emerges when a single lymphoblast gains many mutations to genes that affect blood cell development and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy
  • In particular combinations of DNA vaccines with tumor specific delivery of immunocytokine lead to important step forward to optimize efficacy of DNA vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • First, the presence of the oncolytic virus itself triggers the innate immune response, and second, tumor cell destruction results in the release of a number of factors such as cytokines that can have a strong but nonspecific immunostimulatory effect. (nature.com)
  • Janda demonstrated that one could manipulate the immune system to generate antibodies against cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Fc region is still intact, this allows for the bsMab to trigger common immune responses when recognized by an Fc receptor, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or complement-dependent cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor-targeted IL-2 amplifies T cell-mediated immune response induced by gene therapy with single-chain IL-12. (wikipedia.org)