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  • anti-tumor
  • First, the company has enlisted the Western Reserve strain to maximize oncolytic potential, and second, the targeted sensitization of bystander cells by TEA-VVs specifically induces anti-tumor immunity without activating other innate immunity mechanisms that might enhance viral clearance. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, micro-ultrasound can be used to detect and quantify cardiotoxicity in response to anti-tumor therapy, since it is the only imaging modality that has instantaneous image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • The concept of cancer targeting, which exploits the abundance of specific molecular epitopes on cancer cells, has been proposed as a strategy to enhance the efficacy and specificity of cancer therapy and diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies have been used for antigen detection and therapeutics, and their specificity combined with low toxicity make them a promising pharmaceutical commodity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite advances in these areas, both TMAs and ADCs still carry limitations and we highlight the more important ones including cancer cell specificity, conjugation chemistry, tumor penetration, product heterogeneity and manufacturing issues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even though some of these platforms are in advanced clinical testing, the generic nature of their immunomodulating activity has raised concerns about reduced efficacy and a lack of tumor specificity. (nature.com)
  • X-ray computed tomography (CT) permits clinical imaging of pulmonary nodules as small as 1 to 2 mm but lacks the specificity to distinguish benign lesions from cancerous tumors (4, 5). (focusontoxpath.com)
  • This test, which is already being used in USA hospitals such as Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles, has 93.5% sensitivity and 94.2% specificity in detecting invasive breast tumors in biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell, and therefore allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the binding of the fluorophore to the antibody itself cannot interfere with the immunological specificity of the antibody or the binding capacity of its antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Blocking of CTLA-4 inhibits the growth of malignant tumor cells. (rbmb.net)
  • Furthermore, despite the development of anti-drug antibody responses after the first catumaxomab application cycle a repeated cycle of catumaxomab also leads to a treatment success in recurrent malignant ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, CEA is primarily expressed in cells of tumors (some malignant, some benign)[citation needed] but they are particularly associated with the adenocarcinomas, such as those arising in the colon, lung, breast, stomach, or pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • EGF binding to its receptor triggers a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the erbB-2 protein in the mammary tumor cell line SK-BR-3. (springer.com)
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • (c) T cells (1.0 × 10 6 ) described in ( a,b) were injected intravenously into NSG mice bearing green fluorescent protein/firefly-luciferase fusion protein (GFP/Luc) expressing CD19 + PSMA + PC3 human prostate tumors. (nih.gov)
  • To study the biochemical properties of the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteriophytochrome (DrBphP) protein, two anti-DrBphP mouse monoclonal antibodies (2B8 and 3H7) were generated. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These two antibodies with high reactivity for the short modified peptide sequences are valueble for developing new peptide tags for protein research. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Initial development efforts focused mainly on humanizing the antibody protein to overcome problems of immunogenicity and on expanding of the target antigen repertoire. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein A. Using two different species (mouse and rat) has the advantage that less mismatched antibodies are produced because rat light chains preferably pair with rat heavy chains, and mouse light chains with mouse heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synergy between an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and an antibody-cytokine fusion protein eradicates spontaneous tumor metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To produce stable, soluble, high affinity TCRs capable of being used as diagnostics and therapeutics the two TCR protein chains are stabilised through the introduction of a novel disulphide bond between the 2 constant domains and the affinity increased 1-5 million fold to low picomolar values through phage display affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody is a protein that is produced in B cells and used by the immune system of humans and other vertebrate animals to identify a specific foreign object like a bacterium or a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is thought that virus protein has to be present to induce lymphomas in cats, newer evidence shows that a high percentage of FeLV-Antigen negative lymphomas contain FeLV-DNA, indicating a "hit-and-run" mechanism of virus-induced tumor development. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-Raf is a 766-amino acid, regulated signal transduction serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-Raf is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • scFv
  • As an alternative, scFv can be created directly from subcloned heavy and light chains derived from a hybridoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same heavy and light variable chains used for scFv construction can be used in the construction of Fab. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Those derived from camelid and fish antibodies are less lipophilic and more soluble in water, owing to their complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3), which forms an extended loop (coloured orange in the ribbon diagram above) covering the lipophilic site that normally binds to a light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • After administration of the drug the picomolar affinity TCR portion of the ImmTAC binds to the cancerous or virally infected cell through specific recognition of target HLA-peptide complexes on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • It is further implicated in breast cancer by increasing the metastatic potential of the original tumour by conferring the ability to promote vascularisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of the IGF-IR are expressed in the majority of primary and metastatic prostate cancer patient tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • The most widely used application of this approach is in cancer immunotherapy, where bsMabs are engineered to simultaneously bind a cytotoxic cell and a target like a tumour cell to be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Examples of such antibodies will be discussed here with emphasis on those used as probes for molecular imaging and other clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • Several potholes mark the winding road leading to the introduction of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (TMAs) into routine clinical practice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The company is entering phase 1 trials for solid tumors with its lead product and is looking to partner with companies interested in clinical codevelopment of its wide-ranging therapeutic pipeline. (nature.com)
  • Here, we discuss the principal barriers that act to constrain the tumor-killing activity of antibody-based therapeutics, particularly those involving antibody glycans, using illustrative examples from both pre-clinical and market approved mAbs. (deepdyve.com)
  • With the development of molecular cloning technology and the deep understanding of antibody engineering, there are diverse bispecific antibody formats from which to choose to pursue the optimal biological activity and clinical purpose. (mdpi.com)
  • An increasing number of monoclonal antibodies have obtained approval and entered clinical applications [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For over twenty years, no such antibody was approved for clinical use, mainly because of manufacturing difficulties. (wikipedia.org)
  • After application, the patient's immune system usually produces anti-drug antibodies, which represent early indicators for a beneficial clinical outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first, and as of May 2011 the only approved one of these antibodies in clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • He investigated for the first time a novel delivery method of this antibody (patent) and he is currently leading two international clinical trials with this antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimeric antibody
  • Successful examples include rituximab, approved by the FDA since 1997, an anti-CD20 chimeric antibody that become an integral component of many treatment strategies for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [ 2 ], and OKT3, an anti-CD3 that is used to reduce graft rejection [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, the human/mouse chimeric antibody basiliximab ends in -ximab just as does the human/macaque antibody gomiliximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • We have downregulated cell surface expression of individual erbB receptors via intracellular antibody expression prior to analyzing ligand induced signaling. (springer.com)
  • CD86 111 produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and CD86 111 expressed in bacteria was functionally active and displayed specific binding to B7 counter receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mouse tumor
  • We have already demonstrated feasibility in mouse tumor challenge studies and are now expanding the range of applications and working to improve the relevant technologies. (stanford.edu)
  • The ability of chicken embryonic nerves to infiltrate a mouse tumor suggested to Rita Levi-Montalcini that the tumor must produce a diffusible growth factor (1952). (wikipedia.org)
  • microenvironment
  • Despite these successes, there is a growing awareness that in many cases mAb therapy remains suboptimal, primarily due to inherent limitations imposed by the immune system's own homeostatic controls and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. (deepdyve.com)
  • cross-reactivity
  • Because even monoclonal antibodies to CEA tend to have some degree of cross-reactivity, occasionally giving false positive results, it is commonly employed in combination with other immunohistochemistry tests, such as those for BerEp4, WT1, and calretinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also limits the possibility of antibody cross-reactivity and possible mistakes throughout the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutics
  • Through the barricades: overcoming the barriers to effective antibody-based cancer therapeutics 2018-09-01 00:00:00 Abstract Since the turn of the century, cancer therapy has undergone a transformation in terms of new treatment modalities and renewed optimism in achieving long-lived tumor control and even cure. (deepdyve.com)
  • mammary
  • Members of the IGF receptor family and their ligands also seem to be involved in the carcinogenesis of mammary tumors of dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Examples of targets are tumors, organ systems like the circulatory system, or infectious agents like bacteria or viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • Because the presence of lung metastases will alter cancer management, their early and specific identification could provide a timely and powerful tool for improving patient outcomes. (focusontoxpath.com)
  • Specifically, DMTXbreastScan helps to determine, at the moment of first diagnosis, if a breast tumor has the capacity to develop metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Approximately 0.5% of pet cats are persistently infected with FeLV, but many more pet cats (>35%) have specific IgG antibodies which indicate prior exposure and subsequent development of immunity instead of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • We further characterized these peptides in order to investigate their reactivity after single deletion and single substitution of the original peptides. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These overviews set the background to highlighting several limitations in the use of antibodies as drug carriers, which leads us to consider alternatives to antibodies, focusing on peptides, and to show how PDCs can overcome some of the limitations of ADCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diagnostic
  • Oncomatryx has developed molecular diagnostic tests to predict the invasiveness of breast tumors (DMTXbreastScan) and pancreas, colon, lung, and head and neck tumors (DMTXinvaScan). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapeutic
  • In 1999 he became a junior faculty member at Scripps, where he developed a tumor model to study immunotherapeutic approaches in a deadly malignancy in childhood called neuroblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Techniques such as high-frequency micro-ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are usually used for anatomical imaging, while optical imaging (fluorescence and bioluminescence), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are usually used for molecular visualizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrast agents can be injected into the animal to perform real-time tumor perfusion and targeted molecular imaging and quantification of biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • In the medical area , current research addresses the need for patient-specific vaccines to treat cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • In work with Ebolavirus vaccines, a study has shown that a DVD-Ig antibody can be used to prevent viral escape from the endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular combinations of DNA vaccines with tumor specific delivery of immunocytokine lead to important step forward to optimize efficacy of DNA vaccination. (wikipedia.org)