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  • antigen
  • Moreover, bispecific/multispecific antibodies that target more than one antigen or epitope on a target cell or recruit effector cells (T cell, natural killer cell, or macrophage cell) toward target cells have shown great potential to maximize the benefits of antibody therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Promisingly, crystallizable fragment (Fc) antigen-binding fragment and monomeric antibody or half antibody may be particularly advantageous to target solid tumors owing to their small size and thus good tissue penetration potential while, on the other hand, keeping Fc-related effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis, and extended serum half-life via interaction with neonatal Fc receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fab arms are responsible for antigen binding and have been extensively engineered for developing highly specific and synthetic antibodies against numerous targets ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 2 Abeles and Abeles Clinical Utility of Positive Antinuclear Antibody 343 cubating patient serum on a cellular antigen substrate (typically HEp-2 cells, which are clonal cancer cells useful in this assay for their large nuclei), and then, after a washing step, detecting patient antibodies bound to nuclear antigens through the addition of fluorescence-tagged anti-immunoglobulin G antibodies. (docplayer.net)
  • cellular
  • Consequently, they can become utilized as a system for the targeted delivery of anti-cancer providers.13, 14, 15 Furthermore, MSCs are appealing while cellular creation machineries because they may easily be transduced with viral vectors, expanded and possess a prolonged life-span creation of bsAbs via MSCs interferes with the service of bsAb redirected T lymphocytes. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • treatment
  • Since approval of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) muromonab-CD3 by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of organ transplant-associated acute rejections in 1992, a total of 62 mAbs have been approved by the USFDA for clinical use as of May 2016 ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigen
  • Natural antibodies prevent the spread of viruses to vital organs, and improve immunogenicity by enhancing the trapping of antigen in secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes. (virology.ws)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • The average window period with HIV-1 antibody tests is 25 days for subtype B. Antigen testing cuts the window period to approximately 16 days and nucleic acid testing (NAT) further reduces this period to 12 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of antibody, antigen and nucleic acid tests are used by blood banks in Western countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 'vaccine'/antigen based on the hemagglutinin (HA) stem was the first to induce 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies to both HA-group 1 and HA-group 2 influenza in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • The anti-α-Gal antibody-complement reaction is probably the main reason why humans and higher primates are not infected by enveloped viruses of other animals. (virology.ws)
  • When the same viruses are propagated in human cells, which lack α-Gal, fresh human serum has no effect on viral infectivity. (virology.ws)
  • A controlled serologic survey of antibody titres to 17 viruses was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. (bmj.com)
  • Dessain's research has examined a range of subjects in molecular biology and immunology, from homeobox genes to DNA tumor viruses and human antibody therapeutics. (wikipedia.org)
  • HA) and the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI or HAI) were developed in 1941-42 by American virologist George Hirst as methods for quantitating the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria, or antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called haemagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • titers
  • When strains of mice that cannot produce any antibodies are infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, titers in the kidney and brain are 10-100 times higher than in normal mice. (virology.ws)
  • Furthermore, virus titers in lymph nodes are 10-100 times lower than in antibody-producing mice. (virology.ws)
  • nucleic
  • citation needed] In the US, the Food and Drug Administration requires that all donated blood be screened for several infectious diseases, including HIV-1 and HIV-2, using a combination of antibody testing (EIA) and more expeditious nucleic acid testing (NAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and might be the lynchpin for a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • titres
  • In addition, an excellent correlation between aCL titres and β2-GP I antibody has been reported, 9 10 giving rise to the idea that autoimmune aCLs and β2-GP I antibodies are one and the same. (bmj.com)
  • proteins
  • Many natural antibodies are directed against the disaccharide galactose α(1,3)-galactose (α-Gal) (illustration), which is found as a terminal sugar on glycosylated cell surface proteins. (virology.ws)
  • His technique for cloning native human antibodies has been used to produce mAbs capable of neutralizing botulism toxin and poliovirus and of binding amyloid proteins associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitopes
  • The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the virus attachment site blocks the virus from adsorbing to the receptor site on the host cell membrane. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
  • targets
  • For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
  • primates
  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • BACKGROUND Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCLs) are often detected in patients with autoimmune disorders or infectious diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Nonspecific reactions, hypergammaglobulinemia, or the presence of antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar to HIV can produce false positive results. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • I had indeed wondered why, as reported many years ago, humans sera contain natural antibodies with detectable in vitro activity against VSV, whereas sera from my naive mice never did. (virology.ws)
  • Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • A universal flu vaccine is flu vaccine that is effective against all influenza virus strains regardless of the virus subtype or viral genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • Work on adaptive immunity focuses on B lymphocytes and antibodies to HIV-1, while work on innate immunity focuses on dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Evidence suggests viral presence in mature erythrocytes is a result of replication of the virus in hematopoitic erythrocyte precursor cells and simultaneous maturation of the infected immature cells rather than of direct entry and replication of CTFV in mature erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves from the bloodstream into the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative to the initial viral stock concentration, the virus concentration in this well will be some dilution of the stock, for example, 1/40-fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Scott K. Dessain, MD, PhD, is an American oncologist, research scientist, biotechnology entrepreneur and professor who developed a technique for generating native human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using B cells drawn from human tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • High efficiency creation of human monoclonal antibody-producing hybridomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adekar SP, Jones RM, Elias MD, Al-Saleem FH, Root MJ, Simpson LL, Dessain SK (2008) "Hybridoma populations enriched for affinity-matured human IgGs yield high-affinity antibodies specific for botulinum neurotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory has isolated and cloned human antibodies to HIV-1 and explored their roles in prevention and therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • establish
  • Proper validation with controls and optimization ensure the quality of the antibody, and establish confidence in your results. (abgent.com)
  • cells
  • During this right time, HPV is solved through T helper cell activation of cytotoxic T cells and B cells to create neutralizing IgG antibodies . (acmbcb.org)
  • levels
  • No consistent pattern of elevated antibody titre levels or the presence of antibody was noted in patients compared with two control groups. (bmj.com)
  • fever
  • Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Perhaps raising lab mice in a (semi-)sterile environment also has an impact on their natural antibody repertoire? (virology.ws)
  • high
  • The resulting HI plate images usually progress from non-agglutinated, "button" wells with high antibody concentration to agglutinated, red diffuse wells with low antibody concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Bottom line Association of the reduced avidity HPV16 antibody "phenotype" with feasible susceptibility to attacks with various other HPV types warrants analysis. (acmbcb.org)
  • Using this cloning method, he and his team have been able to develop antibodies that fight against various toxins and dysfunctional processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)