• Vaccine
  • What's unexpected and unique about this antibody is that it not only attaches to the sugar coating of the virus but also reaches through to grab part of the virus's envelope protein," said the report's co-senior author Dennis Burton, a professor at The Scripps Research Institute and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, based on the Scripps Research La Jolla campus. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have traced in detail how certain powerful HIV neutralizing antibodies evolve, a finding that generates vital clues to guide the design of a preventive HIV vaccine, according to a study appearing in Science Express this week. (medindia.net)
  • This suggests that an HIV vaccine should contain a protein replica of this spot, known as the CD4 binding site, to elicit antibodies as powerful as VRC01, according to the researchers. (medindia.net)
  • To make a vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies, we will need to coach B cells to evolve their antibody genes along one of several pathways, which we have now identified, from infancy to a mature, HIV-fighting form," said VRC Director Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D. (medindia.net)
  • A vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies would need to coax the B-cell DNA of immature antibodies to evolve along one of these pathways. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists now aim to create proteins they can deliver through a vaccine to serve as signposts that direct the development of B-cell DNA to produce VRC01-like antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • Besides the conformation of the linear epitope, 2F5-like responses to vaccine are complicated by the fact that antibody recognition of the epitope may also be dependent on interactions with other areas of the env region, accessibility, or interactions with membrane lipids on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gp41
  • Research has suggested that a two-step process is necessary for 2F5 binding and neutralizing: recognition of the epitope on gp41 and a hydrophobic interaction with the lipid membrane of the virus by the 2F5 CDR H3 loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • VRC01
  • Called VRC01, VRC02 and VRC03, these antibodies were found in blood donated for NIAID studies by an HIV-infected North American known as donor 45. (medindia.net)
  • In the new paper, scientists report discovering antibodies similar to VRC01 in the blood of two HIV-infected Africans known as donor 74 and donor 0219. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers further discovered that these VRC01-like antibodies all bind to the same spot on HIV in the same way. (medindia.net)
  • We found a way to read the books, or genes, in this library by defining unique characteristics of VRC01-like antibodies," said Peter Kwong, Ph.D., chief of the VRC's structural biology section and co-principal investigator of the study. (medindia.net)
  • Based on their discovery of the common structure and genetic origin of the VRC01-like antibodies, the scientists devised strategies for scanning the B-cell DNA libraries of donor 45 and donor 74. (medindia.net)
  • From hundreds of thousands of antibody genes, the scientists first identified thousands that code for VRC01-like antibodies and then sorted these genes into family trees showing their evolution from their earliest stage into mature forms. (medindia.net)
  • Next, the researchers focused on the gene segment that codes for the part of the VRC01-like antibody that attaches to and neutralizes HIV. (medindia.net)
  • strains
  • The new findings build on last year's discovery reported by VRC scientists of three HIV antibodies, two of which could stop more than 90 percent of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory. (medindia.net)
  • person's
  • They began by turning to an existing technology to sequence the collection of B-cell genes that code for all the antibodies created by a person's immune system. (medindia.net)
  • During active immunization an antigen is injected in order to stimulate a person's own immune system to produce antibodies against a particular pathogen. (thebodypro.com)
  • Vaccines
  • As we develop and test new HIV vaccines, it will be possible to analyze not just antibodies in the blood, but also the specific B-cell genes that are responsible for producing antibodies against HIV," said John R. Mascola, M.D., deputy director of the VRC and co-principal investigator of the study. (medindia.net)
  • This study uncovered a critical step in the process of T-B cell cooperation that is essential for high affinity antibody production and represents the basis for the development of glycoconjugate vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • If this mechanism controlled disease severity in Cuba, heterotypic antibody titers should have declined over time. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • virus
  • Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • We found a significant increase in mean titer of homologous DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies and a significant decrease in heterologous antibodies to 1 of 2 genotypes of DENV-2 virus (the American genotype). (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Research in non-human primates (specifically, macaques) has shown that the monkey version of HIV, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and a monkey-human hybrid virus, Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV), can be prevented by injecting HIV antibodies. (thebodypro.com)
  • blood
  • Most antibodies work by binding to an antigen, signaling to a white blood cell that this antigen has been targeted, after which the antigen is processed and consequently destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of the virus's RNA when the person is sick, or the blood for antibodies after symptoms are present more than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • This study marks the first time this technology, called deep sequencing, has been used to track the evolution of the antibody response to HIV at the genetic level. (medindia.net)
  • effective
  • Discovered and developed by Dr. Michel Nussenzweig , head of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Zanvil A. Cohn and Ralph M. Steinman Professor of The Rockefeller University , as well as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, 3BNC117 is one of the most effective broad-spectrum HIV neutralizing antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • These are passive immunizations using a laboratory-generated antibody that proved to be highly effective in animal models. (thebodypro.com)
  • made
  • With multiple applications in biomedicine, the antibodies can now be made quickly, cheaply, and without the need for an alpaca or one of its relatives. (the-scientist.com)
  • high
  • The protocols will be monitored for harmful effects, very low/very high or no efficacy at all, and the overall safety of the antibody injections. (thebodypro.com)