• Vaccine
  • Perhaps the strategy of using a second booster dose in adolescence to replace the double diphtheria and tetanus vaccine should be adopted immediately. (scielo.br)
  • For example, the vaccine against hepatitis B does not elicit an antibody response in approximately 10% of vaccines, and the percentage of nonresponders is substantially higher in immunocompromised persons (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Despite the military service of FitzGerald and Amyot, the activities of the Antitoxin Laboratory continued during the First World War although its focus had shifted to the production of tetanus vaccine in support of the overseas war effort. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antibodies work by binding to an antigen, signaling to a white blood cell that this antigen has been targeted, after which the antigen is processed and consequently destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of antibody titers achieved by newborn infants after prophylactic injection of triple combined antigen reveals that the results of immunization against tetanus and diphtheria were satisfactory. (aappublications.org)
  • Antibody specificity exists for specific interaction with a given antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-antibody interaction occurs by precise binding through the side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any given antigen, at least one of these side chains would bind, stimulating the cell to produce more of the same type, which would then be liberated into the blood stream as antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Ehrlich, an antibody could be considered an irregularly shaped, microscopic, three-dimensional label that would bind to a specific antigen but not to the other cells of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membrane-bound protein complexes have antibodies which are specific for antigen detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each B cell has a unique antibody that binds with an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies are in balance, until an antigen disturbs the balance, stimulating an immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from antigen-antibody reaction (ex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutralize
  • Antibodies can simply bind to IFN-beta or glatiramer acetate (binding Ab, or BAb) with no subsequent effect on function, or they can block or neutralize (neutralizing Ab, or NAb) their biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mark S. Freedman, MD, MSc This difference is what gives neutralizing antibodies the ability to fight viruses which attack the immune system, since they can neutralize function without a need for white blood cells (excluding production) Broadly-neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) affect multiple strains of a particular virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • An antibody is a protein that is produced in B cells and used by the immune system of humans and other vertebrate animals to identify a specific foreign object like a bacterium or a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • passive
  • Passive transfer of antibodies of maternal origin from blood to cerebrospinal fluid in infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, including low toxicity and high specific activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Passive antibody therapy was widely used in the pre-antibiotic era but was largely abandoned with the advent of antimicrobial chemotherapy (2,3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • soluble
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ehrlich's
  • Ehrlich's theory can be summarised with the following tenets: Antibodies are produced by white blood cells normally and they act as side chains (receptors) on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet, a 1940 film Diphtheria Syphilis Witebsky, Ernest (1954). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite Paul Ehrlich's demonstration of the effectiveness of diphtheria antitoxin in the 1890s, the treatment remained slowly adopted on wider scale and diphtheria deaths in children continued to rise well into early decades of the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a few other species besides humans transfer maternal antibodies before birth, including primates and lagomorphs (which includes rabbits and hares). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Giving patients a modified gp120 that contains little more than the epitope that both antibodies target could act to "prime" the immune system, followed by a booster that contains trimer spikes in the most natural configuration possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exotoxins are susceptible to antibodies produced by the immune system, but many exotoxins are so toxic that they may be fatal to the host before the immune system has a chance to mount defenses against them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These non-human antibodies are recognized as foreign by the human immune system and may be rapidly cleared from the body, provoke an allergic reaction, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • They individually probed 30,000 of one woman's antibody-producing B cells and isolated two that were able to stop more than 70% of 162 divergent HIV strains from establishing an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is less certain whether the detection of antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) of infants indicates congenital infection of the central nervous system, because the origins of such antibodies have not been established. (biomedsearch.com)
  • the boards of health endeavor to start an epidemic of smallpox, diphtheria, or typhoid that they may reap a golden harvest by inoculating an unthinking community for the very purpose of disposing of this manufactured filth….Vaccination summed up is the most unnatural, unhygienic, barbaric, filthy, abhorrent, and most dangerous system of infection known. (ajwrb.org)
  • Nasal infection rarely causes complications by itself, but it is a public health problem because it spreads the disease more rapidly than other forms of diphtheria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • HIV test also uses indirect ELISA to detect HIV antibody caused by infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behring's
  • From Behring's work, Ehrlich understood that antibodies produced in the blood could attack invading pathogens without any harmful effect on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The antibody formation theory gave Jerne international recognition and in 1956 Jerne went to work for the World Health Organization in Geneva, where he served as the Head of the Sections of Biological Standards and of Immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • In April 2017, at the WHO's 64th Consultation on International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances, it was decided to drop the source substem and from that meeting onwards, it is no longer used in new antibody names. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Most mutations that shape bNAbs take place at the tips of the Y-shaped antibody molecules, which have loops to ensnare viral epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody attached to a "conserved" portion of gp120 that outlasts many of its mutations, affecting 17/24 tested strains at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • bNAbs evolve over years, accumulating some three times as many mutations as other antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • It is vital to seek medical help at once when diphtheria is suspected, because treatment requires emergency measures for adults as well as children. (encyclopedia.com)
  • children
  • These failures in oversight led to the distribution of antitoxin that caused the death of 12 more children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then comes the antitoxin for other excuses, etc., until the children are full of the most deadly poisons known. (ajwrb.org)