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  • Pseudomonas
  • OFPBL contains polymyxin (which kills most Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and bacitracin (which kills most Gram-positive bacteria and Neisseria species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa has the ability to produce 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) and it has been found that HAQs have prooxidant effects, and overexpressing modestly increased susceptibility to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study experimented with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and found that a disruption of relA and spoT genes produced an inactivation of the Stringent response (SR) in cells with nutrient limitation, which provides cells be more susceptible to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best characterized RND proteins include CzcCBA (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2+), CnrCBA (Ni2+ and Co2+), and NccCBA (Ni2+, Co2+ and Cd2+) in Cupriavidus, Czr (Cd2+ and Zn2+ resistance) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Czn (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ resistance) in Helicobacter pylori. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • A new enzyme has been identified by researchers that has caused rifampicin - a popular antibiotic used to treat bacteria that causes tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease - to become less effective and develop more resistance. (medindia.net)
  • The actions of the enzyme Rifampicin monooxygenase -- a flavoenzyme which is a family of enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions essential for microbial survival -- have been found responsible for the antibiotic's resistance. (medindia.net)
  • New enzyme has caused rifampicin to become less effective and develop more resistance. (medindia.net)
  • Bacteria are capable of not only altering the enzyme targeted by antibiotics, but also by the use of enzymes to modify the antibiotic itself and thus neutralise it. (wikipedia.org)
  • cross-resistance
  • This was convincing evidence, write the authors, that mutations in the pmrB gene were responsible for cross-resistance to LL-37 and lysozyme. (emory.edu)
  • To get closer to a causative link between treatment and cross-resistance, they and studied two pairs of A. baumanii isolates taken from two different patients before and after they were treated for three or six weeks with colistin. (emory.edu)
  • The results helped confirm the cross-resistance link: neither strain taken before treatment was resistant to colistin, LL-37, or lysozyme, but the strains taken after treatment showed significant resistance to colistin and lysozyme. (emory.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus rarely becomes resistant to acyclovir preparations, mostly in the form of cross-resistance to famciclovir and valacyclovir, usually in immunosuppressed patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rifamycins have a unique mechanism of action, selectively inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and show no cross-resistance with other antibiotics in clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • The law would be more effective, it said, than the Food and Drug Administration's plan, announced last week, to phase down the non-medical use of antibiotics in livestock over three years. (yahoo.com)
  • Nearly 25 million pounds of antibiotics are administered to US livestock every year for purposes other than treating disease, such as making the animals grow bigger faster. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has known for more than 12 years that routine use of antibiotics in livestock is harmful to human health, yet it has taken no meaningful action. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii can also become resistant to artemisinin, as well as atovaquone and sulfadiazine, but is not usually MDR Antihelminthic resistance is mainly reported in the veterinary literature, for example in connection with the practice of livestock drenching and has been recent focus of FDA regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore there is mounting concern over the abuse of antibiotics in the farming of livestock, which in the European Union alone accounts for three times the volume dispensed to humans - leading to development of super-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contamination
  • Consumers should cook poultry to 165 degrees F (73.8C) to kill bacteria and take steps, such as using a separate cutting board for raw meat, to avoid cross-contamination of other foods, Consumer Reports said. (yahoo.com)
  • clinical
  • It has been argued that depending on the cultural context government can aid in educating the public on the importance of restrictive use of antibiotics for human clinical use, but unlike narcotics, there is no regulation of its use anywhere in the world at this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, further studies showed that Rifamycin B was essentially inactive, but was spontaneously oxidized and hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions, to yield the highly active Rifamycin S. Simple reduction of Rifamycin S yielded the hydroquinone form called Rifamycin SV, which became the first member of this class to enter clinical use as an intravenous antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of BCC involves culturing the bacteria from clinical specimens, such as sputum or blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • since 1980 the introduction of new antimicrobial agents for clinical use has declined, in part because of the enormous expense of developing and testing new drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Darkoh's research focuses on understanding how these toxins are produced and developing a cost-efficient diagnostic test for the detection of this bacterium, which he hopes could lead to novel and innovative strategies for therapeutic intervention of C. difficile infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • but early on the problem was often overlooked, because if one antibiotic did not treat the infection another was usually available. (cdc.gov)
  • When no antibiotic is effective, healthcare providers may be limited to providing supportive care rather than directly treating an infection -- similar to how medicine was practiced before antibiotics were discovered. (cdc.gov)
  • As resistance increases, the patient′s risk of dying from infection also increases. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotics are the most important tool we have to control many life-threatening bacterial diseases once infection has occurred, yet increasing levels of resistance are compromising the effectiveness of these antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • His declaration came in response to a report of a woman in Nevada who died of an incurable infection, resistant to all 26 antibiotics available in the U.S. to treat infection. (npr.org)
  • Of course antibiotics will not cure a viral infection. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Older persons often have bacteria in their urine which is detected in routine urine tests, but unless the person has the symptoms of a urinary tract infection, antibiotics should not be used in response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of topical antibiotics to treat surgical wounds does not reduce infection rates in comparison with non-antibiotic ointment or no ointment at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • colistin
  • Colistin is actually not a great antibiotic - it can be toxic to the kidneys. (statnews.com)
  • Other, newer antibiotics were easier to take, so doctors in the main stopped using colistin, which is probably why it still works. (statnews.com)
  • As the newer, better drugs have fallen prey to resistance, colistin has gained a new place of prestige in modern medicine. (statnews.com)
  • Colistin is used when all or almost all other drugs have failed, often representing a patient's last hope for survival. (emory.edu)
  • They found that all the colistin-resistant strains harbored mutations in pmrB, a regulatory gene that leads to the modification of polysaccharides on the outside of the cell in response to antibiotic exposure. (emory.edu)
  • One post-colistin isolate was no more or less resistant to LL-37 than its paired pre-colistin isolate. (emory.edu)
  • Like the resistant strains tested earlier, both post-colistin isolates harbored crucial mutations in the pmrB gene that apparently bestow the ability to resist treatment. (emory.edu)
  • For Weiss, the problems with colistin are symptomatic of a larger trio of problems: increasing levels of drug resistance, cuts in federal funding for antibiotic research, and lack of incentives for pharmaceutical companies to invest in antibiotic R&D. (emory.edu)
  • sensitivity
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combinations
  • Experts say the best way to reduce the risk of even greater resistance developing -- beyond the urgent need to develop effective new drugs -- is to treat gonorrhea with combinations of two or more types of antibiotic at the same time. (reuters.com)
  • antibacterial
  • Background and Aims: Food is of paramount importance to the sustenance of human health, on that basis this study was initiated with a view to determining bacterial agents associated with the vended foods and to investigating antibacterial resistance of the isolates. (scirp.org)
  • Because of this Rifampin, and other rifamycins, are typically used in combination with other antibacterial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Center for Global Development "The overuse of antibacterial cleaning products in the home may be producing strains of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibacterial agents can be further subdivided into bactericidal agents, which kill bacteria, and bacteriostatic agents, which slow down or stall bacterial growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • rifampicin
  • The rifamycin group includes the "classic" rifamycin drugs as well as the rifamycin derivatives rifampicin (or rifampin), rifabutin, rifapentine, rifalazil and rifaximin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The search for additional anti-leprosy drugs led to the use of clofazimine and rifampicin in the 1960s and 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, Indian scientist Shantaram Yawalkar and his colleagues formulated a combined therapy using rifampicin and dapsone, intended to mitigate bacterial resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • first to amantadenes, then to neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, (2008-2009: 98.5% of Influenza A tested resistant), also more commonly in people with weak immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Common situations in which antibiotics are overused include the following: Apparent viral respiratory illness in children should not be treated with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral conjunctivitis should not be treated with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cases of bronchitis (90-95%) are viral as well, passing after a few weeks-the use of antibiotics against bronchitis is superfluous and can put the patient at risk of suffering adverse reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • emergence
  • The registration is set to expire in six years, at which time the EPA will evaluate the emergence of resistance. (mercola.com)
  • Japan has historically been the place for the first emergence and subsequent global spread of different types of resistance in gonorrhea," he said. (reuters.com)