• melanoma
  • Although the immune system initially responds to melanoma and mounts anti-tumor attacks, these assaults are generally ineffective, allowing more advanced melanomas to win the battle and spread beyond the primary site. (healthcanal.com)
  • In 2008, the same team, led by Markus Frank, MD , of the Transplantation Research Center of Children's and BWH, and George Murphy, MD , chief of Dermatopathology at BWH, showed in the journal Nature that a key reason for melanoma virulence is a small group of tumor stem cells that are able to grow despite chemotherapy drugs, allowing the tumor to re-grow and progress. (healthcanal.com)
  • These molecules work, they found, by triggering white blood cells known as regulatory T cells (T-regs), to dampen the normal anti-melanoma response. (healthcanal.com)
  • Melanoma stem cell targeting holds promise for an absolute cure, because you're hitting the cells that really matter - the cells that drive tumor progression," says Murphy. (healthcanal.com)
  • For example, inhibition of PD-1 and B7.2 on melanoma stem cells could render them vulnerable not only to immune defenses, but also to treatments that are currently only effective against the more susceptible non-stem cell component of the tumor. (healthcanal.com)
  • Specifically, they hope to participate in several ongoing or future clinical trials that target specific immunologic signaling pathways in melanoma patients (using anti-PD-1 antibodies, for example), to track the response of ABCB5-positive melanoma stem cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • D ) Melanoma tumor volumes at various times after s.c. injection of 4 × 10 4 C3d + B16 ( n = 10), or 4 × 10 4 C3d - ( n = 9) melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. (jci.org)
  • A group at the National Cancer Institute demonstrated remarkable efficacy by infusing melanoma-specific T cells (obtained by growing tumor-infiltrating T cells ex vivo) into melanoma patients treated with lymphodepleting chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings compare favorably with standard-of-care therapies for melanoma which generally lead to tumor regressions in only ~10-12% of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interim results from a phase III trial of talimogene laherparepvec in melanoma showed a significant tumour response compared to administration of GM-CSF alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985 IL-2 administration produced durable tumor regressions in some patients with metastatic melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1988 autologous TILs were shown to reduce metastatic melanoma tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • PD-L1 is expressed on almost all murine tumor cell lines, including PA1 myeloma, P815 mastocytoma, and B16 melanoma upon treatment with IFN-γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) has been viewed as a tumor suppressor, increasing clinical evidence shows that high levels of CEACAM1 expression on tumors correlates with poor prognosis and high risk of metastasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While a host's homologous recombination can act as a defense mechanisms for fixing DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), it can also create changes in antigenic DNA that can create new, unrecognizable proteins that allow the antigen to escape recognition by the host's immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report that free C3d, a fragment of the third component of complement, inside tumor cells - or associated with irradiated tumor cells and unattached to antigen - recruits, accelerates, and amplifies antitumor T cell responses, allowing immunity to reverse or even to prevent tumor growth. (jci.org)
  • the phenotype and function of tumor-associated immune cells in peritoneal cavity of treated mice was analyzed by flow cytometry, and systemic antigen-specific immune response was evaluated by ELISA and cytotoxicity assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, combined treatment of anti-PD-1/GITR mAb mounted an antigen-specific immune response as evidenced by antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cytolytic activity of spleen cells from treated mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer vaccines seek to target a tumor-specific antigen and distinct from self-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PD-1 is an immune checkpoint and guards against autoimmunity through a dual mechanism of promoting apoptosis (programmed cell death) in antigen-specific T-cells in lymph nodes while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells (anti-inflammatory, suppressive T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • solid tumors
  • The varied cellular responses to RA treatment may provide an explanation for the failure of RA to reach its full potential in treatment and prevention of solid tumors, including breast, lung, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. (omicsonline.org)
  • While angiogenesis can reduce this affect, the partial pressure of oxygen is below 5 mm Hg (venous blood has a partial pressure of oxygen at 40 mm Hg) in more than 50% of locally advanced solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunosurveillance
  • Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting are based on protection against development of tumors in animal systems and (ii) identification of targets for immune recognition of human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell-mediated
  • NKG2D plays a pivotal role in NK cell- and T cell-mediated immunity against cancers and infections, as well as in the development of autoimmune diseases ( Lanier, 2008 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • T-cell mediated immunity, by contrast, has the potential to recognize targets expressed either extra- or intra-cellularly and has therefore been studied extensively for treatment of these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • humoral immunity
  • Our preliminary studies demonstrate that HER-2 specific humoral immunity occurs commonly in Trastuzumab-treated patients and that the appearance of HER-2 humoral immunity occurs more commonly in clinically responding patients. (dana.org)
  • monoclonal antibody
  • Researchers have thought that the monoclonal antibody breast cancer treatment Trastuzumab works by interfering with processes that regulate tumor growth. (dana.org)
  • The American biotech company Celldex Therapeutics is working on CDX-1127, an agonistic anti-CD27 monoclonal antibody which in animal models has been shown to be effective in the context of T cell receptor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A now-defunct Seattle-based biotechnology company called VLST in-licensed an anti-CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody from Pfizer in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example is BMS-986016, an anti-LAG3 monoclonal antibody that is currently in phase 1 clinical testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically
  • The degree of diversity correlated with clinically relevant breast tumor subtypes and in some tumors was markedly different between the in situ and invasive cell populations. (blogspot.com)
  • In summary, in this study we have demonstrated the power of analyzing tumors as ecosystems and suggest that quantitative measures of intratumor diversity might be clinically useful biomarkers predicting prognosis and response to treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • In present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combined PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering in a clinically highly relevant murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathogens
  • The most common of antigenic escape mechanisms, homologous recombination, can be seen in a wide variety of bacterial pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that infects the human stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood vessels
  • These chemokines play an important role in promoting tumor death by blocking the formation of new blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tissue is not vascularized, which prevents tumors from growing greater than 2mm in diameter without inducing new blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxic
  • This inflammation effect is not only seen in tumors, but in hypoxic areas of cardiac muscles following a myocardial infarction (MI or heart attack). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Our analyses showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity both within and between distinct tumor cell populations that were defined based on markers of cellular phenotypes including stem cell-like characteristics. (blogspot.com)
  • Such cellular milieu further boosts immune tolerance and eventually appoint immunity for cancer advantage. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
  • regressions
  • In a series of studies (to 2005) of this approach, up to 70% of treated patients were shown to have regressions of their tumors, many of which had been considerable in size and refractory to other therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In several tumors, stem cell-like and more-differentiated cancer cell populations were genetically distinct, leading us to question the validity of a simple differentiation hierarchy-based cancer stem cell model. (blogspot.com)
  • Does Anti-Tumor Antibody Treatment Improve Immune Responses and Outcomes of Breast Cancer? (dana.org)
  • Anti-tumor antibody treatments have improved clinical outcomes for breast cancer and lymphoma patients. (dana.org)
  • The laboratory conducts research on cancer vaccines focuses on augmenting CD4 "helper" T cell immunity using peptide epitopes. (dana.org)
  • Furthermore, we summarize the clinical attempts to block or bolster the effect of these tumor-related interleukins in anti-cancer therapy development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Only some are [ 11 ], and all other classes may support tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and escape from the host immune response and conventional anti-cancer therapy [ 12 , 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dr. Restifo's most recent efforts include a focus on how elements - literally from the periodic table - influence cancer immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is from discoveries such as this and the role of HPV in cervical cancer development that research is currently being undertaken to discover whether or not human mammary tumour virus is a cause of breast cancer in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent work showed that tumors escape immune recognition by losing their antigenicity in a process he named cancer immunoediting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new class of drugs that block PD-1, the PD-1 inhibitors, activate the immune system to attack tumors and are therefore used with varying success to treat some types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • This approach was used in the drug talimogene laherparepvec, a version of herpes simplex virus engineered to selectively replicate in tumor tissue and to express the immune stimulatory protein GM-CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR effect) is the observation that the vasculature of tumors is often leaky and accumulates molecules in the blood stream to a greater extent than in normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Among cancers associated with MPE, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) was previously considered a rare tumor, but its incidence is increasing worldwide due to past (mostly occupational) exposure to asbestos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Extranodal NKTCL represents the major group of mature NK cell neoplasms in the recently revised WHO classification of hematolymphoid tumors, which also include the aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL) and a provisional group of chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain malignant potential, most likely related to T-cell large granular lymphomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • patients
  • It has long been a matter of debate whether tumors are spontaneously immunogenic in patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Melanomas are highly immunogenic cancers, initially provoking anti-tumor attacks, as evidenced by patients whose brown-black skin tumors seem to have partly dissolved away, producing regions of pink to white coloration where pigment previously existed. (healthcanal.com)
  • We will further address whether this association is causal rather than being merely a marker of tumor responses, by determining whether patients with favorable high affinity FcgR polymorphs are more likely develop both clinical and immunological responsiveness. (dana.org)
  • In ongoing efforts, investigators are continuing to characterize these patients' unique clinical courses and correlate their responses with underlying mechanisms of antitumor immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These studies have been critical in forming the scientific basis of many of the immune mediated strategies currently being tested in patients as anti-tumor regimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • African trypanosomes are parasites that are able to escape the immune responses of its host animal through a range of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work at Columbia University continues to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms of antitumor antibody therapeutics. (dana.org)
  • Despite expression of immunogenic polypeptides, tumors escape immune surveillance by engaging T cell checkpoint regulators and expanding Tregs, among other mechanisms. (jci.org)
  • mutations
  • During this period of Darwinian selection, new tumor cell variants emerge with various mutations that further increase overall resistance to immune attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasculature
  • Blood vessel normalization strategies that equilibrate oxygen levels within tumor and fix abnormal vasculature bring exciting promises to future anticancer therapies especially when combined with conventional chemotherapy. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
  • clinical
  • To seek a biological basis for these clinical observations, we investigated the consequences of tumor cell expression of CEACAM1 on immune-surveillance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In fact the Hopkins published preliminary results of a clinical study testing the basic immunotransplant concept in acute myeloid leukemia demonstrating encouraging signals of enhanced anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)